jet division

a portrait of the central division

it’s a bloody free-for-all. at first, everyone joins the blues in fighting the hawks, but soon it falls apart into an every man for himself situation as everyone realizes they hate everyone else and would like to punch the others almost as much (or more) than they would the hawks

The low angle of sunlight along the slim crescent of Saturn’s moon Enceladus (313 miles or 504 kilometers across) highlights the many fractures and furrows on its icy surface.

This view looks toward the Saturn-facing hemisphere of Enceladus, which is dimly illuminated in the image above by sunlight reflected off Saturn. North on Enceladus is up and rotated 14 degrees to the left. The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Dec. 26, 2016.

The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 104,000 miles (168,000 kilometers) from Enceladus. Image scale is 3,303 feet (1 kilometer) per pixel.

The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Cassini

2

A Fresh Look at Older Data Yields a Surprise Near the Martian Equator

Scientists taking a new look at older data from NASA’s longest-operating Mars orbiter have discovered evidence of significant hydration near the Martian equator – a mysterious signature in a region of the Red Planet where planetary scientists figure ice shouldn’t exist.

Jack Wilson, a post-doctoral researcher at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland, led a team that reprocessed data collected from 2002 to 2009 by the neutron spectrometer instrument on NASA’s Mars Odyssey spacecraft. In bringing the lower-resolution compositional data into sharper focus, the scientists spotted unexpectedly high amounts of hydrogen – which at high latitudes is a sign of buried water ice – around sections of the Martian equator.

An accessible supply of water ice near the equator would be of interest in planning astronaut exploration of Mars. The amount of delivered mass needed for human exploration could be greatly reduced by using Martian natural resources for a water supply and as raw material for producing hydrogen fuel.

By applying image-reconstruction techniques often used to reduce blurring and remove “noise” from medical or spacecraft imaging data, Wilson’s team improved the spatial resolution of the data from around 320 miles to 180 miles (520 kilometers to 290 kilometers). “It was as if we’d cut the spacecraft’s orbital altitude in half,” Wilson said, “and it gave us a much better view of what’s happening on the surface.”
The neutron spectrometer can’t directly detect water, but by measuring neutrons, it can help scientists calculate the abundance of hydrogen – and infer the presence of water or other hydrogen-bearing substances.

Mars Odyssey’s first major discovery, in 2002, was abundant hydrogen just beneath the surface at high latitudes. In 2008, NASA’s Phoenix Mars Lander confirmed that the hydrogen was in the form of water ice.

But at lower latitudes on Mars, water ice is not thought to be thermodynamically stable at any depth. The traces of excess hydrogen that Odyssey’s original data showed at lower latitudes were initially explained as hydrated minerals, which other spacecraft and instruments have since observed.
Wilson’s team concentrated on those equatorial areas, particularly with a 600-mile (1,000-kilometer) stretch of loose, easily erodible material between the northern lowlands and southern highlands along the Medusae Fossae Formation. Radar-sounding scans of the area have suggested the presence of low-density volcanic deposits or water ice below the surface, “but if the detected hydrogen were buried ice within the top meter of the surface, there would be more than would fit into pore space in soil,” Wilson said. The radar data came from both the Shallow Radar on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and the Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionospheric Sounding on the European Space Agency’s Mars Express orbiter and would be consistent with no subsurface water ice near the equator.

How water ice could be preserved there is a mystery. A leading theory suggests an ice and dust mixture from the polar areas could be cycled through the atmosphere when Mars’ axial tilt was larger than it is today. But those conditions last occurred hundreds of thousands to millions of years ago. Water ice isn’t expected to be stable at any depth in that area today, Wilson said, and any ice deposited there should be long gone. Additional protection might come from a cover of dust and a hardened “duricrust” that traps the humidity below the surface, but this is unlikely to prevent ice loss over timescales of the axial tilt cycles.

“Perhaps the signature could be explained in terms of extensive deposits of hydrated salts, but how these hydrated salts came to be in the formation is also difficult to explain,” Wilson added. “So for now, the signature remains a mystery worthy of further study, and Mars continues to surprise us.”

Wilson led the research while at Durham University in the U.K. His team - which includes members from NASA Ames Research Center, the Planetary Science Institute and the Research Institute in Astrophysics and Planetology - published its findings this summer in the journal Icarus.

