john kipling

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The Jungle Book

136 in x of animated feature film history
Release: Oct. 18th, 1967
Country: USA
Director: Wolfgang Reitherman

“The Jungle Book was inspired by the 1894 book of the same name by English author Rudyard Kipling. Directed by Wolfgang Reitherman, it was the last film to be produced by Walt Disney, who died during its production. The plot follows Mowgli, a feral child raised in the Indian jungle by wolves, as his friends Bagheera the panther and Baloo the bear try to convince him to leave the jungle before the evil tiger Shere Khan arrives.

After The Sword in the Stone was released, storyman Bill Peet claimed to Walt Disney that ‘we [the animation department] can do more interesting animal characters’ and suggested that Kipling’s The Jungle Book could be used for the studio’s next film. Disney agreed and Peet created an original treatment, with little supervision, as he had done with One Hundred and One Dalmatians and The Sword in the Stone. However, after the disappointing reaction to The Sword in the Stone, Walt Disney decided to become more involved in the story than he had been with the past two films, with his nephew Roy E. Disney saying that ‘[he] certainly influenced everything about it. (…) With Jungle Book, he obviously got hooked on the jungle and the characters that lived there.’

Peet decided to follow closely the dramatic, dark, and sinister tone of Kipling’s book, which is about the struggles between animals and man. However, the film’s writers decided to make the story more straightforward, as the novel is very episodic, with Mowgli going back and forth from the jungle to the Man-Village, and Peet felt that Mowgli returning to the Man-Village should be the ending for the film. Some plot points were taken from Kipling’s 1895 novel The Second Jungle Book. 

Disney was not pleased with how the story was turning out, as he felt it was too dark for family viewing and insisted on script changes. Peet refused, and after a long argument, Peet left the Disney studio in January 1964. Disney then assigned Larry Clemmons as his new writer and one of the four story men for the film, giving Clemmons a copy of Kipling’s book, and telling him: ‘The first thing I want you to do is not to read it.’ Clemmons still looked at the novel, and thought it was too disjointed and without continuity, needing adaptations to fit a film script. Although much of Bill Peet’s work was discarded, the personalities of the characters remained in the final film.

Many familiar voices inspired the animators in their creation of the characters and helped them shape their personalities. This use of familiar voices for key characters was a rarity in Disney’s past films. The staff was shocked to hear that a wise cracking comedian, Phil Harris was going to be in a Kipling film. Disney suggested Harris after meeting him at a party. Harris improvised most of his lines, as he considered the scripted lines ‘didn’t feel natural’. After Harris was cast, Disneyland Records president Jimmy Johnson suggested Disney to get Louis Prima as King Louie, as he ‘felt that Louis would be great as foil’. Walt also cast other prominent actors such as George Sanders as Shere Khan and Sebastian Cabot as Bagheera.

David Bailey was originally cast as Mowgli, but his voice changed during production, leading Bailey to not fit the ‘young innocence of Mowgli’s character’ at which the producers were aiming. Thus director Wolfgang Reitherman cast his son Bruce, who had just voiced Christopher Robin in Winnie the Pooh and the Honey Tree. The animators shot footage of Bruce as a guide for the character’s performance.

The characterization of the orangutan King Louie has frequently been cited (including by Anthony Edward Schiappa, Susan Miller, and Greg Rode) as a racial stereotype, especially given the political and civil rights climates in America during the time this film was released. Initially, the producers considered famous jazz musician Louis Armstrong for the role, but to avoid the likely controversy that would result from casting a black person to voice an ape, they instead chose Italian-American musician Louis Prima.

Longtime Disney collaborator Terry Gilkyson was brought in to write the songs for the film. Gilkyson delivered several complete songs which were faithful in tone to Rudyard Kipling’s novel, but Walt Disney felt that his efforts were too dark. The Sherman Brothers were brought in to do a complete rewrite, on the condition that they not read Kipling’s book. The only piece of Gilkyson’s work which survived to the final film was his upbeat tune ‘The Bare Necessities’, which was liked by the rest of the film crew. Walt Disney asked the Shermans to ‘find scary places and write fun songs’ for their compositions, and frequently brought them to storyline sessions.

