june 1943

anonymous asked:

so steve and peggy knew each other/worked together for years, not months? because that would make way more sense, considering how deep their feelings seemed to run. i never did get why they were so intense if they only knew each other for a little time, but if it was years, then that explains it. do we have a timeline?

Yes! Steve and Peggy knew each other for almost two years before Steve died! Which is why it drives me nuts when people say they barely knew each other. The timeline isn’t well-explained in CATFA, but here’s my rundown of events: 

Steve is recruited by Erskine on June 14, 1943. The year is also confirmed by the newspaper in that scene. He meets Peggy a day later, when he arrives at Camp Lehigh for his training. It’s love at first sight for Steve, but it’s not long before Peggy starts noticing him, too:

(I should mention that the flag at Camp Lehigh says it’s 1942, so mistakes in the MCU are entirely possible. Moving on!).

Steve is chosen for the SuperSoldier project within a few days of arriving at camp. On the way to the operation, he and Peggy have a heartfelt talk about the discrimination they face in the military, and she begins to fall for him (…even though Steve tries to flirt with her but kind of insults her instead. Oh, Steve). But her crush is especially noticeable after the serum, because… well:

Yeah.

According to a newspaper in the film, Captain America is born on June 23, 1943! (Okay, technically it would be June 22 because the paper would be the next day, but semantics). It’s been 9 days since Steve was recruited, and 8 days since Steve and Peggy first met. Mutual crushes have been established!

After Erskine’s death, Steve tours the east coast of the USA and parts of Europe from July - October 1943, selling war bonds. Peggy is sent to London during this time, but it’s possible they kept in touch. Or, alternatively, the Captain America tour poster states he would be in “London, Bristol, Manchester, Allied Bases in Europe, and North Africa”, in that order, so maybe they met up in London before reuniting at the Allied Bases. Regardless, Peggy knows of Steve’s adventures and they’re comfortable with each other when we see them again in Azzano.

In early November 1943, Steve learns that Bucky has been captured by HYDRA and he and Peggy plan the illegal rescue mission. This is really the first time Steve and Peggy flirt with each other, not just little glances and smiles (”You’re late!” becomes their Thing). The day Steve brings Bucky home is November 24, 1943, according to Steve’s condolence letter:

Everyone moves to London a few days later. It’s here where things become serious: Peggy flirts with Steve while wearing the red dress, and they promise to go dancing after the war (which becomes a euphemism for their future, with ‘the right partner’ line). From the moment she walks into the bar wearing that dress, her eyes only for Steve… they’re going steady, in my mind. Especially because Steve tells Bucky “Maybe she’s got a friend”, as if he and Peggy are already together. It explains why Peggy is so pissed when she sees Steve kissing a woman in the bunker a few days later – she thought they were a done deal. At this point, they’ve known each other for five months (which is around the time you would get serious with someone. Just saying!).

From December 1943 onwards, Steve leads the Howling Commandos through all their famous missions. Peggy is part of this Special Ops team, shown in the wartime montage in CATFA. And Steve carries a photo of her in his compass, like she’s his Girl, so I’d say they’re serious about each other. 

Their time together is also mentioned in CATWS, in the video at the Smithsonian; Peggy talks about a mission they did together in the Winter of 1944. Plus she’s still upset talking about Steve, eight years after his death, which speaks volumes about their relationship:

So we can assume that they worked side-by-side for the entirety of 1944. Maybe they were in correspondence throughout each mission and met in London between them (going off the bombed-out pub scene)? Although I’m betting Peggy joined in on a few of those missions, too!

(BTW, by my best guess, Bucky dies around Feb-Mar 1945, but it’s completely up for debate. I know the Smithsonian tribute says he died in 1944, but… it doesn’t really fit with the timeline of CATFA, so I’m electing to ignore it).

Finally – Peggy and Steve share their first (and only) onscreen kiss right before Steve’s last mission, which is in 1945. We know this mostly from CATWS; Natasha teases Steve with “Was that your first kiss since 1945?”, which suggests it’s a known fact that Steggy macked (who knows - maybe Colonel Phillips wrote about it for the history books). Most people accept that VE Day in the MCU is the same as real life (May 8, 1945)… which means Steve probably died sometime in April 1945.

So! This means Steve and Peggy knew each other for almost 2 years (June 14, 1943 - April 1945), and were ‘going steady’ (or at least only had eyes for each other) for ~1.5 years. That’s a pretty long time, especially in the 1940s when most people were married within a year of ‘steady’ dating – even less during wartime. And while it was cool to casually date, it wasn’t cool to sleep around or even have makeout sessions, which weren’t popular until Car Culture in the 1950s. Many couples in the 1930-40s wouldn’t have done much with each other before their marriage night, even if they had been Serial Daters before getting together. 

So when people say “Steve and Peggy weren’t serious because they only kissed once!” …it’s not a valid argument, in my mind. TWO YEARS, MAN. That’s a longterm relationship!

In June 1943, after Italy’s King Victor Emmanuel III arrested Mussolini, Hitler sent his troops into Rome. They took the city after just two days of fighting. Rome’s population was swollen to almost double its size by refugees drawn by what they thought was the protection of an open city. Pius had the Vatican secretary of state write to the leaders of all religious orders and ask them to help refugees any way they could. At first, people could pass freely into Vatican City, but when the Nazis realized the pope was offering shelter to Jews and other refugees, they began checking identification. The Church countered by providing fake identification for people wanting to enter the Vatican. Later still, many people made mad dashes to safety after dark.
 
