july 1953

Yes, I was infatuated with you; I am still. No one has ever heightened such a keen capacity of physical sensation in me. I cut you out because I couldn’t stand being a passing fancy. Before I give my body, I must give my thoughts, my mind, my dreams. And you weren’t having any of those.
—  The Unabridged Journals of Sylvia Plath, July 1950-July 1953

Sergeant Reckless, a chestnut mare who served in the U.S. military 63 years ago during the Korean War, has been honoured with the PDSA’s Dickin Medal. The award is the equivalent of the Victoria Cross for animals. Reckless lived to be 20 years old despite being wounded twice. She died in 1968.
Reckless was bred to be a racehorse. The Marine Corps bought her for $250 in October 1952. “Reckless” nickname because she carried ammo for the Recoilless Rifle, a gun so dangerous it was called the “reckless” rifle.

In the course of one five-day fight, 28 tons of bombs were dropped. The terrain of the battlefield was described by Lieutenant Colonel Andrew Geer as “smoking, death-pocked rubble.” In one day, Reckless made 51 trips during the Outpost Vegas battle in 1953. She carried more than 9,000 pounds of supplies and walked more than 35 miles in that one day alone.

Brian Hutton, the author, nominated the Mongolian mare for the award after he spent six years researching and writing her biography. According to Hutton, “she was loved by the Marines, they took care of her better than they took care of themselves, throwing their flak jackets over her when the incoming fire was heavy. Her relationship with the soldiers underscores the vital role of animals in war, not just for their prowess and strength in battle, but for the support and camaraderie they provide to their fellow troops. There is no knowing a number of lives she saved.” The ceremony was held at Victoria Embankment Gardens on Wednesday. Hidalgo, the horse, received the award on Reckless’ behalf.

Maria Dickin founded the PDSA animal charity and established the Dickin Medal in 1943 to highlight acts of bravery by animals in war. Most of the awards have gone to carrier pigeons.

Approximately 37,000 US and 1,000 British soldiers died in the Korean War. The war lasted from June 25, 1950, to July 27, 1953.
(Via War History Online)

Awards

Marilyn may not have ever picked up an Oscar, but her many talents were recognized in a variety of ways during her lifetime.

During her school days, Norma Jeane won a fountain pen for her essay “Dog, Man’s Best Friend.” She also received a certificate “in recognition of the personal service rendered by her as a member of the School Safety Committee” at the Sawtelle Boulevard School.

  • Working for the war effort at the Radio Plane Munitions Factory in 1945, Norma Jeane Dougherty, won an “E” certificate for excellence.
  • “Miss Press Club” 1948, from the Los Angeles Press Club
  • “Miss Cheesecake of the Year,” 1951 Stars and Stripes
  • “The Present All GIs Would Like To Find in Their Christmas Stocking,” 1951
  • “The Best Young Box Office Personality,” 1951 Henrietta Awards
  • “The Girl Most Likely to Thaw Alaska,” Soldiers posted to the Aleutians
  • “The Girls Most Wanted to Examine,” the 7th Division Medical Corps
  • “The Girls They Would Most Like to Intercept,” the All Weather Fighter Squadron 3, San Diego
  • “Cheesecake Queen of 1952,” Stars and Stripes
  • “Most Promising Female Newcomer,” 1952 Look Magazine Achievement Awards
  • “The Most Advertised Girl in the World,” February 1953, Advertising Association of the West
  • “Fastest Rising Star of 1952,” Photoplay Magazine Awards, March 9, 1953
  • “Best Young Box Office Personality,” Spring, 1953, Redbook magazine
  • “The Best Friend a Diamond Ever Had,” July 1953, the Jewelry Academy
  • “Female World Film Favorite 1953,” March 1954 Golden Globe Awards
  • “Best Actress,” March, 1954 Photoplay Magazine awards for Gentlemen Prefer Blondes and How To Marry A Millionaire
  • “The Thank-God Award: To Marilyn Monroe, who in a sweeping public service has made no movies this year,” 1958, Harvard Lampoon
  • Nomination for 1956 British Academy Award, “Best Foreign Actress,” for The Seven Year Itch
  • Nomination for 1958 British Academy Award, “Best Foreign Actress,” for The Prince and the Showgirl
  • “Best Foreign Actress of 1958,” 1959, David Di Donatello Prize (Italian equivalent of the Oscar), for The Prince and the Showgirl
  • “1959 Best Actress in a Comedy,” March 8, 1960 Golden Globe Awards, for Some Like It Hot
  • “Female World Film Favorite 1961,” March 1962 Golden Globe Awards

Some Like It Hot and All About Eve scored positions fourteen and sixteen respectively in the American Film Institute’s 1998 list of America’s 100 Greatest Movies. In June 1999 Marilyn came sixth in the American Film Institute’s list of the top twenty-five female stars of all time.

