Io: Moon over Jupiter : How big is Jupiters moon Io? The most volcanic body in the Solar System, Io is 3,600 kilometers in diameter, about the size of planet Earths single large natural satellite. Gliding past Jupiter at the turn of the millennium, the Cassini spacecraft captured this awe inspiring view of active Io with the largest gas giant as a backdrop, offering a stunning demonstration of the ruling planets relative size. Although in the featured picture Io appears to be located just in front of the swirling Jovian clouds, Io hurtles around its orbit once every 42 hours at a distance of 420,000 kilometers or so from the center of Jupiter. That puts Io nearly 350,000 kilometers above Jupiters cloud tops, roughly equivalent to the distance between Earth and Moon. In July, NASAs Juno satellite began orbiting Jupiter and will sometimes swoop to within 5,000 kilometers of Jupiters cloud tops. via NASA

Samus and the Hunters

- Samus’s Chozo DNA grants her a much higher aerobic capacity: Assuming she remains hydrated and fed, she can run a 7-8 minute mile pace indefinitely.

- Although Samus is often a loner, she has conducted many missions with other Hunters. They all agree that while she is very capable, she is hard to work with.

- Samus has a centuries-old archive of music from various species, and will play music to herself often through her helmet.

- Rundas, like other Phrygisians, is a mesotherm. His body temperature adjusts based on his surroundings, to keep his internal temperature at -25° Centigrade. This is so the gases in Rundas’s blood remain a liquid instead of boiling out. How ge can maintain his high level of activity with such a low temperature is still being studied.

- Rundas often tries to be funny, but his jokes are usually obtuse or simply not funny. He thinks he’s hilarious.

- Gandrayda and other Jovians are unusual life-forms, with a conductive metal skeleton that generates a powerful inverted magnetic field to hold their body plasma together. Galactic Federation scientists are still studying the mechanics of these organisms.

- Gandrayda is notorious for practical jokes involving electricity and magnetism, such as blacking out computer terminals, or using static to stick various objects to colleague’s armor.

- Ghor’s affinity for technology makes him a valuable computer scientist as well as a Hunter; Many of the Galactic Federation’s weapons and vehicles are based on his designs.

- Ghor, when not in armor, often works with Samus to store archived music, video, literature, and artwork. Together, they’ve indexed almost all the complete work of many species.

Cosmic Magick Terminology 🌟

Some terminology I use in my practice.

Astral - connected to or resembling the stars

Celestial - relating to the sky or outer space

Celestial Body - any natural body that exists outside of Earth’s atmosphere

Chaos - the void before the universe or cosmos was created

Cosmic - relating to the universe or cosmos

Jovian - relating to Jupiter

Lunar - relating to the Moon

Martian - relating to Mars

Mercurian - relating to Mercury

Neptunian - relating to Neptune

Planetary - relating to the planets

Plutonian - relating to Pluto

Saturnian - relating to Saturn

Solar - relating to the Sun

Stellar - relating to the stars

Uranian - relating to Uranus

Venusian - relating to Venus

Zodiac - a circle of celestial longitude divided into 12 sections, each section represented by a different astrological sign


Case Study: Clefable

Curiously, the arrival of Clefable on Earth has resulted in a number of rapid and significant mutations in their DNA. The timid and flighty nature of most Clefable, coupled with their often remote locations, has made the study of these Pokemon difficult. However, enough observation has taken place to be able to identify most of the divergent subspecies.

Mercury: Swift and agile, Mercurial Clefable are suited for acrobatic flight,  possessing a more slender body and lighter structurethan the standard Lunar Clefable. They are found in alpine ridges, and rarelyin tall, old growth forest.

Venus: Venusian Clefable are quite bold in comparison to their counterparts, sometimes actively searching out human contact and companions. There were attempts to domesticate this subspecies for Pokecenter duty shortly after their discovery due to their perceived closeness to the Chansey line. However, these experiments were abandoned after the Clefable showed an incredible inclination towards jealous and possessive behavior. Many became quite territorial over their individual trainers- attacking human and Pokemon alike when they were approached. Mainly found along the ocean shore, hidden among cliffs and other rocky outcroppings.

Mars: A great contrast to the timid disposition of all other subspecies, Martian Clefable are savage, brutish creatures. In lieu of wings, they possess a second pair of arms, as well as large, rending teeth. Their fur is more red in hue, akin to rust. They live primarily near volcanoes, or deep underground, limiting their exposure to humans.