All available Church buildings were put to use. One hundred fifty such sanctuaries were opened in Rome alone. “Shelters were improvised everywhere, in lofts, in storage rooms under stairs, hidden behind blind doors or cupboards, subterranean galleries, ancient Roman doors used as escape routes: all this as soon as the alert sounded - according to agreed signs, such as the convent bells - that a Nazi inspection was approaching.” Catholic hospitals were ordered to admit as many Jewish patients as possible, even if their ailments were fictitious. Castel Gandolfo, the pope’s normal summer home, was used to shelter thousands of refugees. A wartime US intelligence document reported that the “bombardment of Castel Gandolfo resulted in the injury of about 1,000 people and the death of about 300 more. The highness of the figures is due to the fact that the area was crammed with refugees.” No one but Pope Pius XII had authority to open his summer home to outsiders. In fact, his personal bedroom was converted to a nursery and birthing area, and about forty babies were born there during the war.
 
Father Robert Leiber, Pius XII’s private secretary and personal confidant during the war said: “The Pope sided very unequivocally with the Jews at the time. He spent his entire private fortune on their behalf….Pius spent what he inherited himself, as a Pacelli, from his family.”
—  Lt. Gen. Ion Mihai Pacepa and Professor Ronald Rychlak, Disinformation: Former Spy Chief Reveals Secret Strategies for Undermining Freedom, Attacking Religion, and Promoting Terrorism (2013)

USS Gillis (AVD-12) tending Higgins type motor torpedo boats (PTs) of Motor Torpedo Squadron 13, in Casco Cove, Massacre Bay, Attu Island, Aleutians, 21 June 1943. Note the PBY Catalina flying boat astern of Gillis.

The Boeing XB-38 flying fortress - a single B-17E with Allison V-1710 V type engines rather than the standard Wright R-1820. Only one prototype was built, and it made its first flight on May 19, 1943. It had a much higher top speed, but lower service ceiling - and the engine manifold joints leaked exhaust gauses after the first few flights. 

On the ninth flight, June 16, 1943, the third engine caught fire – forcing the crew to bail out. 

The prototype was destroyed and the project was canceled. The V-1710 engines were needed for other planes, like the P-38 Lightning, P-39 Airacobra, P-40 Warhawk, P-51A model Mustang, and P-63 Kingcobra.

Easy Company’s Campaigns

All credit goes to Marcus Brotherton who put together a wonderful appendix to his book We Who Are Alive and Remain; Untold Stories From the Band of Brothers.  Which includes this timeline.

July-Nov. 1942:  506th PIR activated at Camp Toccoa, Georgia.  Basic Training.  Hike from Toccoa to Atlanta in late November.

Dec. 1942:  Parachute training at Fort Benning, Georgia.  Additional training at Benning through February ‘43.

Feb.-May 1943:  Additional training exercises at Camp Mackall, North Carolina.  More training jumps.

June-Aug. 1943:  Additional training in Kentucky and Tennessee, then to Fort Bragg, North Carolina.

Sept. 1943:  Regiment moves to Camp Shanks, New York, boards SS Samaria for England.  Arrive in Swindon and moved to Aldbourne.

Sept. 1943-May 1944:  Additional training in Aldbourne.  In May moves to marshalling area near Exeter, England, then to Upottery Airfield.

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Japanese Captain Chuichi Ichikawa in front of his Kawasaki Ki-61-I KAId Hien “Tony” fighter, of 244th Sentai, 3rd Chutai, demonstrates to other pilots the maneuvers that he uses to confront an American B-29 bomber.
Chofu Airfield, near Tokyo, Japan. February 1945.

Captain Chuichi Ichikawa, born in Tokyo in 1918, became one of the top aces downing nine B-29 Superfortress in the final months of the war.

At 18 years old he entered in the Kumagaya Army Flight School. Graduated on 1937, he joined the 9th Sentai in Manchuria. In 1941, he was assigned to the Air Inspection Division, testing new aircrafts, and one year later entered the Army Flight Academy.

On June 1943, upon the graduation, Ichikawa was assigned to the 78th Sentai, and soon after his arrival, the unit was shipped out to New Guinea, the theatre which earned the nickname “Graveyard of Army Fighter Pilots”. There he had several months of constant action, until his fighter was set alight during aerial combat. He managed to survive but was seriously burned. After a time of recovery, he returned and was assigned to the 244th Sentai.

At the 244th Sentai, Ichikawa quickly made a name for himself in the home defense role, fighting with remarkable skill. On April 1945 he shot down two B-29s and damaged another, in a ramming attack with his Ki-100. He received the ‘A’ Class award Bukosho for this action. In June he was promoted to the rank of Captain and by the end of war he had scored nine B-29s shot down and six damaged, plus a Hellcat fighter destroyed.

He was killed in 1954, in an air crash, while working as a private (commercial) pilot.

(Colourised by Nikos Hatzitsirou from Greece)

Léon Degrelle inspecting new volunteers for the Sturmbrigade Wallonien in July 1943 in Namur, Belgium. This unit belonged first to the Heer, but was transferred to the Waffen-SS in June 1943 where will be listed on the order of battle as the 28. SS Freiwilligen Panzergrenadier Division Wallonien from 1944.