I’m studying for my Anthropology final tomorrow and one way I study is copying my notes down on paper and/or on a virtual document. So I thought I’d use Tumblr to write down some of my notes while also sharing with you guys some random Anthropology stuff.
It’s the study of health, illness, and healing across the range of human societies and over the course of human experience, with an emphasis on how members of the community direct their behaviors, articulate their ideas, and organize their resources in these realms.
Medicine: Any and all practices that are intended to address or alleviate what a given group of people consider to be an affliction in need of attention.
Biomedicine: The medicine of hospitals and mainstream doctors of the industrialized world.
Health: A dynamic condition combining individuals, society, and an adaption to the environment.
Sickness: diseases and illnesses
disease: a condition that is objectively identified with a medical label or diagnostic name, based on externally established signs.
illness: the more subjective perception of the individual experience of suffering.
All medical systems, including our own, are shaped by culture.
Two Broad Divisions in Medical Anthro: biocultural and cultural
biocultural approaches: an anthropological view of the ways in which people adapt to their environment and change that environment that makes healthy conditions better or worse.
cultural approaches: emphasizes the role of ideas, beliefs, and values in creating systems of illness classification and medical programs for curing.
Human communication by means of shared symbols which can be linguistic or non-linguistic
No one is intrinsically superior (no language is better than another)
Sociolinguistics: the study of linguistic diversity; looks at language in its social context, examining relationships between social and linguistic variation.
style shifts: how you may talk to your boss vs. how you may talk to your best friend.
Gender differences: there is a linguistic variation between men and women.
Women are more likely to speak Standard English
Language reflects position of power
Women end sentences with an intonation of uncertainty.
Linguistic variation reflects social, political, and economic forces
“Proper Langauge” is a strategic resource
Black English Vernacular (BEV): Ebonics is a systematic and rule-governed linguistic system.
there was a national debate about it in the mid-1990s
Standard English is not superior to BEV as a linguistic system, but they do have different prestige
Sign language: a complex, culture-laden system of communication.
a manual communication to convey words and thoughts.
Social Inequality and Control
Social Stratified Societies: contain social groups that have unequal access to important advantages.
Egalitarian: contain no social stratification
bands or tribes
tribes have “Big Men”
no differential access to power, prestige, or economic resources
same opportunity to gain prestige through sharing
same access to hunting areas
men hunt and women gather
younger men/women provide food and older men/women carry the myths and wisdom
the ecological base of hunters and gathers and tribes leads to an egalitarian society
must share - cannot hoard
everyone dependent on the other for survival
cooperation essential between members
environment dictates cooperation and sharing
Rank Societies: usually are agricultural or herding societies.
primarily found in chiefdoms
chiefs are different from “Big Men” in many ways
this position is ascribed even though it’s still kin-based
chiefs are full-time political specialists in charge of economic production, distribution, and consumption
slight inequality regarding prestige (aka @ the ascribed role)
larger and more sedentary
have a surplus - can save up
have redistribution from different ecological areas
Class Societies: unequal access to power, prestige, and economic resources.
found with states
extremely sedentary and have large populations
nucleation, centralization of power, and diversification of labor
Social Control in Kin-Based Societies: social control is the responsibility of the kin groups.
kin act as mediators
Social Control in Class-Based Societies: punishment meant to be impartial and impersonal
Four Types of Social Control: law, gossip and ridicule, witchcraft, and the threat of the supernatural.
law: a social norm whose violation is punishable by threat of or application of physical force by a legitimate official or body
focus is on harmony
not necessarily codified
gossip and ridicule: found in all societies and is especially important in kin-based groups
witchcraft: used to harm other people
supernatural: fear of punishment (hell, karma, etc.)
