judging system

On bias, and whatnot

Anonymous said:

Hi I’m that anon that just gave u feedback. Anyway, I was thinking that maybe when u make those posts, adding any personal assumptions could be something u do unconsciously, especially when talking abt skaters u aren’t a fan of. Like using a certain skater as the epitome of very bad technique, demanding that most (if not all) jumps should be << or < and mentioning the Olympic oath. I think it’ll be better if u just point these errors out without those side comments. –
– In a way, those comments make it look like that skater is deliberately cheating and not doing anything, not working hard enough, instead of the real flaw that is the ISU judging system. Don’t worry, I don’t see u as a hater, but comments placed alongside those posts imo make it seem like u just dislike that skater. And yeah as I said, it’ll be better if u can judge diff skaters on the same standards. Anyway, thanks for your kind response :) (sorry this got super long again)
–AND I get that biases are unavoidable and u are trying ur best to keep things simple, but I hope u don’t do so at the expense of ppl thinking wrong abt other skaters. Your blog helped me learn so much about the sport and I really appreciate the effort! Again, thank you and sorry for these long-ass asks

Hey there, thanks for the clarification. I’m glad I understand what you’re referring to now. Honestly for one moment I was scared you were talking about my tendency to be partial to Yuzuru and to keep using him as examples in my tech posts - now that is something I won’t be able to change anytime soon.

We’re talking about Shoma, yes? So I’d like to clarify: no, I do not think he’s the epitome of bad technique. As I mentioned the other day, he is by no means the only skater on the circuit having a pre-rotation issue. I did use his jump as an example of PR in this info post of mine (which I think is the only one time when I brought this topic up completely unasked for), but that was because I was using the top 6 men as examples throughout the post, and among that group, Shoma is the only one with that issue.  

Now about this post, I did not write it with the purpose of demanding anything, The ask I received there was about why I appeared to treat Shoma’s jumps differently, so I was trying to explain that his jumping habits are quite visible and uniform across his toe loops, loops, flips, and Lutzes. I then went on to explain why, considering that fact, I’ve been opting to talk about his quad flip instead of the other jumps. True, I did say that based on my observation, I really ought to be demanding downgrade on everything except the Axel and maybe the Salchows. But that was by no means the main point of that post, and even if you take it to be the main point, I’d say it’s pretty factual: according to ISU rule, jumps pre-rotated by 180 degrees or more must be downgraded. You can argue with me about whether or not Shoma’s PR is visible enough in real time for the technical panel to make the call, but it remains a fact that, when you look at it closely, his PR is a thing that objectively exists.

By the way, technically his jumps should be called << for PR; I say nothing about the < call, which is used for under-rotation. In fact, I have said in no less than 3 separate occasions (here, here, and here) that Shoma doesn’t usually under-rotate his jumps. He might appear to, because of knee torque, but it’s usually not bad enough to merit a < call.

On my usage of the Olympic oath in a Shoma discussion, in that original post itself, I’ve heralded it by explicitly stating that it falls under the unsolicited part of my opinion. I have also tried to clarify my thinking further here, here, and here. I’d also like to point out that I’ve mentioned time and again that I never ever for one moment think that Shoma is not working hard enough. In fact, I probably mentioned it too much, because the last time I brought it up, I was given feedback that my comment came off as condescending - which is honestly completely not what I was aiming for.

That’s all I could think of to explain my point of view. I hope it helps clear things up.

