kavaja

6

Kavajë, Albania

The present day territory of Kavajë has been inhabited since the Late Antiquity. It is believed that the Illyrian tribe of Taulanti built their city Arnisa in the area today known as Zikxhafaj. After the eventual Roman Conquest of the region, Kavajë would become a transit route for Via Egnatia. It was built by the Romans in order to link a chain of their colonies stretching from the Adriatic Sea to the Bosphorus. The famous Battle of Pharsalus between Julius Caesar and his archrival Pompey took place near Shkëmbi i Kavajës, at the time known as Petra.

2

Albanian Dialects  

GHEG DIALECT

Spoken in most of Albania north of the Shkumbin river, as well as in Kosovo, Montenegro, Serbia, most of the western part of the Republic of Macedonia, and Arbanasi near Zadar in Croatia.

Northern Gheg subdialect

Spoken in most Albanian-speaking regions north of the Mat river. These include Ulqin [Ulcinj], Kraja and Podgorica in Montenegro, the Shkodra region, Lezha, Malësia e Madhe, Dukagjin, Puka, Mirdita, Plava, Malësia e Gjakovës, Luma, Has, Kosovo and Presheva [Preševo].

Western variant: Spoken in regions to the west of a vertical line from the Montenegrin-Albanian border initially down the boundary between the Prefecture of Shkodra and the Prefecture of Kukës, including Theth and Shala in Dukagjin and areas west thereof such as Shkodra, Lezha, Malësia e Madhe and Montenegro.

Eastern variant: Spoken in regions to the east of a vertical line from the Montenegrin-Albanian border initially down the boundary between the Prefecture of Shkodra and the Prefecture of Kukës, including Nikaj-Merturi and Puka, and areas east thereof such as Gashi, Tropoja, Malësia e Gjakovës, Has, Kukës, Kosovo and Presheva.

Southern Gheg subdialect

Spoken in northern central Albania south of the Mat river and north of the Shkumbin river, including Mat, Lura, Peshkopia and most of western Macedonia (Dibra to Skopje and Kumanova), as well as Kruja, Tirana and Elbasan.

Central variant: Spoken in the interior basin of the Mat river, extending eastwards to and beyond the Black Drin river, including Mat, part of Mirdita, Lura, Luma, Peshkopia and western Macedonia (the left bank of the Black Drin around Struga, Dibra, Kërçova [Kičevo], Tetova, Gostivar, Skopje and Kumanova), as well as Kruja and Fushë Kruja.

Southern variant: Spoken in most of the coastal region from the mouth of the Mat or Ishëm rivers to the mouth of the Shkumbin river, including Durrës, Tirana, and Kavaja, as well as inland areas such as the Tirana mountain range, Martanesh and Çermenika, Elbasan and the valley of the Shkumbin river.

TRANSITIONAL FORMS

Spoken in a ten to twenty kilometre horizontal belt along the Shkumbin river valley, mostly on the left (south) side of the river, including the northern Myzeqe plain, Dumreja, Shpat, Polis and Qukës.

TOSK DIALECT

Spoken in most of Albania south of the Shkumbin river and into Greece, as well as in the traditional Albanian diaspora settlements in Italy, Greece, Bulgaria and the Ukraine.

Northern Tosk subdialect

Spoken in most of Albania south of the Shkumbin river, with the exception of southern coastal areas on the left (southwestern) side of the Vjosa river. On the coast, the southern border of this area is just south of the town of Vlora.

Western variant: Spoken in the regions of Myzeqeja, Mallakastra, Berat, Fier, Skrapar, Tepelena on right (eastern) side of Vjosa, Përmet and Vlora, including the area to the north and northeast of the town of Vlora.

Eastern variant: Spoken in the regions of Pogradec, Korça, Kolonja and Devoll, as well as the southwestern part of the Republic of Macedonia (the right bank of the Black Drin around Struga, Ohrid, Prespa and Monastir [Bitola]).

Southern Tosk subdialect

Spoken in coastal regions south of the town of Vlora and extending downinto Greece.

Lab variant: Spoken in the Laberia region, being Kurvelesh and Himara down to the Shalës and Pavlle rivers, including Delvina and Gjirokastra.

Cham variant: Spoken in the Albanian part of the Chameria [Çamëria] region south of Shalës and Pavlle rivers, and in the Greek part of Chameria sporadically down to Preveza.

Arvanitic Tosk subdialect

Spoken traditionally in about 300 villages of central Greece, in particular in Attica, Boeotia, southern Euboia, the northeastern Peloponnese around Corinth, the islands of the Sardonic Gulf, including Salamis, northern Andros, as well as some other parts of the Peloponnese and Phthiotis. This archaic dialect is moribund, though there may still be from 50,000 to 250,000 speakers, mostly older people.