 Since her death, Marilyn continues to top lists and polls of sex symbols. Sporadic suggestions that she should be awarded a posthumous Academy Award continue to fall on deaf ears.

- The Marilyn Encyclopedia by Adam Victor.

8

The 42 grandchildren (in-order) of Queen Victoria and her husband Prince Albert, the Prince consort. Including Kaiser Wilhelm II, George V of United Kingdom, and Empress Alexandra Feodorovna of Russia.

1. Wilhelm II, German Emperor. Born as Prince Friedrich Wilhelm Viktor Albert of Prussia, on 27th January 1859. The first grandchild of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert. Wilhelm became the Kaiser of Germany on 15th June 1888, until his abdication on 18th November 1918. He died in exile on 3rd June 1941 (aged 82). (”Willy”)
2. Princess Viktoria Elisabeth Auguste Charlotte of Prussia; 24th July 1860 - 19th October 1919 (aged 59). (”Ditta”,”Charly”)
3. Prince Albert Wilhelm Heinrich “Henry” of Prussia; 14th August 1862 - 20th April 1920 (aged 66). He married his first cousin, Irene of Hesse. (”Harry”)
4. Princess Victoria Alberta Elisabeth Mathilde Marie of Hesse and by Rhine, later Marchioness of Milford Haven; 5th April 1863 - 24th September 1950 (aged 87). Grandmother of Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, consort of Elizabeth II.
5. Prince Albert Victor Christian Edward of Wales, Duke of Clarence and Avondale; 8th January 1864 - 14th January 1892 (aged 28). (”Eddy”)
6. Prince Franz Friedrich Sigismund of Prussia; 15th September 1864 - 18th June 1866 (aged 1). The first grandchild of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert to die. (”Sigi”)
7. Princess Elisabeth Alexandra Louise Alice of Hesse and by Rhine, later Grand Duchess Elizabeth Feodorovna of Russia; 1st November 1864 - 18th July 1918 (aged 53). Elizabeth was politically executed by the bolsheviks. (”Ella”)
8. George V of United Kingdom. Born as Prince George Frederick Ernest Albert of Wales; 3rd June 1865 - 20th January 1936 (aged 70). He is the grandfather of Elizabeth II. (”Georgie”)
9. Princess Fredrik Amalia Wilhelmina Viktoria of Prussia; 12th April 1866 - 13th november 1929 (aged 63). (”Moretta”)
10. *Princess Irene Louise Marie Anne of Hesse and by Rhine; 11th July 1866 - 11th November 1953 (aged 87). Married her first cousin, Henry of Prussia.
11. Princess Louise Victoria Alexandra Dagmar of Wales, later Princess Royal; 20th February 1867 - 4th January 1931 (aged 63).
12. Prince Christian Victor Albert Ernst Anton of Schleswig-Holstein; 14th April 1867 - 29th October 1900 (aged 33). (”Christle”)
13. Prince Joachim Friedrich Ernst Waldemar of Prussia; 10th February 1868 - 27th March 1879 (aged 11). (”Waldy”)
14. Princess Victoria Alexandra Olga Mary of Wales; 6th July 1868 - 3rd December 1935 (aged 67). (”Toria”)
15. Prince Ernest Louis Karl Albert Wilhelm of Hesse and by Rhine, later Grand Duke of Hesse; 25th November 1868 - 9th October 1937. He married his first cousin, Victoria Melita of Saxe-Coburg and gotta and of Edinburgh on 1894, but divorced on 1901. (”Ernie”)
16. Prince Albert John Charles Frederick Alfred George of Schleswig-Holstein, later Duke of Schleswig-Holstein; 26th February 1869 - 27th April 1931.
17. Princess Maud Charlotte Mary Victoria of Wales, later Queen consort of Norway; 26th November 1869 - 20th November 1938.
18. Princess Victoria Louise Sophia Augusta Amelia Helena of Schleswig-Holstein, better known as Princess Helena Victoria; 3rd May 1870 - 13th March 1948. (”Snipe”,”Thora”)
19. Princess Sophia Dorothea Ulrik Alice of Prussia, later Queen consort of Greece; 14th June 1870 - 13th January 1932. 