TOP IMAGE….Taking advantage of Mars’s closest approach to Earth in eight years, astronomers using NASA’s Hubble Space Telescope have taken the space-based observatory’s sharpest views yet of the Red Planet. NASA is releasing these images to commemorate the second anniversary of the Mars Pathfinder landing. The lander and its rover, Sojourner, touched down on the Red Planet’s rolling hills on July 4, 1997, embarking on an historic three-month mission to gather information on the planet’s atmosphere, climate, and geology.
The telescope’s Wide Field and Planetary Camera 2 snapped images between April 27 and May 6, when Mars was 54 million miles (87 million kilometers) from Earth. From this distance the telescope could see Martian features as small as 12 miles (19 kilometers) wide. The telescope obtained four images(see PIA01587), which, together, show the entire planet.
This image is centered on the region of the planet known as Tharsis, home of the largest volcanoes in the solar system. The bright, ring-like feature just to the left of center is the volcano Olympus Mons, which is more than 340 miles (550 kilometers) across and 17 miles(27 kilometers) high. Thick deposits of fine-grained, windblown dust cover most of this hemisphere. The colors indicate that the dust is heavily oxidized (“rusted”), and millions (or perhaps billions) of years of dust storms have homogenized its composition. Prominent late afternoon clouds along the right limb of the planet can be seen.
This color composite is generated from data using three filters: blue (410 nanometers), green (502 nanometers), and red (673 nanometers).


LOWER IMAGE….Re-analysis of 2002-2009 data from a hydrogen-finding instrument on NASA’s Mars Odyssey orbiter increased the resolution of maps of hydrogen abundance. The reprocessed data (lower map) shows more “water-equivalent hydrogen” (darker blue) in some parts of this equatorial region of Mars. Puzzingly, this suggests the possible presence of water ice just beneath the surface near the equator, though it would not be thermodynamically stable there.
The upper map uses raw data from Odyssey’s neutron spectrometer instrument, which senses the energy state of neutrons coming from Mars, providing an indication of how much hydrogen is present in the top 3 feet (1 meter) of the surface. Hydrogen detected by Odyssey at high latitudes of Mars in 2002 was confirmed to be in the form of water ice by the follow-up NASA Phoenix Mars Lander mission in 2008.
A 2017 reprocessing of the older data applied image-reconstruction techniques often used to reduce blurring from medical imaging data. The results are shown here for an area straddling the equator for about one-fourth the circumference of the planet, centered at 175 degrees west longitude. The white contours outline lobes of a formation called Medusae Fossae, coinciding with some areas of higher hydrogen abundance in the enhanced-resolution analysis. The black line indicates the limit of a relatively young lava plain, coinciding with areas of lower hydrogen abundance in the enhanced-resolution analysis.
The color-coding key for hydrogen abundance in both maps is indicated by the horizontal bar, in units expressed as how much water would be present in the ground if the hydrogen is all in the form of water. Units of the equivalent water weight, as a percentage of the material in the ground, are correlated with counts recorded by the spectrometer, ranging from less than 1 weight-percent water equivalent (red) to more than 30 percent (dark blue).
Odyssey’s neutron spectrometer, provided by Los Alamos National Laboratory in New Mexico, is part of the mission’s Gamma Ray Spectrometer suite overseen by the University of Arizona, Tucson. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the Mars Odyssey mission for the NASA Science Mission Directorate, Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems, Denver, built the Odyssey spacecraft, which has been studying Mars from orbit since 2001.

Swirls on Saturn

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft gazed toward the northern hemisphere of Saturn to spy subtle, multi-hued bands in the clouds there.

This view looks toward the terminator – the dividing line between night and day – at lower left. The sun shines at low angles along this boundary, in places highlighting vertical structure in the clouds. Some vertical relief is apparent in this view, with higher clouds casting shadows over those at lower altitude.

Images taken with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera using red, green and blue spectral filters were combined to create this natural-color view. The images were acquired on Aug. 31, 2017, at a distance of approximately 700,000 miles (1.1 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is about 4 miles (6 kilometers) per pixel.

The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, California, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

Credit

NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Sunlight truly has come to Saturn’s north pole. The whole northern region is bathed in sunlight in this view from late 2016, feeble though the light may be at Saturn’s distant domain in the solar system.