Power of the States: coercive powers, hegemony, appeasement, the anthropological other.
hegemony: the power of solidarity of the state as created by the consent of the governed.
it is in a stratified social order in which subordinates comply with the domination by internalizing its values and accepting its “naturalness”
the positive outcomes of development and “progress” are highlighted
the costs and inequalities are masked
often promises are made - “if you are patient, the costs of progress will eventually pay off”
often is it wrongly assumed that those suffering from inequalities are really to blame or that they just need to “pull themselves up by their bootstraps”
appeasement: an industrial class base society gives the basic necessities to the poor/needy; meant to help control.
the anthropological “other”: lack power, legitimacy, and validity
their knowledge is dismissed
suffer from cultural poverty
dichotomy of otherness leads to mistreatment of the “other
Religion and Worldview
Religion: the belief in the supernatural and behavior for dealing with it; whether that power is forces, gods, spirits, ghosts, or demons.
religion is a cultural universal
Supernatural: power believed to be not human or not subject to the laws of nature.
Probably dates back to the time of Neanderthal (religion)
Not all religions have a belief in a god or gods
Why is Religion a Cross-Cultural Universal? - Some Theories…
the need to understand: religion originates in people’s speculation about dreams, trances, and death
animism: belief that there is a physical body separate from a soul
Tylor’s student argues instead for animatism
animatism: the belief in impersonal, supernatural forces
reversion to childhood feelings: we look to religion to fulfill the role that our parents filled when we were children
all knowing and all powerful
anxiety and uncertainty: we turn to religion during times of anxiety and uncertainty.
the need for community: focus is on social needs
religious beliefs and practices affirm a person's’ place in society, enhance feelings of community, and give people confidence
Types of Supernatural Forces and Beings:
mana: a supernatural force that is impersonal and is thought to inhabit some objects, people, or animals, but not others
taboo: persons, objects, animals, or places that are not to be touched because their power can cause harm
gods: supernatural beings with non-human origins and are named personalities
ghosts and ancestor spirits: supernatural beings that may act in a guardian way doing good deeds
others act in mischief
they were once human
were born of a human woman
Structure of Supernatural:
monotheistic religions: have one supreme or high god with other lesser supernatural beings
the gods/spirits are ranked in power and prestige
ex: Christianity and Islam
polytheistic religions: recognize many important gods with no one supreme god
ex: Ancient Rome, Greek, Egyptian, Mayan religions
can’t separate natural and supernatural
equality between humans and their environment
personalized relationship between spirits, nature, and humans
power is manipulated through ritual
nothing happens by chance
based on origin narratives
All humans engage in rituals
Ways of Interacting With the Supernatural:
prayer: asking for supernatural help; can take many forms
altering the body or mind: i.e. Yanomamo use of ebene, Native Americans and peyote, Native Americans and vision quests, and Kung San drumming and dancing
trance: common altered state, can be possession trances
stimulation: where one thing stands for something else; black magic voodoo
divination: getting the supernatural force to provide guidance
sacrifice: some of value is given up to the gods, whether is be food, animals, or people
magic vs. prayer:
sorcery and witchcraft: both invoke the spirits to work harm against people
sorcery: may include the use of material, objects, and medicines to invoke the supernatural malevolence
witchcraft: accomplishes the same ills as sorcery but by means of thought and emotion alone
Most seen in societies as a social control when the population is far too large for gossip and ridicule and when the population is much too small for judges, juries, and police
Ritual: a repetitive social practice composed of a sequence of symbolic activities in the form of dance, song, speech, gestures, or the manipulation of objects, adhering to a cultrually defined ritual schema and closely connected to a specific set of ideas that are often encoded in myth.
four elements to rituals: repetition, set off from everyday life, adheres to culturally defined ritual schema, and connected to ideas encoded in a myth
Rites of Passage: going from one status to another
a ritual that serves to mark the movement and transformation of an individual from one social position to another
three stages: separation, transition, reaggregation
To all the Solluxes - man, you’re so motherfucking strong, you know that? You go through a lot of shit, but you keep going!! And does it get to you sometimes? Oh motherfucking hell yes it does - who wouldn’t get overwhelmed by all of that??