20. **Prince Friedrich Wilhelm August Victor Leopold Louis of Hesse and by Rhine; 7th October 1870 - 29th May 1873. (”Frittie”)
21. Prince Alexander John of Wales; 6th April 1871 - 7th April 1871. Died in infancy.
22. Princess Margaret Beatrice Feodora of Prussia; 22th April 1872 - 22nd January 1954. (”Mossy”)
23. *Alexandra Feodorovna, Empress consort of Russia. Born as Princess Viktoria Alix Helena Louise Beatrice of Hesse and by Rhine; 6th June 1872 - 17th July 1918. The wife and consort of Nicholas II, last Tsar of Russia. She, along with her husband and their five children (OTMA and **Tsarevich Alexei) were politically executed by the bolsheviks. (”Alicky”,”Sunny”)
24. Princess Franziska Joseph Louise Augusta Marie Christina Helena of Schleswig-Holstein, better known as Princess Marie Louise; 12th August 1872 - 8th December 1956.
25. Princess Marie Viktoria Feodore Leopoldina of Hesse and by Rhine; 24th May 1874 - 16th November 1878. (”May”)
26. Hereditary Prince Alfred Alexander William Ernest Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, Prince of Edinburgh; 15th October 1874 - 6th February 1899.
27. Princess Marie Alexandra Victoria of Edinburgh, and Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, later Queen consort of Romania; 29th October 1875 - 18th July 1938. (”Missy”)
28. Princess Victoria Melita of Edinburgh, and Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, later Grand Duchess of Hesse, and Grand Duchess Viktoria Feodrovna; 25th November 1876 - 2nd March 1936. Married her first cousin, Ernest Louis, Grand Duke of Hesse. But divorced on 1901. (”Ducky”)
29. Prince Frederick Christian Augustus Leopold Edward Harald of Schleswig-Holstein; 12th May 1876 - 20th May 1876. Died in infancy.
30. Stillborn son of Princess Christian of Schleswig-Holstein, third daughter of Queen Victoria; 7th May 1877 - 7th May 1877.
31. Princess Alexandra Louise Olga Victoria of Edinburgh and Princess of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; 1st September 1878 - 16th April 1942. (”Sandra”)
32. Stillborn son of Duke of Edinburgh, second son of Queen Victoria; 13th October 1879 - 13th October 1879.
33. Princess Margaret Victoria Charlotte Augusta Norah of Connaught, later Crown Princess of Sweden; 15th January 1882 - 1st May 1920. (”Daisy”)
34. Prince Arthur Frederick Patrick Albert of Connaught; 13th January 1883 - 21st September 1938.
35. *Princess Alice Mary Victoria Augusta Pauline of Albany; 25th February 1883 - 3rd January 1981. The last grandchild of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert to die.
36. Princess Beatrice Leopoldine Victoria of Edinburgh, Princess and of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, later Duchess of Gallieria; 20th April 1884 - 13th July 1966.
37. Prince Charles Edward George Albert Leopold of Albany, later Duke of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha; 19th July 1884 - 6th March 1954. (”Charlie”)
38. Princess Victoria Patricia Helena Elizabeth of Connaught; 17th March 1886 - 12th January 1974. (”Pat”)
39. Prince Alexander of Battenberg, later Sir Alexander Mountbatten; 23rd November 1886 - 23rd February 1960.
40. *Princess Victoria Eugenie Julia Ena of Battenberg, later Queen consort of Spain; 24th October 1887 - 15th April 1969. (”Ena”)
41. **Prince Leopold Arthur Louis of Battenberg; 21st May 1889 - 23rd April 1922.
42. **Prince Maurice Victor Donald of Battenberg; 3rd october 1891 - 27th October 1914. The last grandchild of Queen Victoria and Prince Albert.