Jupiter: Extremely rare, the number of documented images of Jovian Clefable can be counted on one hand. They appear to have a bright, golden luster to their coat, and possess an additional pair of arms and wings in addition to a third eye. Alleged witnesses claim they have an unsettling, eerie air about them, and recall the feeling of being watched very intently. They have only been seen on “holy” ground, or sites of spiritual importance.

Saturn: Although similar in appearance to Lunar Clefable, Saturnine Clefable notably have the ability to regenerate the flesh of themselves and others, and accelerate growth of natural flora- indeed, flowers of an undeterminable species can be seen growing directly from their skin. They can be found in any kind of deep forest, from tropical rainforests to coniferous taiga.

Neptune: Found in lightless aquatic caves, Neptunian Clefable are adapted for a life underwater. Gill ridges can be seen prominently on the neck, and their limbs have become flat and webbed for propulsion. The tail has become uncurled as well, aiding in swimming. Only traces of their fur coat remain, the hair thin and their skin smooth and slick to the touch.

Uranus: The only documentation of Uranian Clefable exist in written and verbal format, so the exact parameters of their appearance are not known. Eyewitnesses accounts report a nebulous, shifting form with colors that reflect the time of day: light blue or grey at daylight, followed by a deep navy or black after sunset. Small bioluminescent spots appear as “stars” when they shift into their nighttime coat. Their habitat is unknown.

Pluto: Strange, pale creatures, not much is known about Plutonian Clefable. Found only in the deepest caves, many of them spend their entire lives without being exposed to any kind of light.


haaaaa i love clefable. jupiter is my favorite 

EDIT: added venus and uranus b/c i couldn’t think of variations for them originally

Galileo Galilei  (1564-1642)

Autograph notes on the satellites of Jupiter, 14–25 January 1611

Purchased by J. P. Morgan, Jr. in 1928

MA 1064

The Morgan Library & Museum

Item description from The Morgan Library: “On this scrap of paper (an unfolded envelope), Galileo recorded the positions of four satellites of Jupiter over a period of several nights. He had observed the moons with the aid of his newly constructed telescope and published his findings in his revolutionary book The Starry Messenger (1610). He then worked to define more precisely the periods of the orbits of the Jovian moons, setting up his telescope night after night and making notes such as these. In a radical departure from his university training, Galileo insisted that scientific theory be grounded in observation and physical evidence rather than reliance on ancient authority.”

Explorers on a frigid extrasolar world marvel at a bizarre, gargantuan monolith apparently composed of ice. In fact, this strange formation is a virus-like, self-assembling silicon/protein-based pseudo-organism employing ice crystals as a structural building material. These entities “grow” only in mountainous regions where geological veins of specific mineral concentration occur close to the surface, usually iron ore containing significant traces of tungsten and molybdenum. Conductive metallic needles, uniquely compounded from the above elements, sprout from the top of the crystalline formation to collect the substantial radio energy produced by the magnetosphere of the world’s super-Jovian fluid giant host. This radio energy is converted into exploitable electric current and employed in the electrolysis of various gases and organic compounds necessary for the growth and maintenance of the exotic crystalline form.

tldr; organosilicon “trees” made of ice feed on radio energy rather than visible light.

cosmic witchcraft 101: saturnian magick ♄

Saturn is the sixth planet from the Sun. Like the other gas giants, scientists can’t be exactly sure how Saturn formed, but many believe its breathtaking rings have been there since the very beginning. One theory posits that the rings were once an early moon of Saturn whose orbit brought it closer and closer to Saturn where eventually it was ripped apart by tidal forces; a large collision may also have destroyed it. Another theory suggests that the rings are leftover material from the area of the solar system’s primordial nebula where Saturn formed. The Grand Tack Hypothesis, which explains our solar system’s formation through a theoretical Jovian migration to as far inward as Mars, suggests that Saturn getting locked in orbital resonance with Jupiter during its migration forward prevented Jupiter from going all the way through the inner solar system.


