kin still

Random Anthropology Stuff

I’m studying for my Anthropology final tomorrow and one way I study is copying my notes down on paper and/or on a virtual document. So I thought I’d use Tumblr to write down some of my notes while also sharing with you guys some random Anthropology stuff.

Enjoy!


Medical Anthropology

  • It’s the study of health, illness, and healing across the range of human societies and over the course of human experience, with an emphasis on how members of the community direct their behaviors, articulate their ideas, and organize their resources in these realms.
  • Medicine: Any and all practices that are intended to address or alleviate what a given group of people consider to be an affliction in need of attention.
  • Biomedicine: The medicine of hospitals and mainstream doctors of the industrialized world.
  • Health: A dynamic condition combining individuals, society, and an adaption to the environment.
  • Sickness: diseases and illnesses
    • disease: a condition that is objectively identified with a medical label or diagnostic name, based on externally established signs. 
    • illness: the more subjective perception of the individual experience of suffering.
  • All medical systems, including our own, are shaped by culture.
  • Two Broad Divisions in Medical Anthro: biocultural and cultural
    • biocultural approaches: an anthropological view of the ways in which people adapt to their environment and change that environment that makes healthy conditions better or worse.
    • cultural approaches: emphasizes the role of ideas, beliefs, and values in creating systems of illness classification and medical programs for curing.

Language

  • Human communication by means of shared symbols which can be linguistic or non-linguistic 
  • No one is intrinsically superior (no language is better than another)
  • Sociolinguistics: the study of linguistic diversity; looks at language in its social context, examining relationships between social and linguistic variation.
    • style shifts: how you may talk to your boss vs. how you may talk to your best friend.
  • Gender differences: there is a linguistic variation between men and women.
    • Women are more likely to speak Standard English
    • Language reflects position of power
    • Women end sentences with an intonation of uncertainty. 
  • Linguistic variation reflects social, political, and economic forces
  • “Proper Langauge” is a strategic resource
  • Black English Vernacular (BEV): Ebonics is a systematic and rule-governed linguistic system.
    • there was a national debate about it in the mid-1990s
    • Standard English is not superior to BEV as a linguistic system, but they do have different prestige
  • Sign language: a complex, culture-laden system of communication.
    • a manual communication to convey words and thoughts.

Social Inequality and Control

  • Social Stratified Societies: contain social groups that have unequal access to important advantages.
    • economic resources
    • power
    • prestige
  • Egalitarian: contain no social stratification
    • bands or tribes
    • tribes have “Big Men”
    • no differential access to power, prestige, or economic resources
      • same opportunity to gain prestige through sharing
      • same access to hunting areas
      • etc.
    • men hunt and women gather
    • younger men/women provide food and older men/women carry the myths and wisdom
    • the ecological base of hunters and gathers and tribes leads to an egalitarian society
      • must share - cannot hoard
      • everyone dependent on the other for survival
      • cooperation essential between members
      • environment dictates cooperation and sharing
  • Rank Societies: usually are agricultural or herding societies.
    • primarily found in chiefdoms
    • chiefs are different from “Big Men” in many ways
      • this position is ascribed even though it’s still kin-based
      • chiefs are full-time political specialists in charge of economic production, distribution, and consumption
    • slight inequality regarding prestige (aka @ the ascribed role)
    • Ecological base:
      • larger and more sedentary
      • have a surplus - can save up
      • have redistribution from different ecological areas
      • still kinship
  • Class Societies: unequal access to power, prestige, and economic resources.
    • found with states
    • Ecological base:
      • extremely sedentary and have large populations
      • much surplus
      • extreme specialization
      • nucleation, centralization of power, and diversification of labor
  • Social Control in Kin-Based Societies: social control is the responsibility of the kin groups.
    • kin act as mediators
    • personal intervention
  • Social Control in Class-Based Societies: punishment meant to be impartial and impersonal
    • more formalized
  • Four Types of Social Control: law, gossip and ridicule, witchcraft, and the threat of the supernatural.
    • law: a social norm whose violation is punishable by threat of or application of physical force by a legitimate official or body
      • focus is on harmony
      • not necessarily codified
    • gossip and ridicule: found in all societies and is especially important in kin-based groups
    • witchcraft: used to harm other people
    • supernatural: fear of punishment (hell, karma, etc.)
  • Power of the States: coercive powers, hegemony, appeasement, the anthropological other.
    • hegemony: the power of solidarity of the state as created by the consent of the governed.
      • it is in a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with the domination by internalizing its values and accepting its “naturalness”
      • the positive outcomes of development and “progress” are highlighted
      • the costs and inequalities are masked
      • often promises are made - “if you are patient, the costs of progress will eventually pay off”
      • often is it wrongly assumed that those suffering from inequalities are really to blame or that they just need to “pull themselves up by their bootstraps”
    • appeasement: an industrial class base society gives the basic necessities to the poor/needy; meant to help control.
    • the anthropological “other”: lack power, legitimacy, and validity
      • their knowledge is dismissed
      • suffer from cultural poverty
      • dichotomy of otherness leads to mistreatment of the “other