The hexagon-shaped jet-stream is fully illuminated here. In this image, the planet appears darker in regions where the cloud deck is lower, such the region interior to the hexagon. Mission experts on Saturn’s atmosphere are taking advantage of the season and Cassini’s favorable viewing geometry to study this and other weather patterns as Saturn’s northern hemisphere approaches Summer solstice.

This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 51 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on Sept. 9, 2016 using a spectral filter which preferentially admits wavelengths of near-infrared light centered at 728 nanometers.

The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 750,000 miles (1.2 million kilometers) from Saturn. Image scale is 46 miles (74 kilometers) per pixel.

The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute, Cassini

Time And Space

anonymous asked:

List of songs you recommend?

i answer this question a lot, like pretty much everyday and i recommend A LOT of artists and songs, i listen to tons, so i made this list of the artists and music i recommend. (i update this list every single week, it was updated yesterday) so whenever i get asked this question im just gonna copy and paste this list but each time i do there will be more songs/artists c:

ARTISTS: i listen to (if theres a * means i love them and you should totally check them out)

  1. the all american rejects
  2. all time low *
  3. a day to remember *
  4. american authors
  5. arcade fire *
  6. arctic monkeys *
  7. awolnation *
  8. bad suns *
  9. banglade$h *
  10. ben howard
  11. best coast
  12. the black keys *
  13. bleeding knees club 
  14. blink182 *
  15. the blue van 
  16. bowling for soup
  17. the bravery
  18. cage the elephant *
  19. charli xcx
  20. coasts
  21. crystal stilts
  22. the cure *
  23. dexy’s midnight runners *
  24. nonono
  25. echosmith
  26. empire of the sun *
  27. fall out boy *
  28. fitz and the tantrums *
  29. foster the people *
  30. the fratellis *
  31. green day *
  32. grouplove
  33. haim
  34. jake bugg *
  35. jet
  36. joy division *
  37. julian casablancas *
  38. the jungle giants *
  39. the killers *
  40. the kooks
  41. lana del rey *
  42. the lighthouse and the whaler 
  43. local natives *
  44. m83
  45. marina and the diamonds *
  46. MGMT *
  47. miniature tigers
  48. modest mouse
  49. my chemical romance *
  50. the naked and famous
  51. the neighbourhood
  52. new politics *
  53. ok go
  54. owl city *
  55. palma violets
  56. the paper kites *
  57. passion pit *
  58. phoenix
  59. the pixies ***
  60. the royal concept
  61. san cisco
  62. sea wolf
  63. the shins *
  64. sky ferreira ***
  65. the smiths **
  66. the stokes *
  67. the temper trap *
  68. two door cinema club *
  69. the vaccines ***
  70. vampire weekend *
  71. the virgins
  72. wheatus
  73. woe, is me
  74. the wombats ***
  75. the zolas
  76. the 1975 *** 

SONGS: these are some really good songs!! (if there is a * at the end, its one of my favorites)