  • Saturn is the second largest planet, but the least dense one. Saturn is less dense than water.
  • It takes Saturn 29.7 years to travel around the Sun and about 10.5 hours for a complete Saturnian day.
  • Saturn’s largest moon, Titan, is larger than the planet Mercury. It’s not that much smaller than Mars, and is second in moon size only to Jupiter’s Ganymede.
  • Just about every 30 years, a Great White Spot appears as a storm on Saturn’s atmosphere. The next appearance will be near the year 2020.
  • Saturn has more than 60 moons.
  • When Galileo originally discovered Saturn’s rings, he thought they were two moons on either side of the planet.
  • In 2010, a huge storm appeared on the surface of Saturn - it was so big it wrapped around the entire planet.
  • Saturn is the furthest planet from Earth that can be seen without the aid of a telescope or binoculars.
  • Magnification of about 30x is needed to see Saturn’s rings, which can be achieved with a large pair of binoculars or a small telescope. 

Magickal Correspondences*

Colors: yellow, black, purple

Intents: discipline, overcoming fears, breaking boundaries, limitations, uncovering reality, structure, responsibility, endurance, long-term plans, order, growth, manifestation

Herbs: dills seed, daffodil, hemlock, holly, witch hazel, nightshade, bluebell, indigo, mandrake, yew, myrrh, garlic, patchouli, cypress

Crystals: lapis lazuli, onyx, hematite, blue sapphire, amethyst, obsidian, smoky quartz, black tourmaline, yellow jade, yellow calcite

*some of these correspondences are based on traditional associations and some are based on my personal associations

The possession of a good rifle, as well as the skill to use it well, truly makes a man the monarch of all he surveys, it realizes the ancient dream of the Jovian thunderbolt, and as such it is the embodiment of personal power.
—  Jeff Cooper, The Art of the Rifle
cosmic witchcraft 101: jovian magick ♃

Jupiter is the fifth planet from the Sun. Due to its massive size, there are multiple ways the planet could have formed. Regardless of its formation process, some scientists believe that Jupiter migrated inward right up to the orbit of Mars after its initial formation. This is referred to as the Grand Tack Hypothesis. In the early solar system, Neptune and the other outer planets may have begun interacting with icy planetesimals, sending comets from one planet to the next, causing Uranus, Neptune, and Saturn to move outwards as the comets moved inwards. When the comets reached Jupiter, the planet’s massive gravity flung the comets into highly elliptical orbits or out of the solar system entirely and Jupiter migrated inwards to conserve angular momentum.

As it made its way towards the Sun, Jupiter’s gravity would have prevented the asteroid belt material from forming into planets and swept away large amounts of material that may have made Mars more massive. Thanks to Saturn, Jupiter stopped its inward migration and turned around, settling approximately where we see it today. As Jupiter moved inward and Saturn moved outward, it’s theorized that they became locked in a 3:2 orbital resonance, with Saturn finishing 3 orbits around the Sun for Jupiter’s 2. Jupiter’s migration may have also brought icy and gaseous material into the inner solar system, helping the inner planets form their atmospheres and perhaps even providing those vital life-giving compounds we can thank for our existence today.


  • Jupiter produces more heat than it receives from the Sun.
  • Jupiter is more than twice as massive as all the other planets combined.
  • The planet has at least 67 moons.
  • Jupiter is NOT a failed star. The smallest stars in the observable universe have about 1/12 of the Sun’s mass, and Jupiter has about 1/1000th of the Sun’s mass. Jupiter is simply a colossal planet.
  • The Great Red Spot is larger than Earth. It’s a colossal hurricane that’s been going on since the 17th century, maybe even before that.
  • Jupiter rotates faster than any of the other planets; a Jovian day is only about 10 Earth hours. It takes 11.86 years to orbit around the Sun.
  • Lighter stripes along the planet are called zones and darker stripes are called belts. They flow in opposite directions and turbulence between regions causes the Jupiter’s storms.

Magickal Correspondences*

Colors: red, white, yellow, brown, purple

Intents: growth, expansion, prosperity, justice, exploration, freedom, protection, spiritual evolution, success, meditation, psychic development, confidence, storm magick

Herbs: frankincense, rosemary, oak, cedar, nutmeg, sage, anise, catnip, sandalwood, rosehips, dandelion, fennel, tansy

Crystals: tin, amethyst, lepidolite, sugilite, lapis lazuli, sapphire, diamond, agate, antimony, rhodocrosite, aragonite, jasper, onyx, amber

*some of these correspondences are based on traditional associations and some are based on my personal associations