Anonymous said:

I just want to say that I deeply appreciate every post you make, all the tech posts and gif posts and especially your posts sharing your personal opinions (they were the ones drawing my attention to your blog, and I love them!). I think the previous anon has no right to demand the things they said to you. If they want a pure technique info, just go google it. If they demand such a thing, they can either share their thoughts or simply unfollow.(I’m sorry,I feel really angry with that anon ask :(  

Anonymous said:

Hey, I’m sorry to see that you’ve been getting asks accusing you of bias. As far as I can see these people only know how to vaguely call you biased and aren’t able to actually point out where you were supposedly inaccurate in your posts. If you were really wrong, it would be easy for them to just point it out. It’s so very transparent of these guys to pose as neutral and unbiased saints when all they want is for you to stop criticizing their faves’ flaws. I say keep up your good work. 👍

Guys, thank you so much. I’m very happy you are not annoyed by my not-always-unbiased opinions :) I know that I have a heck of a lot of those especially when it comes to Yuzuru. I mean, lordy, I have a confession to make that the other day when I put his hydroblade jump entry next to one of Janny’s for a gifset, I blatantly cut off the part where he fell on his butt right under the spotlight (whereas she lander her jump perfectly) :)) I’m eternally grateful that no Janny fan has come forth to call me out on my borderline fraudulent and manipulative activity. 

For what it’s worth, even if it’s just about random stuff on the Internet, I do think that everyone should be held accountable for what they say and we should never encourage nor tolerate outright lies or defamation. I, however, do not have the full capacity to meditate on how every single line I write (and I do write a lot, unfortunately, please blame my natural wordy tendency) will be interpreted by every single person who will read it. If you have doubts about my intention/implication, do feel free to demand me to clarify it. I will do so, up to a certain limit, because I think that when I’ve explained myself thrice and you refuse to see the sense in it, we really should stop wasting each other’s time and agree to disagree.   

anonymous asked:

can you tell me what is so great about Hanyu's skating? I saw a bit of the men's free and honestly compared to Boyang Jin and Jason Brown's skate I felt Hanyu was dull in comparison aside from his jumps. I'm a casual fan of figure skating but don't watch it apart from recaps on TV and the Olympics. So I really don't know what is considered a good routine. What was the difference between Jin and Hanyu's skate that resulted in the 20 point difference in scores? Purely technically difficulty?

Thanks for asking.

Predominantly, yes, the technical difficulty was the difference between Boyang and Yuzuru. But there are other factors. Yuzuru’s spins are better than Boyang’s, too. And in general, Yuzuru has a better run of the blade, cleaner edges, and more effortless movement than Boyang. He also does more with his feet between the elements - more steps, more turns. This is important. Additionally, Boyang, while great, did have one or two landings that were questionable, while there was nothing questionable about anything Hanyu did.

It is very hard to compare two polar opposite programs. Boyang’s La Strada was extremely enjoyable, very fun and so will naturally appear more lively than Hanyu’s quieter Hope and Legacy. I enjoyed both programs very much, but for different reasons. I am not a particular fan of either skater, but I am very impressed by both. Both skaters, of course, have their weaknesses, but all skaters do, and Boyang’s have had a lot more press/fandom airtime than Hanyu’s. It was the right result, and both should be proud of themselves.

Now, onto Jason (who, I will freely admit, I love to pieces). Jason’s The Piano free skate is one of my favourite FS of all time, possibly one of the best-choreographed ever. One of the unfortunate things that we have seen happening in the last couple of years is the tying of PCS to TES. That is, land the big jumps, get bigger second mark scores even if you don’t really earn it. I had a ton of problems with how 4CC shook out in that regard and I also had some problems with the Worlds PCS for the same reason.

You see, Jason is one of the best PCS skaters in the world. He has fabulous line, incredible musical interpretation, great deep, clean edges, good speed, excellent transitions (that actually go with the music), great performance ability…the list goes on and on. Of all the active men in the US the only one who can beat him in this regard is Joshua Farris and we haven’t seen him since The Comeback was announced. And of all the skaters in the world…well, Jason should be right up near the top.

Jason’s PCS is still high at the moment, but now he is surrounded by skaters who maybe shouldn’t be getting that height on their PCS marks. Much as I enjoyed Boyang, 88 PCS - only one point behind Jason’s PCS in the FS at Worlds - was way too high. And do not even get me started on Chen’s PCS relative to the other US men.

I…hope that answered the question? I fear I may have gone on a little tangent there. Feel free to scold me and ask again if I didn’t…

anonymous asked:

Just curious - are you a fan of the IJS? what can be improved, in your opinion?