Religion and Worldview

  • Religion: the belief in the supernatural and behavior for dealing with it; whether that power is forces, gods, spirits, ghosts, or demons.
    • religion is a cultural universal
  • Supernatural: power believed to be not human or not subject to the laws of nature.
  • Probably dates back to the time of Neanderthal (religion)
  • Not all religions have a belief in a god or gods
  • Why is Religion a Cross-Cultural Universal? - Some Theories…
    • the need to understand: religion originates in people’s speculation about dreams, trances, and death
      • animism: belief that there is a physical body separate from a soul
      • Tylor’s student argues instead for animatism
      • animatism: the belief in impersonal, supernatural forces
    • reversion to childhood feelings: we look to religion to fulfill the role that our parents filled when we were children
      • all knowing and all powerful
    • anxiety and uncertainty: we turn to religion during times of anxiety and uncertainty.
    • the need for community: focus is on social needs
      • religious beliefs and practices affirm a person's’ place in society, enhance feelings of community, and give people confidence
  • Types of Supernatural Forces and Beings:
    • mana: a supernatural force that is impersonal and is thought to inhabit some objects, people, or animals, but not others
    • taboo: persons, objects, animals, or places that are not to be touched because their power can cause harm
    • gods: supernatural beings with non-human origins and are named personalities
    • ghosts and ancestor spirits: supernatural beings that may act in a guardian way doing good deeds
      • others act in mischief
      • they were once human
      • were born of a human woman
  • Structure of Supernatural:
    • monotheistic religions: have one supreme or high god with other lesser supernatural beings
      • the gods/spirits are ranked in power and prestige
      • ex: Christianity and Islam
    • polytheistic religions: recognize many important gods with no one supreme god
      • ex: Ancient Rome, Greek, Egyptian, Mayan religions
  • Non-Western Worldview
    • can’t separate natural and supernatural
    • equality between humans and their environment
    • personalized relationship between spirits, nature, and humans
    • power is manipulated through ritual
    • nothing happens by chance
    • based on origin narratives
  • All humans engage in rituals 
  • Ways of Interacting With the Supernatural:
    • prayer: asking for supernatural help; can take many forms
    • altering the body or mind: i.e. Yanomamo use of ebene, Native Americans and peyote, Native Americans and vision quests, and Kung San drumming and dancing
    • trance: common altered state, can be possession trances
    • stimulation: where one thing stands for something else; black magic voodoo
    • divination: getting the supernatural force to provide guidance
    • sacred meal(s)
    • sacrifice: some of value is given up to the gods, whether is be food, animals, or people
  • Magic:
    • magic vs. prayer:
      • magic- compelling
      • praying- pleading/asking
    • sorcery and witchcraft: both invoke the spirits to work harm against people
      • sorcery: may include the use of material, objects, and medicines to invoke the supernatural malevolence 
      • witchcraft: accomplishes the same ills as sorcery but by means of thought and emotion alone
      • Most seen in societies as a social control when the population is far too large for gossip and ridicule and when the population is much too small for judges, juries, and police
  • Ritual: a repetitive social practice composed of a sequence of symbolic activities in the form of dance, song, speech, gestures, or the manipulation of objects, adhering to a cultrually defined ritual schema and closely connected to a specific set of ideas that are often encoded in myth.
    • four elements to rituals: repetition, set off from everyday life, adheres to culturally defined ritual schema, and connected to ideas encoded in a myth
  • Rites of Passage: going from one status to another
    • a ritual that serves to mark the movement and transformation of an individual from one social position to another
    • three stages: separation, transition, reaggregation

To all the Solluxes - man, you’re so motherfucking strong, you know that? You go through a lot of shit, but you keep going!! And does it get to you sometimes? Oh motherfucking hell yes it does - who wouldn’t get overwhelmed by all of that??