But you- man, you keep going. Sometimes not entirely by choice, maybe, but you make it!! And you’re still here!! And if you’re grumpy or overstimulated easily, or your mood changes a lot - it’s obviously difficult and saying it’s ok is a lie - but don’t think less of yourself for these traits!! They aren’t the sorts of things that are easy to control, and if you can’t keep it from happening, it’s not your fault!!
You do what you can and deal with what life has given ya, and you are just - so strong and capable under such circumstances!! You’re doing great, and I’m hoping that life will give you a reprieve so you can breathe and relax guilt-free - you’ve earned it!!!
Because race is an integral part of a person’s identity, especially if they are nonwhite. It influences each and every aspect of their life.
By saying you’re kin with/ID as a character who is a person of color when you are white yourself, you are implying that you can separate characters from their race, that all our lived experiences and struggles that come with being a particular race can be dismissed as immaterial without changing who we are. This is racist. You are erasing our experiences with race and appropriating our identity without ever having to experience all the pain that comes with it.
The “it’s racist to kin outside your race” thing was started by white people pretending to be Japanese.
Believe it or not, we are capable of finding things racist, independent of white influence. Further, this argument is utterly nonsensical - how is white people fucking up while pretending to be Japanese somehow license for more white people to continue to do so?
My friend is a person of color and they told me it’s okay to kin outside my race.
First of all, you need to stop using your nonwhite friends to defend yourself against accusations of racism. You are essentially using a restyled version of the “I have nonwhite friends, I can’t be racist” argument.
Secondly, you have no way of knowing whether your friend actually thinks it’s okay or whether they are merely afraid of calling you out because they worry that you will either not listen to them, accuse them of overreacting or cut them off.
Finally, just because your token friend of color has sanctioned your racism doesn’t make it any less racist.
I’m a person of color and I don’t think it’s bad for white people to kin outside their race.
People of color are not a monolith. You’re entitled to your opinion. That doesn’t change the fact that other nonwhite people are being harmed by this sort of racist behavior.
What if I call them synpaths instead of kins?
No. Doing so is making no change in your racist behavior; it is merely using a change in terms to attempt to placate those who have called you out.
What if I’ve put up a disclaimer on my kin/id page saying that I don’t claim the race of the character I kin with/id as?
That is simply insulting. You are basically saying “you don’t see color”, implying that the race of the character is immaterial and easily separable from the character. It is not.
What about reincarnation kin?
They still claim to be the nonwhite character. This is inexcusable regardless of how you try to explain it away. You cannot claim a character’s experiences as “your past lives” when their past lives have experience with racism you cannot possibly understand.
I am not hurting anyone by being kin/id outside my race, it’s a simple coping mechanism!
You coping mechanisms are not beyond reproach just because you’re mentally ill, especially when they function at the expense of marginalized people.
You are in fact hurting people of color -especially those of us who are mentally ill and use kin to cope. This is compounded by the fact that we are doubly marginalized by racism and ableism and are thus more likely to go undiagnosed/misdiagnosed/have poor access to mental health care. We already have extremely limited representation in media, and it is entitled of you to lay claim to what few characters we have to, when there are countless white characters you have to chose from.
In addition, those of you going by nonwhite names - like white anime kins - add to the racism by claiming names that nonwhite (in this case Asian) people are discriminated for - in education and employment. It is beyond entitled for you as a white person to claim names from cultures when they’ve been stripped from us by white society.
I am delusional/psychotic and I cannot help my kins, asking me to do so is ableist.
Before you call us ableist, consider that white people are not the only ones who deal with mental illness. Then imagine what it is like to live with intersecting marginalization of racism and ableism, especially when there are people like you who blatantly abuse their white privilege.
If your delusions actively harm others, you cannot continue to excuse them. If you are capable of recognizing your behavior as delusional, you have the ability to make efforts towards changing your behavior. We say this as people who are delusional ourselves. It is not easy, but fighting racism was never going to be easy to begin with.
What can I do to change?
Stop going by ethnic kin names. Take the characters off your kin page. Try to distance yourself from the character. Focus on other kins - as a white person, you’re guaranteed to have - or find - plenty of others.