Thanks for asking!

I definitely prefer the IJS to the 6.0 system. The main reason for this is that the IJS gives so much more feedback to the skater. I know I found it enormously helpful, when I moved up from 6.0 to IJS levels. Under 6.0 I had no idea why I might have finished behind another skater, and no feedback on what I was doing well or what needed work. Under IJS, the information was all there at my fingertips. I under rotated this jump. I didn’t get credit for this spin. The judges thought I was lacking in this PCS category.

Of course, like any scoring system, it has its weaknesses, and things could be improved. For example, I’d like to see the system of fall deductions overhauled. A flat -1 no longer cuts it when the top skaters are scoring 100+ in the SP. But, you don’t want to make it -5 either, because that hurts the skaters who aren’t scoring as high. My idea would be to make it a percentage of the base value - say, 50%. That way, the deduction is tailored to the value of the element, which allows for deductions that affect both the high-scoring and the lower-scoring skaters equally, without unduly punishing one or the other. And GOE for a fall has to be -3 (or -5 if they’re bringing that in). None of this “take -3 from what you would have given the jump” rubbish. I also don’t believe you should be able to get +GOE on jumps that are <, <<, e or !.

Additionally, I’d like to see mandatory required deductions in PCS for falls or major errors. You shouldn’t be getting 10s if you just fell on your ass. You just shouldn’t. I don’t care how great the rest of the program was.


I had to. She cheated on me; The murder of Brittany Green

On December 3rd 2010, 16 year old Melvin Skeete Jr. From Whitney Pier, NS and his 17 year old girlfriend Brittany Green from Glace Bay, NS, who were only in a relationship for four months, were spending a night together drinking and doing drugs at Skeete’s grandfather’s house. At some point in the night, Melvin became enraged with Brittany after discovering she had cheated on him and proceeded to attack her.

Skeete first bludgeoned Brittany and then stabbed her a total of 104 times and used a total of four knives, two of which broke off at the handle and were lodged in Brittany’s left side. Besides the amount of wounds sustained to her body, this shows the anger and determination Skeete had to kill Brittany as he kept retrieving more knives to continue the stabbing to make sure she was dead. 

A family friend had showed up to the house to drop off some food for Melvin’s grandfather and found Melvin kneeling next to Brittany’s mutilated, blood soaked body. Shocked, the woman called the police and when they arrived on the scene told them that when Skeete saw her he just said “I had to. She cheated on me. I had to kill her.”

Minutes later, Skeete was found by police walking down a road close to the crime scene and was taken into custody. He was under the influence of prescription pills and moonshine and claims he did not remember anything from that night until he woke up in jail the next morning.

Because of his age at the time of the murder it was uncertain if Skeete would be tried as an adult or a youth offender. But due to the obvious overkill and viciousness of the attack the judge on the case decided that he should be charged as an adult.

In January of 2013, Melvin Skeete Jr. was found guilty of 2nd degree murder and sentenced to life in prison. During the judge’s sentencing, Skeete who is known to have violent outbursts disrupted the court by taunting the victim’s family telling them “You guys ain’t gonna break me, I’ll still be smiling.” When being lead out of the court room he started to scream “fuck these people, man! Fuck the judge, fuck the police, and fuck the system.”

The judge described Skeete as a “very dangerous young man” and ruled that a youth sentence would not have held him accountable for the horrific crime he committed and is considered a high risk to re-offend.

Skeete automatically received credit for his time served since his arrest in 2010. He was ordered to provide a sample for the national DNA database and will have a life time weapons ban. Skeete will be eligible for parole on December 3rd, 2017.