But you- man, you keep going. Sometimes not entirely by choice, maybe, but you make it!! And you’re still here!! And if you’re grumpy or overstimulated easily, or your mood changes a lot - it’s obviously difficult and saying it’s ok is a lie - but don’t think less of yourself for these traits!! They aren’t the sorts of things that are easy to control, and if you can’t keep it from happening, it’s not your fault!!

You do what you can and deal with what life has given ya, and you are just - so strong and capable under such circumstances!! You’re doing great, and I’m hoping that life will give you a reprieve so you can breathe and relax guilt-free - you’ve earned it!!!

Why can’t I kin/id outside my race if I am white?

Because race is an integral part of a person’s identity, especially if they are nonwhite. It influences each and every aspect of their life.

By saying you’re kin with/ID as a character who is a person of color when you are white yourself, you are implying that you can separate characters from their race, that all our lived experiences and struggles that come with being a particular race can be dismissed as immaterial without changing who we are. This is racist. You are erasing our experiences with race and appropriating our identity without ever having to experience all the pain that comes with it.

The “it’s racist to kin outside your race” thing was started by white people pretending to be Japanese.

Believe it or not, we are capable of finding things racist, independent of white influence. Further, this argument is utterly nonsensical - how is white people fucking up while pretending to be Japanese somehow license for more white people to continue to do so?

My friend is a person of color and they told me it’s okay to kin outside my race.

First of all, you need to stop using your nonwhite friends to defend yourself against accusations of racism. You are essentially using a restyled version of the “I have nonwhite friends, I can’t be racist” argument.

Secondly, you have no way of knowing whether your friend actually thinks it’s okay or whether they are merely afraid of calling you out because they worry that you will either not listen to them, accuse them of overreacting or cut them off.

Finally, just because your token friend of color has sanctioned your racism doesn’t make it any less racist.

I’m a person of color and I don’t think it’s bad for white people to kin outside their race.

People of color are not a monolith. You’re entitled to your opinion. That doesn’t change the fact that other nonwhite people are being harmed by this sort of racist behavior.

What if I call them synpaths instead of kins?

No. Doing so is making no change in your racist behavior; it is merely using a change in terms to attempt to placate those who have called you out.

What if I’ve put up a disclaimer on my kin/id page saying that I don’t claim the race of the character I kin with/id as?

That is simply insulting. You are basically saying “you don’t see color”, implying that the race of the character is immaterial and easily separable from the character. It is not.

What about reincarnation kin?

They still claim to be the nonwhite character. This is inexcusable regardless of how you try to explain it away. You cannot claim a character’s experiences as “your past lives” when their past lives have experience with racism you cannot possibly understand.

I am not hurting anyone by being kin/id outside my race, it’s a simple coping mechanism!

You coping mechanisms are not beyond reproach just because you’re mentally ill, especially when they function at the expense of marginalized people.

You are in fact hurting people of color -especially those of us who are mentally ill and use kin to cope. This is compounded by the fact that we are doubly marginalized by racism and ableism and are thus more likely to go undiagnosed/misdiagnosed/have poor access to mental health care. We already have extremely limited representation in media, and it is entitled of you to lay claim to what few characters we have to, when there are countless white characters you have to chose from.

In addition, those of you going by nonwhite names - like white anime kins - add to the racism by claiming names that nonwhite (in this case Asian) people are discriminated for - in education and employment. It is beyond entitled for you as a white person to claim names from cultures when they’ve been stripped from us by white society.

I am delusional/psychotic and I cannot help my kins, asking me to do so is ableist.