Italo-Albanian Tosk subdialect

This archaic variant of Albanian is spoken by about 90,000 people in southern Italy. Speakers are to be found, usually in remote mountain villages, in the regions of Calabria, Molise, Puglia, Basilicata, Campagnia, Abruzzi and Sicily.

8

Memorial Day of Cham Albanians. June 27th, 1944

Chameria is a mountainous region of the southwestern Balkan Peninsula that now straddles the Greek-Albanian border. Most of Chameria is in the Greek Province of Epirus, corresponding largely to the prefectures of Thesprotia and Preveza, but it also includes the southern-most part of Albania, the area around Konispol. It is approximately 10,000 square kilometres in size and has a current, mostly Greek-speaking population of about 150,000. The core or central region of Chameria, known in Greek as Thesprotia, could be said to be the basins of the Kalamas and Acheron Rivers. It was the Kalamas River, known in ancient times as the Thyamis, that gave Chameria its name. The Chams, known in Greek as Tsamides, are no other than Albanians living in the extreme southern part of Albanian-speaking territory. Among their traditional settlements in the now relatively sparsely inhabited region of Chameria were Gumenica/Igoumenitsa, Filat/Filiates, Paramithia/Paramythia, Parga and Margëlliç/Margariti and, in particular, many smaller villages that were abandoned and are in ruins and presently covered in vegetation. There were Cham settlements sporadically southwards as far as Preveza. When Greek forces took possession of Chameria and southern Epirus in the Balkan War of 1912, the Chams suddenly found themselves in Greece, cut off from the rest of Albania. In the following decades, in particular the 1920s, 1930s and 1940s, the vast majority of the Chams emigrated or were expelled from Chameria. With the German withdrawal from Greece in the summer and early autumn of 1944, the region was enmeshed in the initial throes of a bloody civil war. British forces, anxious to secure the Ionian coastline in order to ensure maritime supply routes, encouraged the forces of a local military commander, General Napoleon Zervas (1891-1957), to take over the region. Zervas, the founder and leader of a Greek resistance movement called the National Republican Greek League (Ethnikós Demokratikós Ellenikós Sýndesmos – EDES), became known for his brutal ethnic cleansing of the Albanians of Chameria from June 1944 to March 1945. He and many of his men regarded the Chams collectively as collaborators with the Italians and Germans, and sought vengeance. Several thousand men, women and children from Chameria found their deaths during his incursions. On 27 June 1944, his forces entered the town of Paramithia and killed about 600 Muslim Chams - men, women and children - in an orgy of violence. Many of the victims were raped and tortured before being slaughtered. Another EDES battalion advanced into Parga the next day where 52 more Albanians were killed. On 23 September 1944, the village of Spatar near Filat was looted and 157 people were murdered. Numerous young women and girls were raped, and other unspeakable crimes were committed. In the immediate aftermath, virtually the entire Cham population, defenceless and petrified, took to the hills and fled for their lives to Albania. The Chameria Association in Tirana estimates that a total of 2,771 Albanian civilians were killed during the 1944-1945 attacks on Cham villages.The cleansing of the Muslim Chams of Greece at the end of the Second World War marked the end of a one painful chapter of Cham history and the beginning of another. The Albania, to which the exhausted and starving Chams fled, had shortly before their arrival come under the control of Enver Hoxha (1908-1985) and his communist forces. The new Marxist rulers were not entirely disposed to assist their suffering compatriots. The Chams were nonetheless given refugee status and allowed to remain in Albania. It was the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA), active as a relief agency in Albania from September 1945 to the spring of 1947, that provided emergency assistance to the Chams by distributing tents, food and medicine to their squalid camps in Vlora, Fier, Durrës, Kavaja, Delvina and Tirana. In the years immediately following the Second World War, the Anti-Fascist Committee of Cham Immigrants campaigned for the return of the Chams to their homeland. Most of them did not want to stay in Albania anyway, in particular in view of the Stalinist-type purges taking place there. The Committee held two congresses in 1945, one in Konispol and the other in Vlora, and wrote memoranda and sent telegrams in support of its goals. The Cham issue was also brought up by Albania at the Paris Peace Conference of 1946, but all of these activities proved to be in vain. Efforts to internationalize the Cham issue fell, for the most part, on deaf ears. For several years, the Chams continued to hope that when the political situation calmed down, they would be able to return to Greece. However, this did not happen. Even today, in the twenty-first century, elderly Chams wishing to see the land of their birth, even on a short visit, are turned back at the border by Greek customs officials. Their passports are stamped persona non grata and on occasion are even torn up before their very eyes.

 These photos were taken in 1945 at Cham refugee camps in Albania by members of the United Nations Relief and Rehabilitation Administration (UNRRA). They are preserved in the United Nations Archives.