  1. lost in my bedroom - sky ferreria ***
  2. here comes your man by the pixies *
  3. where is my mind? by the pixies *
  4. jump into the fog by the wombats *
  5. if you wanna by the vaccines
  6. don’t lie by vampire weekend
  7. kill your heros by awolnation *
  8. nothing to do by bleeding knees club
  9. teenage girls by bleeding knees club *
  10. knot in my heart by the zolas
  11. coming of age by foster the people *
  12. ruby by foster the people
  13. houdini by foster the people
  14. therapy by all time low
  15. fred astaire by san cisco
  16. robbers by the 1975 *
  17. falling for you by the 1975 *
  18. two fingers by jake bugg
  19. venice by the lighthouse and the whaler
  20. horchata by vampire weekend
  21. black me out by against me!
  22. shes lost control by joy division
  23. youre a wolf by sea wolf *
  24. boyfriend by best coast *
  25. when you were young by the killers *
  26. keep me dreaming by american authors
  27. young volcanoes by fall out boy *
  28. melody calling - the vaccines *
  29. wide eyes - local natives
  30. i wish i was a girl - the vaccines *
  31. say my name/cry me a river - the neighbourhood *
  32. time wont let me go - the bravery
  33.  seen it all - jake bugg
  34. cool kids - echosmith *
  35. jump - vampire weekend *
  36. lasso - phoenix
  37. here it goes again - ok go
  38. silly boy - the blue van *
  39. high school never ends - bowling for soup *
  40. everybodys gonna let you down - the vaccines *
  41. kids - two door cinema club
  42. flathead - the fratellis *
  43. forever - haim
  44. sleephead - passion pit
  45. do i wanna know - arctic monkeys *
  46. she moves in her own way - the kooks *
  47. naked kids - grouplove *
  48. electic feel - mgmt ****
  49. salt - bad suns *
  50. only love - ben howard
  51. dead and gone - the black keys
  52. 11th dimension - julian casablancas  
  53. lucky ones - lana del rey
  54. we own the sky - m83
  55. lonely hearts club - marina and the diamonds ***
  56. float on - modest mouse *
  57. best of friends - palma violets
  58. young folks - peter,bjorn & john **
  59. guns & dogs - portugal. the man
  60. dani california - red hot chilli peppers *
  61. sex rules - sky ferreira **
  62. why wont they talk to me? - tame impala
  63. transpose - bad suns ***
  64. the only place - best coast
  65. the start of something - voxtrot
  66. 20 years - bad suns ***
  67. like or like like - miniature tigers
  68. walking on a dream - empire of the sun **
  69. taxi cab - vampire weekend
  70. werewolf (i like you) - sky ferreira ***
  71. not your fault - anwolnation *
  72. come on eileen - dexy’s midnight runners ***
  73. featherstone - the paper kites
  74. youre the one - charli xcx
  75. through the floor - crystal stilts
  76. heaven knows im miserable now - the smiths *
  77. there is a light that never goes out - the smithes **
  78. oceans - coasts ***
  79. just like heaven - the cure
  80. lean - banglade$h *
  81. tokyo (vampires & wolves) - the wombats ***
  82. quesadilla - walk the moon
  83. suedehead - morrissey
  84. if you say so - bad suns *
  85. wild world - mike bailey cover ***
  86. dangerous animals - arctic monkeys ***
  87. disorder - joy division *

MIX TAPES OF THESE TYPE OF SONGS + NEW ONES

follow me on 8tracks and check out my mixes! i make a new one every weeek and each week theres new songs on them and they’re great!

http://8tracks.com/acidicmooons

2

Cassini to Begin Final Five Orbits Around Saturn

NASA’s Cassini spacecraft will enter new territory in its final mission phase, the Grand Finale, as it prepares to embark on a set of ultra-close passes through Saturn’s upper atmosphere with its final five orbits around the planet.

Cassini will make the first of these five passes over Saturn at 9:22 p.m. PDT Sunday, Aug. 13 (12:22 a.m. EDT Monday, Aug. 14). The spacecraft’s point of closest approach to Saturn during these passes will be between about 1,010 and 1,060 miles (1,630 and 1,710 kilometers) above Saturn’s cloud tops.

The spacecraft is expected to encounter atmosphere dense enough to require the use of its small rocket thrusters to maintain stability – conditions similar to those encountered during many of Cassini’s close flybys of Saturn’s moon Titan, which has its own dense atmosphere.

“Cassini’s Titan flybys prepared us for these rapid passes through Saturn’s upper atmosphere,” said Earl Maize, Cassini project manager at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California. “Thanks to our past experience, the team is confident that we understand how the spacecraft will behave at the atmospheric densities our models predict.”

Maize said the team will consider the Aug. 14 pass nominal if the thrusters operate between 10 and 60 percent of their capability. If the thrusters are forced to work harder – meaning the atmosphere is denser than models predict – engineers will increase the altitude of subsequent orbits. Referred to as a “pop-up maneuver,” thrusters will be used to raise the altitude of closest approach on the next passes, likely by about 120 miles (200 kilometers).

If the pop-up maneuver is not needed, and the atmosphere is less dense than expected during the first three passes, engineers may alternately use the “pop-down” option to lower the closest approach altitude of the last two orbits, also likely by about 120 miles (200 kilometers). Doing so would enable Cassini’s science instruments, especially the ion and neutral mass spectrometer (INMS), to obtain data on the atmosphere even closer to the planet’s cloud tops.

“As it makes these five dips into Saturn, followed by its final plunge, Cassini will become the first Saturn atmospheric probe,” said Linda Spilker, Cassini project scientist at JPL. “It’s long been a goal in planetary exploration to send a dedicated probe into the atmosphere of Saturn, and we’re laying the groundwork for future exploration with this first foray.”