As for the future, you cannot help which characters you get kin feelings for, but you can help what you do with them. You can also educate yourself to rid yourself of the subconscious idea that race is a separable trait from our experiences, so you eventually see nonwhite characters as off limits.
I don’t care about this/I’m going to continue to kin outside my race.
Then please do not pretend to care about racism. It’s extremely exhausting and disheartening for us to broach this subject with white people who claim to be allies, only to have them continue with their behavior and shut us out because they care about maintaining their image as Good Whites than they do about actually changing their racist behavior. You cannot claim to be an ally when you are only anti-racist as long as it’s convenient/doesn’t require you to change your behavior.
Request: Can you do a
os of Chibs/oc that’s a single mom of 2 teenage boys who need a dad around??? 😚
Chibs x Reader
Gemma slid the pack of cigarettes over the bar to you, you
thanked her, took one and lit it. It was odd seeing Gemma, head Old Lady,
behind the bar but she got you each a beer and then you came around to and sat
on the bar stool beside you.
“So, what have the little darlings done this time?” She asked you, her ever
perfect eyebrow quirked with curiosity. You took a long drag of your cigarette
and pinched the bridge of your nose; you didn’t know where to start.
The current, and almost always, cause of your stress was
your teenage twin sons, Matt and Noah. Their father had been your high school
sweetheart, you’d married young and had the twins quickly, they were around
before their father had even got his patch with The Sons of Anarchy.
Then the fucking idiot decided to try to
rat on the club when he got caught and threatened with jail time. You made your
loyalties known, you cared more about the club than you had done him in the
end, they often pulled together to help you with the kids and you’d help them
with theirs. They helped especially when he’d spent the mortgage money on
booze. You’d all but been separated from him when he’d been arrested anyway
because he’d come home one night and hit Noah.
You jumped in the way and he’d beaten you, Matt and Noah had
ran from the house and down the road to get their Uncle Clay and Auntie Gemma.
Gemma had kept them with her, you had thanked her endlessly for that. You
wouldn’t have wanted them to see you broken like that. Clay along with Jax and
Opie, who were both prospecting at the time, dealt with your husband and Chibs,
who had been having a drink at Clay’s, tended to your wounds.
Chibs had stayed with you for two weeks after that, sleeping
on the sofa and helping you around the house and making you and the boys feel
safe. That was the first time you felt your heart pull towards Chibs, who for
years had only been a friend and club brother to your husband.
After your husband had been arrested, excommunicated from the club and ultimately
battered to death in jail, you and Chibs had briefly pursued a relationship and
you’d been happy. Your boys had loved having him around and you were glad that
for once they had a positive role model. Then the Sons pissed off a mob boss
and Old Lady’s started to be threatened, Chibs cut off ties with you and the
boys to keep you safe.
Still you were close to The Sons, you were still kin to them
and after a few awkward months you and Chibs fell back into your old
friendship, both brushing away feelings for safety. If your biggest mistake in
life was marrying that asshole then the second was letting Chibs walk out of
That was years ago now and if you both of you were honest, neither of you knew
why you were still denying your feelings for one another; maybe it was easier
to stay in that habit?
But back to the problem at hand, your lovely twin boys.
You took a swig of your beer and another drag of your smoke
before telling Gemma, “Someone called me a MILF so they beat him up and smashed
his car in, I have a sneaking suspicion that Tig probably helped.”
Jesus, you’d have gone mad years ago if it wasn’t for Gemma and Chibs as Tig
often took it upon himself to act like your third child which was the last
thing that you needed. Gemma tutted and shook her head, “You know they never
gave you this shit when you were with Chibs.”
You rolled your eyes at her and stubbed out your smoke in
the ashtray, she was constantly trying to get the pair of you to pull your
heads out of your asses and face the fact that you still had feelings for each
other and she wasn’t above bringing your kids into it.
She wanted you to be an Old Lady again.