The Day Before Worlds thoughts
  • Medvedeva is so bored she’s become a triple triple factory. Is she gonna #yolo the judging system and throw an invalid triple for shits and giggles (again)?
  • Pogorilaya skates last. Oh man. If that’s not the ultimate test for one’s nerves I don’t know what it is. It’s like hmmm okay Anna okay you’ve been consistent all season. But are you really consistent?
  • Hongo is probably dreading this competition more than anyone. She knows she’s gonna make a mess, she can’t avoid it but she’s trying to accept it. 
  • Kostner’s lutz is back. Is she gonna land everything? *drum roll*
  • Osmond has yet to keep her butt off the ice in the FS
  • I know everyone is excited about Tursynbaeva landing quads in practice but. Have you seen her lately? Is she cured of the tano disease? 
  • Bell and (Karen) Chen are almost as unpredictable as the men’s FS
  • Someone somewhere will call Mai Mihara Mai Miyahara 
  • The weight of Japan is on Mihara and Higuchi’s shoulders. Mihara has proven she can take it but it’s a big challenge for Higuchi 
  • It’s the last competition before Marin Honda is crowned the queen of JSF, enjoy it. Or dread it, there’s no in between. 
  • Haven’t seen Wagner in a while and it hasn’t been a good season for her. She can either pull herself together or - you know. 
  • Can you believe Gracie Gold isn’t here wow 
  • Will the Chen vs Hanyu battle live up to the hype or are they gonna sing some pop songs while Fernandez #yolos his way to his 3rd gold medal 
  • Will Uno survive after 1001 competitions this season 
  • Will Jin get it together
  • Will Chan get it together 
  • Actually, will any of the men get it together 
  • Oh yeah Denis Ten still exists 
  • The men’s event can only go two ways: Guinness record for most number of quads landed in a competition vs Razzie record for most number of splats splatted in a competition 
  • Pairs and dance… idk man I hope Sui/Han win and I’m pretty sure Papadakis/Cizeron won’t defend their title. 
KS Fandom Justice System

Judge: On the charge of murder in the first degree, how does the persecution find the defendants? 

Fandom: We find the defendant Oh Sangwoo to be guilty as charged. 

Judge: And the other…? 

Fandom: We find the defendant Yoon Bum to be smol and in need of protection.

Guide to Produce 101

(based on s1)

This is generally how Produce 101 season 1 went. Season 2 will most likely have a few changes and probably some improvements (or quite possibly some downgrades), so don’t take this as a guide to how season 2 will run. This is just for anybody curious about how the show went down.

I would recommend watching Season 1, as it was really good and emotional, and I.O.I are actual treasures on this earth.

If I am missing something, let me know! If anybody has any questions too, I will definitely answer them! I love Produce 101 so much, and I’m hoping for this season’s success as well!

Keep reading

Things YoI Fans/Ficcers Should Know About Skating (#6)


I think, because the show focused on the Grand Prix Final, a lot of YoI Fans are convinced that this is the ultimate title a skater wants. #NotSoSaidtheFormerSkater

Yuuri sort of gives us an overview of the skating season in the show, but here’s the thing I see missed a lot. Is that everyone makes the GPF the Biggest BFD. Here’s a normal season rundown, in order of scheduling with some really simple explanations:

1. Grand Prix Series and Final: We know all about this one from watching YoI. (If you’re not at Grand Prix qualifying level, you can compete in the ISU (International Skating Union) Challenger Series for senior-level competitors. You probs won’t see this series on TV. It was introduced in the 2014-2015 season and I only know about it because my sister is a coach). 

2.Nationals: generally held before the other ISU competitions, but varies by country). Placement at Nationals generally determines whether you move onto the rest of the season and most importantly, whether you get to compete at the World Figure Skating Championship. For example: up until this year, if you won gold at the American Nationals, you were guaranteed a spot on the World Team. (This rule has recently changed and probably because the US Federation doesn’t want to send a “lucky” team to World’s because it’s an Olympic selection year. Before you rag on the USFSA, know that skating had to get a new judging system not that long ago because it was SO shady. This isn’t uncommon for any Federation).

3. European Championship (All the European Countries compete against each other. Skaters from anywhere outside of Europe CANNOT compete. Victor could skate here, Yuuri could not). 