* = Carriers of Hemophilia
** = Suffered from Hemophilia

flickr

SR, Meridian, Mississippi, 1953 by Center for Railroad Photography & Art
Via Flickr:
Southbound Southern Railway Southerner passenger train slips past freight at Smith siding (east of Meridian, Mississippi) in July 1953. Photograph by J. Parker Lamb, © 2016, Center for Railroad Photography and Art. Lamb-01-105-04

HERStory Matters: Anthropologist, chemist, author, actor and civil rights activist Eslanda Goode Robeson was born on December 15, 1895.

Eslanda Cardozo Goode was born in Washington, DC. Her paternal great-grandfather was a Sephardic Jew whose family was expelled from Spain in the 17th century.Her grandfather was Francis Lewis Cardozo, the first Black treasurer of South Carolina. Her father, John Goode, was a law clerk in the War Department who later finished his law degree at Howard University. Eslanda had two older brothers, John Jr. and Francis. She attended the University of Illinois and later graduated from Columbia University in New York with a B. S. degree in chemistry. When then she started to work at New York-Presbyterian Hospital, she soon became the head histological chemist of Surgical Pathology, the first Black to hold such a position.

In 1920, Paul Robeson and Eslanda attended summer school at Columbia. One year later they married. Eslanda gave up her intentions to study medicine and supported her husband as his business manager. Eslanda worked at the hospital until 1925, when the career of her husband took more and more of her time. She spent time between Harlem, London and France in the following years.

The only child of the Robesons, Paul Jr, “Pauli” was born on November 2, 1927; Robeson was on a tour in Europe at that time. The marriage was strained and Eslanda suffered under the affairs of her husband. Robeson’s long-term liaison with Yolanda Jackson almost broke up the marriage, and Eslanda even agreed to a divorce at a time. Yet, despite all the setbacks and separations, the marriage endured as each of the two had needs that only the other could fill. Eslanda chose to “rise above Paul’s affairs,” but to stay married to him and pursue her own career.

In 1930, Eslanda published her first book, a biography of her husband: “Paul Robeson, Negro.” In 1931, the couple were living in London and became more estranged. Eslanda resumed her own career, taking acting parts in three movies over the next couple of years. She enrolled at the London School of Economics for anthropology and graduated in 1937. In England, she learned more about Africa. She made the first of three journeys to the continent, touring South and East Africa with her son in 1936.

With the signs of war imminent in Europe, the Robesons moved back to Harlem in 1938. Three years later, they moved to Enfield, Connecticut, to their estate, “The Beeches.” Eslanda earned her Ph.D. at the Hartford Seminary in 1946. Using her diary notes of her Africa trip, she completed her second book, “African Journey,” the same year. The book was unusual, as few books in those days dealt with Africa in the first place, and her perspective, as an African American woman, on women in black Africa was unique. The book’s publication was endorsed by Pearl Buck, whose husband was the head of the John Day publishing house. The book argued that Blacks should take pride in their African heritage.

Buck and Eslanda continued to work together. As a result, “American Argument” was published in 1949, a book of dialogues and comments, edited by Buck, in which Eslanda spoke on society, politics, gender roles, and race relations.

With the development of the cold war, the life of the Robesons changed dramatically. The couple had first visited the Soviet Union in 1934, were impressed by the apparent absence of racism, and agreed with the stance of communism against racism, colonization, and imperialism.With their pro-Soviet views, both became targets during the McCarthy days. Robeson’s career came to a standstill, their income dropped dramatically, and the Connecticut estate had to be sold.

On July 17, 1953. Eslanda, like her husband, was called to testify before the US Senate. Asked if she was a communist, she took the Fifth Amendment and challenged the legitimacy of the proceedings. Her passport was revoked until the decision was overturned in 1958. Fighting for the decolonization of Africa and Asia she continued to work for the Council on African Affairs and to write as the UN correspondent for the New World Review, a pro-Soviet magazine.

Once their passports had been returned, they flew to London and the Soviet Union. Eslanda made her third and final trip to Africa, attending the first postcolonial All-African Peoples’ Conference in Ghana in 1958. In 1963, she was diagnosed with breast cancer. She returned from Russia to the US and died in New York in December 1965.

A book about her life, “Eslanda,” was published in 2012. Get your copy at http://amzn.to/1T0CMne.