In the original book, the vultures are grim and evil characters who feast on the dead. Disney lightened it up by having the vultures bearing a physical and vocal resemblance to The Beatles, including the signature mop-top haircut. It was also planned to have the members of the band to both voice the characters and sing their song, ‘That’s What Friends Are For’. However, the Beatles member John Lennon’s refusal to work on animated films in that period led to the idea being discarded. The casting of the vultures still brought a British Invasion musician, Chad Stuart of the duo Chad & Jeremy.

The Jungle Book was released in October 1967, just 10 months after Walt’s death. Produced on a budget of $4 million, the film was a massive success, finishing 1967 as the fourth highest-grossing movie of the year. The Jungle Book received positive reviews upon release, undoubtedly influenced by a nostalgic reaction to the death of Disney. Life magazine referred to it as “the best thing of its kind since Dumbo, another short, bright, unscary and blessedly uncultivated cartoon.’ The song ‘The Bare Necessities’ was nominated for Best Song at the 40th Academy Awards, losing to ‘Talk to the Animals’ from Doctor Dolittle. Academy of Motion Picture Arts and Sciences president Gregory Peck lobbied extensively for this film to be nominated for Best Picture, but was unsuccessful.

According to Elsie Kipling Baimbridge, Rudyard Kipling’s daughter, ‘Mowgli’ is pronounced ‘MAU-glee’ (first syllable rhymes with cow), not ‘MOH-glee’ (first syllable rhymes with go). She reportedly never forgave Walt Disney for the gaffe.

After a studio screening of the finished film Walt Disney’s personal nurse Hazel George came up to animator Ollie Johnston with tears in her eyes and told him that the final shot where Bagheera and Baloo walk off into the sunset was perfect and that it was ‘just the way that Walt had gone out.’”

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FIRST POSTED: 5/15/17

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Allow me to introduce you to Robert Underwood Johnson (1853-1937). For the longest time, I only knew him as that one weirdly close friend of Nikola Tesla (himself a popular crush, it would seem). As I begin to research Robert further, I realized what a remarkable person he was in his own right.

Robert was the editor of the CENTURY magazine, which no longer exists, but in its time it published material by renowned writers and thinkers, including Tesla’s controversial article, THE PROBLEM OF INCREASING HUMAN ENERGY. Through his work with the magazine, Robert came to know anybody who was anybody in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. One article I read referred to him as a “genius whisperer.” That’s not far from the truth.

Robert is best remembered today because of his friendship with Tesla. Tesla was a notoriously asocial man who had very few close friends. Robert, and his wife Katharine, were the exceptions. Robert and Tesla shared a love of poetry, and Tesla nicknamed Robert “Luka Filipov” after a hero from a Serbian epic. The two men would remain close for the rest of Robert’s life, with Robert referring to Tesla as his best friend on several occasions.

(There’s all kinds of talk that Tesla may have been in love with Katharine Johnson, or vice versa, and while I think there is some merit to that theory, it’s not entirely pertinent to this post. Though I can’t help but wonder if Robert knew, and how he felt about it… But I digress.)

In 1920, President Wilson appointed Robert ambassador to Italy, a post he held until the summer of 1921. Robert was a lifelong Italophile who had been given awards by the Italian government for his work supporting international copyright laws.

I should dedicate some space to what Robert would most want to be remembered for: his poetry. While not necessarily a great poet, he did publish several books, and it’s hard to deny his passion and enthusiasm. He even wrote a poem titled IN TESLA’S LABORATORY, dedicated to his friend. He favored formal styles of poetry, often speaking out against what he saw as the encroachment of modernism on classical forms of expression (for example, he did not care for the work of either T.S. Eliot or Walt Whitman). While I do not necessarily agree with this, it does show that Robert was a strong minded individual who was completely dedicated to the causes he chose to support.