Other Cassini instruments will make detailed, high-resolution observations of Saturn’s auroras, temperature, and the vortexes at the planet’s poles. Its radar will peer deep into the atmosphere to reveal small-scale features as fine as 16 miles (25 kilometers) wide – nearly 100 times smaller than the spacecraft could observe prior to the Grand Finale.

On Sept. 11, a distant encounter with Titan will serve as a gravitational version of a large pop-down maneuver, slowing Cassini’s orbit around Saturn and bending its path slightly to send the spacecraft toward its Sept. 15 plunge into the planet.

During the half-orbit plunge, the plan is to have seven Cassini science instruments, including INMS, turned on and reporting measurements in near real time. The spacecraft is expected to reach an altitude where atmospheric density is about twice what it encountered during its final five passes. Once Cassini reaches that point, its thrusters will no longer be able to work against the push of Saturn’s atmosphere to keep the spacecraft’s antenna pointed toward Earth, and contact will permanently be lost. The spacecraft will break up like a meteor moments later, ending its long and rewarding journey.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of Caltech in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. JPL designed, developed and assembled the Cassini orbiter.

TOP IMAGE….This artist’s rendering shows Cassini as the spacecraft makes one of its final five dives through Saturn’s upper atmosphere in August and September 2017. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

LOWER IMAGE….This view from Cassini shows the narrow band of Saturn’s atmosphere, which Cassini will dive through five times before making its final plunge into the planet on Sept. 15. Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech

Like a cosmic bull’s-eye, Enceladus and Tethys line up almost perfectly for Cassini’s cameras.

Since the two moons are not only aligned, but also at relatively similar distances from Cassini, the apparent sizes in this image are a good approximation of the relative sizes of Enceladus (313 miles or 504 kilometers across) and Tethys (660 miles or 1,062 kilometers across).

This view looks toward the unilluminated side of the rings from 0.34 degrees below the ring plane. The image was taken in red light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on Sept. 24, 2015.

The image was obtained at a distance of approximately 1.3 million miles (2.1 million kilometers) from Enceladus. Image scale on Enceladus is 7 miles (12 kilometers) per pixel. Tethys was at a distance of 1.6 million miles (2.6 million kilometers) with a pixel scale of 10 miles (16 kilometers) per pixel.

The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute

Time And Space

anonymous asked:

Omg you did a list of your fav music? Omg omg can you list it again i want a playlist too omg omg

okay!!! im gonna make this one super long so whenever i get asked this question again ill just send them the link to this answered question :)

music type i listen to: indie , alternatve rock , indie pop , indie rock , pop punk

ARTISTS: i listen to (if theres a * means i love them and you should totally check them out)

  1. the all american rejects
  2. all time low *
  3. a day to remember *
  4. american authors
  5. arcade fire *
  6. arctic monkeys *
  7. awolnation *
  8. bad suns *
  9. banglade$h *
  10. ben howard
  11. best coast
  12. the black keys *
  13. bleeding knees club 
  14. blink182 *
  15. the blue van 
  16. bowling for soup
  17. the bravery
  18. cage the elephant *
  19. charli xcx
  20. coasts
  21. crystal stilts
  22. the cure *
  23. dexy’s midnight runners *
  24. nonono
  25. echosmith
  26. empire of the sun *
  27. fall out boy *
  28. fitz and the tantrums *
  29. foster the people *
  30. the fratellis *
  31. green day *
  32. grouplove
  33. haim
  34. jake bugg *
  35. jet
  36. joy division *
  37. julian casablancas *
  38. the jungle giants *
  39. the killers *
  40. the kooks
  41. lana del rey *
  42. the lighthouse and the whaler 
  43. local natives *
  44. m83
  45. marina and the diamonds *
  46. MGMT *
  47. miniature tigers
  48. modest mouse
  49. my chemical romance *
  50. the naked and famous
  51. the neighbourhood
  52. new politics *
  53. ok go
  54. owl city *
  55. palma violets
  56. the paper kites *
  57. passion pit *
  58. phoenix
  59. the pixies ***
  60. the royal concept
  61. san cisco
  62. sea wolf
  63. the shins *
  64. sky ferreira ***
  65. the smiths **
  66. the stokes *
  67. the temper trap *
  68. two door cinema club *
  69. the vaccines ***
  70. vampire weekend *
  71. the virgins
  72. wheatus
  73. woe, is me
  74. the wombats ***
  75. the zolas
  76. the 1975 *** 