4. Four Continents Championships: All the other countries compete here. 

5. World Junior Championships (for those in the Junior level)

6. WORLD FIGURE SKATING CHAMPIONSHIPS: Always a huge deal, because who doesn’t want to be best in the WORLD. This is a HUGE deal for an Olympic Selection Year. Because how your country places at World’s determines the number of skaters and/or teams your allowed to send for each discipline to the Winter Olympics. 


As a skater, these events are the most important: Olympics (if it’s an Olympic year), Worlds (all the time). Then is the GPF (because it’s like mini-Worlds), then Four Continents/Europeans. Then Nationals (cuz who doesn’t like proving they’re the best in their country every year). 

As always, keep making history, and if you have any questions, I am happy to answer them. And Toepick, my sister who coaches) is on standby to handle the ones I don’t know. Just hit up the ask!

Originally posted by owarus

Rafael Barba / Threats (Part Two)

Here is the conclusion to Threats! I really had fun writing this story, and I hope everyone enjoyed it! If anyone has any requests, please drop an ask or a message. I’m way more free since classes are over now. Please enjoy!

Here’s Part One if you missed it! 

Originally posted by seekret-fanfic

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Ariana’s Figure Skating Masterpost

Okay, so as a figure skater, I love Yuri on Ice… But as a figure skater I am begging you to PLEASE do research on figure skating before you write YOI fanfics because if I see the word ‘twirl’ one more time I am going to shit a brick.

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Core Descriptions of the Cognitive Functions

Submitted by: jungneuropsychology

So, a lot of people have trouble with identifying the cognitive functions, mainly because on the internet most blogs will tell you what the functions DO, instead of what the functions ARE. So with this post I aim to destroy that confusion.

First of All: What is the outer world? And what is the inner world?

Yeah, yeah, we all have that: “The inner world is the world in your head and the outer world is the physical world”, but do you know what’s actually going on in your head? What this inner world consists of? No? Then, how can you tell what the inner world is?

The inner subjective world is the world that consists in all of your accumulated beliefs and values. Your mental map if you will.

Beliefs are everything that you consider as true or false. From “the bike is red” to “God created the universe”.

Values are everything that you consider as good or bad. From “telling a joke is a good thing” to “The subject of the joke is a bad thing”.

The outer objective world is the world that consists in all of the observable beliefs and values. The physical world if you will.

While it comes clear that the inner world is not limited to abstract or concrete, without being very difficult to understand how can one have subjective values, because values are literally subjective. The outer world is also not limited to abstract or concrete, there are objects, that we can tell for sure, in the same way there are memories of images and songs in your head, but there are also more or less hidden cause - effect principles in the outer world that our intuition regardless of it’s attitude catches. And objective values, are objective in a way that they consider important what most of other people consider important, or what they think most of other people consider important, those other people’s values might be subjective themselves but they are “objective” in their numbers, this is why they are called objective values.

Emotions =/= Feeling. I just want to make this clear, everybody has feelings, feelers don’t have more feelings than thinkers, the Feeling function works with values, not emotions, what is desirable, not what is instinctively pre-programmed in our brain due to our human nature. Sure, some of those values may come from feelings, but that’s a different story.

As a side note. Sensitivity has nothing to do with your MBTI type, the same as intelligence has nothing to do with your MBTI type. There are some times that are more sensitive or more intelligent than others on average, but that’s the final point where it extends, on average. There are S types with <170 IQ outsmarting dozens of N types.

But if you wonder, there is an objective (commonly agreed to measure) sensitivity test just like there’s an IQ test for intelligence. And the types with the highest scores on average were: INFP, INFJ, INTP and INTJ. Yes, you heard that right. Remember that these are only on average. Hypersensitivity doesn’t mean that others don’t suffer, it only means that you take it harder than other people.

You might want to keep these “inner world” and “outer world” definitions separated from the definitions of the cognitive functions they are working with.

Cognitive Functions or Functions-Attitudes, as C.G.Jung called them, are the basic functions of: Sensing, Intuition, Thinking and Feeling, whose dominance manifestations we can see in one’s natural behavior and preferences on the test, combined with the attitudes of either introversion and extroversion. But what does that mean? 