Before you call us ableist, consider that white people are not the only ones who deal with mental illness. Then imagine what it is like to live with intersecting marginalization of racism and ableism, especially when there are people like you who blatantly abuse their white privilege.

If your delusions actively harm others, you cannot continue to excuse them. If you are capable of recognizing your behavior as delusional, you have the ability to make efforts towards changing your behavior. We say this as people who are delusional ourselves. It is not easy, but fighting racism was never going to be easy to begin with.

What can I do to change?

Stop going by ethnic kin names. Take the characters off your kin page. Try to distance yourself from the character. Focus on other kins - as a white person, you’re guaranteed to have - or find - plenty of others.

As for the future, you cannot help which characters you get kin feelings for, but you can help what you do with them. You can also educate yourself to rid yourself of the subconscious idea that race is a separable trait from our experiences, so you eventually see nonwhite characters as off limits.

I don’t care about this/I’m going to continue to kin outside my race.

Then please do not pretend to care about racism. It’s extremely exhausting and disheartening for us to broach this subject with white people who claim to be allies, only to have them continue with their behavior and shut us out because they care about maintaining their image as Good Whites than they do about actually changing their racist behavior. You cannot claim to be an ally when you are only anti-racist as long as it’s convenient/doesn’t require you to change your behavior.

Families, eh?

Originally posted by insubordinatesaint

Request: Can you do a os of Chibs/oc that’s a single mom of 2 teenage boys who need a dad around??? 😚

For: @mamareadstoomuch <3
Words: 2,439

Chibs x Reader


Gemma slid the pack of cigarettes over the bar to you, you thanked her, took one and lit it. It was odd seeing Gemma, head Old Lady, behind the bar but she got you each a beer and then you came around to and sat on the bar stool beside you.
“So, what have the little darlings done this time?” She asked you, her ever perfect eyebrow quirked with curiosity. You took a long drag of your cigarette and pinched the bridge of your nose; you didn’t know where to start.

The current, and almost always, cause of your stress was your teenage twin sons, Matt and Noah. Their father had been your high school sweetheart, you’d married young and had the twins quickly, they were around before their father had even got his patch with The Sons of Anarchy.
Then the fucking idiot decided to try to rat on the club when he got caught and threatened with jail time. You made your loyalties known, you cared more about the club than you had done him in the end, they often pulled together to help you with the kids and you’d help them with theirs. They helped especially when he’d spent the mortgage money on booze. You’d all but been separated from him when he’d been arrested anyway because he’d come home one night and hit Noah.

You jumped in the way and he’d beaten you, Matt and Noah had ran from the house and down the road to get their Uncle Clay and Auntie Gemma. Gemma had kept them with her, you had thanked her endlessly for that. You wouldn’t have wanted them to see you broken like that. Clay along with Jax and Opie, who were both prospecting at the time, dealt with your husband and Chibs, who had been having a drink at Clay’s, tended to your wounds.

Chibs had stayed with you for two weeks after that, sleeping on the sofa and helping you around the house and making you and the boys feel safe. That was the first time you felt your heart pull towards Chibs, who for years had only been a friend and club brother to your husband.
After your husband had been arrested, excommunicated from the club and ultimately battered to death in jail, you and Chibs had briefly pursued a relationship and you’d been happy. Your boys had loved having him around and you were glad that for once they had a positive role model. Then the Sons pissed off a mob boss and Old Lady’s started to be threatened, Chibs cut off ties with you and the boys to keep you safe.

Still you were close to The Sons, you were still kin to them and after a few awkward months you and Chibs fell back into your old friendship, both brushing away feelings for safety. If your biggest mistake in life was marrying that asshole then the second was letting Chibs walk out of your life.
That was years ago now and if you both of you were honest, neither of you knew why you were still denying your feelings for one another; maybe it was easier to stay in that habit?

But back to the problem at hand, your lovely twin boys.

You took a swig of your beer and another drag of your smoke before telling Gemma, “Someone called me a MILF so they beat him up and smashed his car in, I have a sneaking suspicion that Tig probably helped.”
Jesus, you’d have gone mad years ago if it wasn’t for Gemma and Chibs as Tig often took it upon himself to act like your third child which was the last thing that you needed. Gemma tutted and shook her head, “You know they never gave you this shit when you were with Chibs.”