“Gemma, stop it. I’ve got bigger things on my plate, like
how to control my kids.” You groaned and swigged your beer, as if on cue Tig
and Chibs entered the clubhouse, they stopped in front of you and Gemma.
Chibs put his hands on his hips and nodded towards you with his head, he spoke
to Tig, “Well, go on.”
Tig held his hands up in defence, “Whaaat? What are you talking about?”
Kozik, almost sensing a chance to mess with Tig, wondered in with his hands in
his pockets, “He’s talking about you helping the boys smash that guys car in.”
Tig glared at him, “Y/N isn’t going to believe you, you rat.”
“If he’s ratting then he must be telling the truth.” You cut in and Tig’s face
fell. Kozik came around the back of the bar and gave you a high five over the
“Okay, okay, alright, stop the witch hunt.” Tig sighed, “All I’m saying is that
I helped the boys out. They were going to do it anyway. I just helped them not
As if the universe was ready to screw Tig over further, Clay
and Jax walked in shouting your name with Unser in tow. Tig sighed at his luck.
“Y/N I’m sorry to have to do this but I’m going to have to take in Matthew and
Noah.” Unser told you.
“Why?” You asked innocently enough trying to plead ignorance until you could
think of a plan.
Unser sighed, “I think you know why Y/N. They beat up a man and smashed his
car. I gotta take them in.”
“When was this?” Chibs cut in.
Unser eyed him wearily, “This morning.”
“In that case I’m sorry to tell ya but you got the wrong boys.” Chibs stated
with absolute certainty. When your head whipped around to face him, he folded
his arms and leaned back on the bar with ease, like the matter was settled
simply because he said so.
“And why is that?” Unser
sighed and waited for the bullshit story that he’d have to feed back to the
“They were with me,” Chibs stated with utter certainty, “I’ve been trying to
help them with their mechanics. They both want to try and get jobs here so that
they can pay rent at home. It was a surprise for their mum that you just
You placed a hand on your heart and feigned surprise, “That’s my boys. What would
I do without them?”
“Live longer.” Kozik muttered behind you.
The clubhouse door opened and your darling twin boys fell in, pushing and
jostling each other. They stopped dead when they saw Unser, you and The Sons
watching them. Chibs spoke before Unser could, “Boys, Unser seems to think that
you’ve been up to no good. Don’t worry, he knows that you’ve been trying to get
jobs to surprise your Ma and pay rent.”
Noah’s face scrunched in confusion but Matt was quick on the update, “Yeah, it
was supposed to be that. A surprise I mean. Thanks for ruining it.”
“My lovely boys.” You smiled but your eyes burned with the promise of
Unser held his hands up in defeat, “Well I looked into it, that’s
all I can do.”
He left with Clay and Jax, no doubt to talk about club business. Matt let out a
low whistle, “Thanks for that Chibs.”
“And just what the fuck do you two think you were playing at?” Chibs snapped at
the boys and they both straightened their backs but their expressions remained
sheepish. Noah glanced at Tig but Chibs spoke again, “Don’t even think about
it, Tig’s already been told. Now we told Unser you were working to help your
mum out and that’s exactly what you’re going to do.”
“And how are we going to do that?” Noah snapped like a typical teenager.
“Don’t speak to Filip like that.” You interjected, “Do you
have any idea how much trouble you could have been in if it weren’t for him? Do
you really think I like knowing that you boys are getting your fathers temper?!”
The twins looked down at their feet and mumbled an apology to Chibs.
“It’s not me that you have to apologise too. Now you’re going to find jobs and
sort your own mess out.” He told him, “You know that I’ll help you if I can.”
“Well you could always mentor them.” Gemma added helpfully pulling out another
smoke, “If you were serious about them being good mechanics, we could always
use a few more of them around here.”
You gave Gemma a half glare, as much as you loved her for giving your boys a
chance and making the story that you’d told Unser almost true, you could see
that she was just using it as a ploy to get you and Chibs closer again.