Well, the core definitions of introversion and extroversion are as follows:

Introversion => Focus and trust on the inner world.

Extroversion => Focus and trust on the outer world.

For this reason an introvert is never limited only to the inner world but only focused on the inner world. The opposite is true for extroverts. And the same is true for the cognitive functions, but how?

Sensing => All perceptions by means of the sense organs.

Intuition => Perception by way of the unconscious, or perception of unconscious events.

Thinking => Interpretation of information based on whether it is correct or incorrect.

Feeling => interpretation of information based on whether it is good or bad.

To answer the question “but how ?”: By combining the functions with the attitudes. In forms of focus and trust of the respective attitude. So:

Introverted Sensing => Perceptions by means of the sense organs with focus and trust on the inner world.

Extroverted Sensing => All perceptions by means of the sense organs with focus and trust on the outer world.

Introverted Intuition => Perception by way of the unconscious, or perception of unconscious events.

Extroverted Intuition => Perception by way of the unconscious, or perception of unconscious events with focus and trust on the outer world.

Introverted Thinking => Interpretation of information based on whether it is correct or incorrect with focus and trust on the inner world.

Extroverted Thinking => Interpretation of information based on whether it is correct or incorrect with focus and trust on the outer world.

Introverted Feeling => Interpretation of information based on whether it is good or bad with focus and trust on the inner world.

Extroverted Feeling => Interpretation of information based on whether it is good or bad with focus and trust on the outer world.

Both attitudes do perceive and judge both the inner world and the outer world, they are NOT limited to one world as it is usually assumed. The difference stands in the world they trust when making their judgment and the world they focus on.

How does that work? For example: You have ideas that either came from the inner world of whatever garbage you have on that map or the outer world of whatever you noticed in reality. On which of them do you focus more?

Here’s a little warning for fellow Introverted Intuitives: All ideas could be wrong or right, but unlike Extroverted Intuition who looks at America and France and says “America is like France in this way because of that” you might look at a drop of water and realize how the universe is this and that”, so you need to be especially careful with your intuition. Don’t bring down your morale, there’s always assumed information, but apply your judging function to your own perception.

Now that you have that idea, or someone gave you an idea and you understood that idea, is that idea correct or incorrect? How do you find out? Do you trust more the outer world and see whether that happens in reality or the inner world and see whether that makes sense in your head? One would look at the facts while the other would look at the theory and this is where we make transition between what the functions ARE and what the functions DO.

Those were the core definitions. What that means is that the introverted functions subconsciously ask the question: “How does that relate to my map?”, therefore having the well-known tendency to deep and narrow. They look at their inner map in terms of whatever that function does.

Ni does so with perception by way of the unconscious, or perception of unconscious events; and Si does so with perceptions by means of the sense organs. And so on. That inner world is ironically changed by the new beliefs and values that come from the outer world, or to be more precise, the interaction with the outer world.

The extroverted functions work directly with what is there and the introverted functions work directly with what is perceived from there. The extroverted functions work with both what is in the inner and the other world but trust the outer world more, and the introverted work with both the inner and the outer world (concerning their domain) but trust more the inner world. There’s a big difference between only working with one world and working with both but trusting one over the other.

While extroverted functions don’t ask that question, they see how that relates to reality, and look at what is there in reality (by this I mean in the objective outer world, not necessarily truth, because your, and all of us’ perceptions of the outer world are not completeand trust the reality in terms of whatever their function is, over their inner map. Therefore having the well-known tendency for wide and shallow.

That doesn’t mean that when an Si user is going to be hit by a car, he’s not going to move because he remembers he’s been hit by a car once and survived, but because he also has in that map of his Ne understood ideas that if I survived once that doesn’t make it a pattern, and that if you get hit by a car you’re very likely to die which his parents told him when he was little. After he got what his parents said, he went to Ti or Te to find out if that would really happen, and because of his personal judging system, either he saw people dying that way, he saw it on the news, or he took his parent’s word for it, we don’t know; he believes that’s true. And either Fi or Fe says death is bad.