SONGS: these are some really good songs!! (if there is a * at the end, its one of my favorites)

  1. lost in my bedroom - sky ferreria ***
  2. here comes your man by the pixies *
  3. where is my mind? by the pixies *
  4. jump into the fog by the wombats *
  5. if you wanna by the vaccines
  6. don’t lie by vampire weekend
  7. kill your heros by awolnation *
  8. nothing to do by bleeding knees club
  9. teenage girls by bleeding knees club *
  10. knot in my heart by the zolas
  11. coming of age by foster the people *
  12. ruby by foster the people
  13. houdini by foster the people
  14. therapy by all time low
  15. fred astaire by san cisco
  16. robbers by the 1975 *
  17. falling for you by the 1975 *
  18. two fingers by jake bugg
  19. venice by the lighthouse and the whaler
  20. horchata by vampire weekend
  21. black me out by against me!
  22. shes lost control by joy division
  23. youre a wolf by sea wolf *
  24. boyfriend by best coast *
  25. when you were young by the killers *
  26. keep me dreaming by american authors
  27. young volcanoes by fall out boy *
  28. melody calling - the vaccines *
  29. wide eyes - local natives
  30. i wish i was a girl - the vaccines *
  31. say my name/cry me a river - the neighbourhood *
  32. time wont let me go - the bravery
  33.  seen it all - jake bugg
  34. cool kids - echosmith *
  35. jump - vampire weekend *
  36. lasso - phoenix
  37. here it goes again - ok go
  38. silly boy - the blue van *
  39. high school never ends - bowling for soup *
  40. everybodys gonna let you down - the vaccines *
  41. kids - two door cinema club
  42. flathead - the fratellis *
  43. forever - haim
  44. sleephead - passion pit
  45. do i wanna know - arctic monkeys *
  46. she moves in her own way - the kooks *
  47. naked kids - grouplove *
  48. electic feel - mgmt ****
  49. salt - bad suns *
  50. only love - ben howard
  51. dead and gone - the black keys
  52. 11th dimension - julian casablancas  
  53. lucky ones - lana del rey
  54. we own the sky - m83
  55. lonely hearts club - marina and the diamonds ***
  56. float on - modest mouse *
  57. best of friends - palma violets
  58. young folks - peter,bjorn & john **
  59. guns & dogs - portugal. the man
  60. dani california - red hot chilli peppers *
  61. sex rules - sky ferreira **
  62. why wont they talk to me? - tame impala
  63. transpose - bad suns ***
  64. the only place - best coast
  65. the start of something - voxtrot
  66. 20 years - bad suns ***
  67. like or like like - miniature tigers
  68. walking on a dream - empire of the sun **
  69. taxi cab - vampire weekend
  70. werewolf (i like you) - sky ferreira ***
  71. not your fault - anwolnation *
  72. come on eileen - dexy’s midnight runners ***
  73. featherstone - the paper kites
  74. youre the one - charli xcx
  75. through the floor - crystal stilts
  76. heaven knows im miserable now - the smiths *
  77. there is a light that never goes out - the smithes **
  78. oceans - coasts ***
  79. just like heaven - the cure
  80. lean - banglade$h *
  81. tokyo (vampires & wolves) - the wombats ***
  82. quesadilla - walk the moon
  83. suedehead - morrissey
  84. if you say so - bad suns *
  85. wild world - mike bailey cover ***
  86. dangerous animals - arctic monkeys ***
  87. disorder - joy division *

MIX TAPES OF THESE TYPE OF SONGS + NEW ONES

follow me on 8tracks and check out my mixes! i make a new one every weeek and each week theres new songs on them and they’re great!

http://8tracks.com/acidicmooons

Saturn’s icy moon Mimas is dwarfed by the planet’s enormous rings.