You rolled your eyes at her and stubbed out your smoke in the ashtray, she was constantly trying to get the pair of you to pull your heads out of your asses and face the fact that you still had feelings for each other and she wasn’t above bringing your kids into it.

She wanted you to be an Old Lady again.

“Gemma, stop it. I’ve got bigger things on my plate, like how to control my kids.” You groaned and swigged your beer, as if on cue Tig and Chibs entered the clubhouse, they stopped in front of you and Gemma.
Chibs put his hands on his hips and nodded towards you with his head, he spoke to Tig, “Well, go on.”
Tig held his hands up in defence, “Whaaat? What are you talking about?”
Kozik, almost sensing a chance to mess with Tig, wondered in with his hands in his pockets, “He’s talking about you helping the boys smash that guys car in.”
Tig glared at him, “Y/N isn’t going to believe you, you rat.”
“If he’s ratting then he must be telling the truth.” You cut in and Tig’s face fell. Kozik came around the back of the bar and gave you a high five over the bar.
“Okay, okay, alright, stop the witch hunt.” Tig sighed, “All I’m saying is that I helped the boys out. They were going to do it anyway. I just helped them not get caught.”

As if the universe was ready to screw Tig over further, Clay and Jax walked in shouting your name with Unser in tow. Tig sighed at his luck.
“Y/N I’m sorry to have to do this but I’m going to have to take in Matthew and Noah.” Unser told you.
“Why?” You asked innocently enough trying to plead ignorance until you could think of a plan.
Unser sighed, “I think you know why Y/N. They beat up a man and smashed his car. I gotta take them in.”

“When was this?” Chibs cut in.
Unser eyed him wearily, “This morning.”
“In that case I’m sorry to tell ya but you got the wrong boys.” Chibs stated with absolute certainty. When your head whipped around to face him, he folded his arms and leaned back on the bar with ease, like the matter was settled simply because he said so.

“And why is that?” Unser sighed and waited for the bullshit story that he’d have to feed back to the station.
“They were with me,” Chibs stated with utter certainty, “I’ve been trying to help them with their mechanics. They both want to try and get jobs here so that they can pay rent at home. It was a surprise for their mum that you just ruined.”
You placed a hand on your heart and feigned surprise, “That’s my boys. What would I do without them?”
“Live longer.” Kozik muttered behind you.
The clubhouse door opened and your darling twin boys fell in, pushing and jostling each other. They stopped dead when they saw Unser, you and The Sons watching them. Chibs spoke before Unser could, “Boys, Unser seems to think that you’ve been up to no good. Don’t worry, he knows that you’ve been trying to get jobs to surprise your Ma and pay rent.”
Noah’s face scrunched in confusion but Matt was quick on the update, “Yeah, it was supposed to be that. A surprise I mean. Thanks for ruining it.”
“My lovely boys.” You smiled but your eyes burned with the promise of punishment.

Unser held his hands up in defeat, “Well I looked into it, that’s all I can do.”
He left with Clay and Jax, no doubt to talk about club business. Matt let out a low whistle, “Thanks for that Chibs.”
“And just what the fuck do you two think you were playing at?” Chibs snapped at the boys and they both straightened their backs but their expressions remained sheepish. Noah glanced at Tig but Chibs spoke again, “Don’t even think about it, Tig’s already been told. Now we told Unser you were working to help your mum out and that’s exactly what you’re going to do.”
“And how are we going to do that?” Noah snapped like a typical teenager.

“Don’t speak to Filip like that.” You interjected, “Do you have any idea how much trouble you could have been in if it weren’t for him? Do you really think I like knowing that you boys are getting your fathers temper?!”
The twins looked down at their feet and mumbled an apology to Chibs.
“It’s not me that you have to apologise too. Now you’re going to find jobs and sort your own mess out.” He told him, “You know that I’ll help you if I can.”
“Well you could always mentor them.” Gemma added helpfully pulling out another smoke, “If you were serious about them being good mechanics, we could always use a few more of them around here.”
You gave Gemma a half glare, as much as you loved her for giving your boys a chance and making the story that you’d told Unser almost true, you could see that she was just using it as a ploy to get you and Chibs closer again.