By this, it should become quite clear that you can’t have both Si and Se. You can’t trust both your inner world and the outer world on your perceptions made by the sense organs, one of them has to be trusted more, one of them has to be focused more on. Fi users will trust subjective values while Fe users will trust objective values, one cannot do both for sometimes they are conflicting.

You can’t focus on both of them at the same time, just like handedness. While there are ambidextrous people when it comes to handedness this doesn’t happen in MBTI’s cognitive functions.

I hope this helped. I tried to be very specific in my choice of words, due to the completely abstract nature of the subject at hand you can’t explain it with non-specific words, 50 people would simply interpret it in 50 different ways. 

Whether the cognitive functions are real or not I cannot tell. They are not physical things to be seen so it all comes down to a theory. As far as I’ve heard, there are some scientific evidence for them but I haven’t looked into that so this is only what I’ve heard. Remember that MBTI is something made to explain, not something being explained.

  • Me, sitting on top of your fridge: judging the house system only by traits presented in the sorting hat song neglects a more thorough understanding of the complexity of house traits that can be gained through textual analysis
  • You, hitting me with a broom: how did you get in my house
Why Ableism Matters to You, Even if You are Not Disabled:

I made a thing. I drew it in response to  this essay that Son of Baldwin posted on Twitter. Especially this line: “ In many ways, I believe ableism is the root bigotry of humanity.” So I took that metaphor and made it visual.

Image description: A black and white tabloid sized poster in the style of an educational diagram, showing a tree and its root system, combined with text.

At the bedrock level: “BIGOTRY: Beliefs and policies which work to exclude people from full membership in human society.”

In the root system: “ABLEISM: Judging the value of a person’s humanity on the basis of ability.”

The trunk has two forks; the left-hand fork is labeled “RACISM:” and leads to an example racist belief in its cluster of leaves: “Blacks are Less Intelligent than Whites, but they are More Athletic.”

The right-hand fork is labeled “SEXISM:” and leads to two clusters of leaves. The main cluster reads: “Women are Weaker, & Less Rational than Men;” the secondary cluster reads: “Gays are effeminate. Lesbians are emasculating.”

The top cluster of leaves, centered between these two branches, with a freely curving arrow pointing down to each half, reads: “Claims about Ability used to Pass Judgment on People’s Humanity (This is ABLEISM)”

Description ends.]

It may become part of a larger essay on how ableism 1) fuels other bigotries and 2) impedes solidarity and resistance to oppression (Consider this Fig. 1, out of X number of illustrative figures). But I’m not sure how long it will take for me to write that longer essay, and I wanted to start the discussion now.

P.S.: If you repost this without the image description, then you’d be excluding people with vision and text impairments from the discussion.  And that would be a schmuck, bigoted, thing to do. Don’t be a bigoted schmuck.

Chapter Thirty-One

I thought the next time I stepped foot on Australian soil would be for a family reunion or some sort of Christmas gathering. Never in my wildest dreams did I think I would be back in my home country to attend a trial. Let alone for that of my kidnapper, rapist, and biological father of my child.

The trial would last three days. The first day I was required to testify. The second day Robb was going to be called to the witness stand. The third day the jury would deliver their verdict.

I had adamantly refused to let Robb take the stand. I didn’t want him in the same room as Jonah let alone having to testify against him but the states lawyer had insisted and unless the judge decided that he didn’t want to hear evidence from Robb, there was nothing I could do.

It was the first day of the trial and I had gotten my aunt to babysit Robb so that my parents and Richard could all accompany me to the trial. I was glad they were coming as I wasn’t sure I would be strong enough to face Jonah again on my own.

I didn’t even know what to wear to court. On the one hand, I knew I needed to dress smartly and formally as it was a court case, but on the other hand, I wanted to hide my body as much as possible. I didn’t want Jonah to be looking at any of my exposed flesh, I didn’t want to look desirable to him.

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