As previously mentioned, Robert was a friend of a great many famous and talented people. He records his reminiscences in his memoir, REMEMBERED YESTERDAYS, a warm and engaging look back on a fascinating life.

Some other neat things:
- His famous friends, apart from Tesla, included Mark Twain, John Muir, and Rudyard Kipling.

- It was at Robert’s encouragement that Ulysses Grant wrote his memoirs. They were published in the CENTURY at first.

- He and Muir helped establish Yosemite National Park.

- Katharine and Robert had two children, Owen and Agnes. Owen went on to become a successful writer.

- In the early 20th century, Robert was the secretary of the American Academy of Arts and Letters. At this time, there were many rabidly misogynistic members of this all-male organization. When the question of the election of women to the Academy was raised, Robert supported letting women in, in spite of the often vicious opposition from other members.

- Apparently, as Katharine Johnson lay dying, she told her husband to always keep in touch with Tesla. Shortly there after, Robert wrote to Tesla saying that this might not be an easy thing to do, but it would not be his fault if it was not done.

- It’s like, wow, you can really tell how much he loved this woman.

- He signed his last note (before his death in 1937) to Tesla as “Luka Filipov.” Are you crying yet? I am.

OK, I’m sorry, this turned into a really long post, but Robert Underwood Johnson deserves the recognition. He was more than just Tesla’s friend. He was a poet, a diplomat, an editor, an environmentalist, an activist, a friend, a father, a husband. He was, I truly believe, a good and admirable person not only for his own time, but for ours as well. As a lover of all things Italian who’s been known to scribble down the odd poem now and again, I feel especially drawn to him. Everybody should have as good a friend as him. Hell, everyone should try to be as good a friend as him.

Tl:dr Robert was an insanely accomplished dude who was BFFs with some awesome people, was an awesome person in his own right, and was probably the best friend anyone ever had. He deserves to be more than just a footnote in the Tesla story.

Now, if you’ll permit me a little more room, a quick guide to the photos (from top to bottom):

- Robert as a younger man. I’m not gonna lie, I never found beards attractive until I saw this old, grainy photo.

- with Tesla in the laboratory. Supposedly they did this a lot.

- walking down the steps of the White House like a boss after being appointed Ambassador to Italy.

- seen here at left modeling for the sculptor Paul Swan, at right. That bust is majestic.

- portrait by William Merritt Chase, a fellow member of the Academy and one of the most important artists of the day.

- an Onion headline edit by yours truly. Robert was tough and downright feisty when he had to be, but I think this still applies.

Cheers, Mr. Ambassador!

The Second Jungle Book. Rudyard Kipling. Illustrated by John Lockwood Kipling. London: Macmillan and Co., 1895.

Gilt-stamped cover from the original edition of The Second Jungle Book, based on interior illustrations by John Lockwood Kipling. The front cover depicts the white cobra from The King’s Ankus; the spine art shows Mowgli and Kaa wrestling from the same story.

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Poetry in ‘Anthems for Doomed Youth’ documantary: excerpts from ‘A Poison Tree’, ‘The Divine Image’, ‘America: A Prophecy’ and ‘My Spectre around me night and day…’ by William Blake and ‘Gunga Din’ by Rudyard Kipling

MY BOY JACK ~Rudyard Kipling

“Have you news of my boy Jack?”
Not this tide.
“When d’you think that he’ll come back?”
Not with this wind blowing, and this tide.

“Has any one else had word of him?”
Not this tide.
For what is sunk will hardly swim,
Not with this wind blowing, and this tide.

“Oh, dear, what comfort can I find?”
None this tide,
Nor any tide,
Except he did not shame his kind —
Not even with that wind blowing, and that tide.

Then hold your head up all the more,
This tide,
And every tide;
Because he was the son you bore,
And gave to that wind blowing and that tide!