“Really?”
“You’re serious?”
Your twins asked in unison, the promise of being close to The Sons and their bikes too exciting. Chibs gave you a sly wink and you mouthed ‘thank you’ to him.

—-

True to his word over the next few months, Chibs taught your boys all they needed to know about engines and bikes but he worked them hard and kept them busy so by the end of the day they were too tired to cause any trouble. Chibs, on the other hand, found himself free most of the day now as the boys were doing most of his work and barely needed his instruction anymore. So, when he wasn’t attending to club business, Chibs found himself in Gemma’s office pestering you while you were trying to help Bobby with the accounts. He’d throw paper planes at you, walk past and playfully pull your hair, tap his pen insistently against the desk and, when he was being really demanding, he’d lift you straight from your seat and carry you into the bar and force you to have a drink with him.

In short he seemed desperate for your attention and Gemma and The Sons all found it hilarious how obvious he was being.
Today he just annoying you, you snapped, “Chibs will you just leave me alone?”
You reached up and out of your chair to try to snatch back your pen from Chibs who was sat on your desk holding it out of your reach. He inched the stolen pen out of your reach again and you dropped back into place with your arms crossed and pout firmly in place.
“Aww, will you look at that face.” Chibs teased and reached down to pinch your cheek.
You slapped his hand away, “How can a man who has done so much to help my kids be such a child?”

He grinned mischievously, “You’d be surprised how often one of those things helps the other.”
“Idiot.” You joked. He laughed, tucked your pen inside his pocket and pulled you by the hands so that you were stood in front of where he sat on the desk.
“Fil-” You started but he cut you off.
“When are me and you gonna sort ourselves out?” He leaned close to you and whispered the words across your lips. Your cheeks flushed instantly, this was the Chibs that you remembered. The alluring, charming man that you’d had a relationship with.

Damn you’d missed him.

“It wasn’t me that called it off.” You mumbled.
His expression dropped for a moment and he brought his hand up to play with your hair, “Aye, I know lass. It was my fault, I was stupid. I only wanted to protect you.”
The weight of the moment quieted your words so you only whispered, “How do I know you won’t do it again?”
Chibs moved his hand from your hair to your cheek and gently ran his harsh thumb across your soft cheek, “I thought distance would keep you safe but I was wrong. If I want to keep you safe, and those boys safe because you know ah love them, then I need to keep you close.”

You both fell quiet for a moment until you realised that he was waiting for a response. You swallowed hard, “I do want you Chibs, I want us again. But,” His face fell at the word but you continued, “Let’s keep it between us for now? I don’t want to upset Noah and Matt if it doesn’t work out.”

He nodded and, with a large grin, leaned down to kiss you.

—–

It took two weeks, three days and an hour for Chibs to drunkenly announce his love and your relationship to the club. But it came as a shock to no one because it had taken your boys and Gemma only a few hours to realise something was going on between you and Chibs and they were thrilled.
“Jesus, Chibs.” You put your face in your hands to hide how intensely red it had gone.
He dropped himself down beside you on the couch, wrapped his arm around your shoulders and pulled you to him, “C’mon darlin’, when I have a lass as wonderful as you I just want to tell people about it!”
You didn’t remove your face from your hands so your words came out muffled, “Shut up or I will kill you.”
“Don’t you kill our new Da!” Noah laughed with an exacerbated Irish accent.
“What was that boy?” Chibs shouted and the Sons laughed.
Noah blushed, “Sorry, I just meant that we think of you like –”
His twin saved his babbled apology, “You just did an Irish accent you idiot. He’s Scottish.”
If you could you would have buried your face further into your hands but as it was you’d gone as far as you could, honestly this lot would be the death of you.
By the time you dared look up from your safe haven, Chibs was wrestling with Tig and your boys around the clubhouse and Juice had taken Chibs’ seat beside you. Juice passed you a beer, “Families, eh?” He offered.

You took the beer from him and watched Noah swing on Tig’s back while Chibs had Matt in a headlock, you clinked your beer with Juice’s. You grinned and agreed, “Yeah families.”

tfw you wear a sweater that reminds you of your bf so you can pretend you have a bf.