Your twins asked in unison, the promise of being close to The Sons and their
bikes too exciting. Chibs gave you a sly wink and you mouthed ‘thank you’ to
True to his word over the next few months, Chibs taught your
boys all they needed to know about engines and bikes but he worked them hard
and kept them busy so by the end of the day they were too tired to cause any
trouble. Chibs, on the other hand, found himself free most of the day now as
the boys were doing most of his work and barely needed his instruction anymore.
So, when he wasn’t attending to club business, Chibs found himself in Gemma’s
office pestering you while you were trying to help Bobby with the accounts. He’d
throw paper planes at you, walk past and playfully pull your hair, tap his pen insistently
against the desk and, when he was being really demanding, he’d lift you
straight from your seat and carry you into the bar and force you to have a
drink with him.
In short he seemed desperate for your attention and Gemma
and The Sons all found it hilarious how obvious he was being.
Today he just annoying you, you snapped, “Chibs will you just leave me alone?”
You reached up and out of your chair to try to snatch back your pen from Chibs
who was sat on your desk holding it out of your reach. He inched the stolen pen
out of your reach again and you dropped back into place with your arms crossed
and pout firmly in place.
“Aww, will you look at that face.” Chibs teased and reached down to pinch your
You slapped his hand away, “How can a man who has done so much to help my kids
be such a child?”
He grinned mischievously, “You’d be surprised how often one
of those things helps the other.”
“Idiot.” You joked. He laughed, tucked your pen inside his pocket and pulled
you by the hands so that you were stood in front of where he sat on the desk.
“Fil-” You started but he cut you off.
“When are me and you gonna sort ourselves out?” He leaned close to you and
whispered the words across your lips. Your cheeks flushed instantly, this was the
Chibs that you remembered. The alluring, charming man that you’d had a
Damn you’d missed him.
“It wasn’t me that called it off.” You mumbled.
His expression dropped for a moment and he brought his hand up to play with
your hair, “Aye, I know lass. It was my fault, I was stupid. I only wanted to
The weight of the moment quieted your words so you only whispered, “How do I
know you won’t do it again?”
Chibs moved his hand from your hair to your cheek and gently ran his harsh
thumb across your soft cheek, “I thought distance would keep you safe but I was
wrong. If I want to keep you safe, and those boys safe because you know ah love
them, then I need to keep you close.”
You both fell quiet for a moment until you realised that he
was waiting for a response. You swallowed hard, “I do want you Chibs, I want us
again. But,” His face fell at the word but you continued, “Let’s keep it
between us for now? I don’t want to upset Noah and Matt if it doesn’t work out.”
He nodded and, with a large grin, leaned down to kiss you.
It took two weeks, three days and an hour for Chibs to
drunkenly announce his love and your relationship to the club. But it came as a
shock to no one because it had taken your boys and Gemma only a few hours to
realise something was going on between you and Chibs and they were thrilled.
“Jesus, Chibs.” You put your face in your hands to hide how intensely red it
He dropped himself down beside you on the couch, wrapped his arm around your
shoulders and pulled you to him, “C’mon darlin’, when I have a lass as
wonderful as you I just want to tell people about it!”
You didn’t remove your face from your hands so your words came out muffled, “Shut
up or I will kill you.”
“Don’t you kill our new Da!” Noah laughed with an exacerbated Irish accent.
“What was that boy?” Chibs shouted and the Sons laughed.
Noah blushed, “Sorry, I just meant that we think of you like –”
His twin saved his babbled apology, “You just did an Irish accent you idiot. He’s
If you could you would have buried your face further into your hands but as it
was you’d gone as far as you could, honestly this lot would be the death of you.
By the time you dared look up from your safe haven, Chibs was wrestling with
Tig and your boys around the clubhouse and Juice had taken Chibs’ seat beside
you. Juice passed you a beer, “Families, eh?” He offered.
You took the beer from him and watched Noah swing on Tig’s
back while Chibs had Matt in a headlock, you clinked your beer with Juice’s.
You grinned and agreed, “Yeah families.”