Because Mimas (near lower left) appears tiny by comparison, it might seem that the rings would be far more massive, but this is not the case. Scientists think the rings are no more than a few times as massive as Mimas, or perhaps just a fraction of Mimas’ mass. Cassini is expected to determine the mass of Saturn’s rings to within just a few hundredths of Mimas’ mass as the mission winds down by tracking radio signals from the spacecraft as it flies close to the rings.andnbsp;andnbsp;

The rings, which are made of small, icy particles spread over a vast area, are extremely thin ‘“ generally no thicker than the height of a house. Thus, despite their giant proportions, the rings contain a surprisingly small amount of material.

Mimas is 246 miles (396 kilometers) wide.

This view looks toward the sunlit side of the rings from about 6 degrees above the ring plane. The image was taken in red light with the Cassini spacecraft wide-angle camera on July 21, 2016.

The view was obtained at a distance of approximately 564,000 miles (907,000 kilometers) from Saturn and at a Sun-Saturn-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 31 degrees. Image scale is 34 miles (54 kilometers) per pixel.

The Cassini mission is a cooperative project of NASA, ESA (the European Space Agency) and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute/Cassini

Time And Space

This image, acquired on Nov. 24, 2015 by theHigh Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera aboard NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, shows the western side of an elongated pit depression in the eastern Noctis Labyrinthus region of Mars. Along the pit’s upper wall is a light-toned layered deposit. Noctis Labyrinthus is a huge region of tectonically controlled valleys located at the western end of the Valles Marineris canyon system.

Spectra extracted from the light-toned deposit by the spacecraft’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument are consistent with the mineral jarosite, which is a potassium and iron hydrous sulfate. On Earth, jarosite can form in ore deposits or from alteration near volcanic vents, and indicates an oxidizing and acidic environment. The Opportunity rover discovered jarosite at the Meridiani Planum landing site, and jarosite has been found at several other locations on Mars, indicating that it is a common mineral on the Red Planet.

The jarosite-bearing deposit observed here could indicate acidic aqueous conditions within a volcanic system in Noctis Labyrinthus. Above the light-toned jarosite deposit is a mantle of finely layered darker-toned material. CRISM spectra do not indicate this upper darker-toned mantle is hydrated. The deposit appears to drape over the pre-existing topography, suggesting it represents an airfall deposit from either atmospheric dust or volcanic ash.

The University of Arizona, Tucson, operates HiRISE, which was built by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp., Boulder, Colo. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Project for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Univ. of Arizona/ Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter

Caption: Cathy Weitz

Time And Space

This false-color view from NASA’s Cassini spacecraft shows clouds in Saturn’s northern hemisphere. The view was produced by space imaging enthusiast Kevin M. Gill, who also happens to be an engineer at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

The view was made using images taken by Cassini’s wide-angle camera on July 20, 2016, using a combination of spectral filters sensitive to infrared light at 750, 727 and 619 nanometers.

Filters like these, which are sensitive to absorption and scattering of sunlight by methane in Saturn’s atmosphere, have been useful throughout Cassini’s mission for determining the structure and depth of cloud features in the atmosphere.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging operations center is based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

Object Names:Infrared Saturn Clouds

Image Type:  Astronomical

Credit: NASA/JPL-Caltech/Space Science Institute/Kevin M. Gill/Cassini

Time And Space

Mars Gullies Likely Not Formed by Liquid Water

New findings using data from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter show that gullies on modern Mars are likely not being formed by flowing liquid water. This new evidence will allow researchers to further narrow theories about how Martian gullies form, and reveal more details about Mars’ recent geologic processes.

Scientists use the term “gully” for features on Mars that share three characteristics in their shape: an alcove at the top, a channel, and an apron of deposited material at the bottom. Gullies are distinct from another type of feature on Martian slopes, streaks called “recurring slope lineae,” or RSL, which are distinguished by seasonal darkening and fading, rather than characteristics of how the ground is shaped.

Water in the form of hydrated salt has been identified at RSL sites.

The new study focuses on gullies and their formation process by adding composition information to previously acquired imaging.

Researchers from the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) in Laurel, Maryland, examined high-resolution compositional data from more than 100 gully sites throughout Mars. These data, collected by the orbiter’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM), were then correlated with images from the same spacecraft’s High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera and Context Camera (CTX).

The findings showed no mineralogical evidence for abundant liquid water or its by-products, thus pointing to mechanisms other than the flow of water – such as the freeze and thaw of carbon dioxide frost – as being the major drivers of recent gully evolution.

The findings were published in Geophysical Research Letters.
Gullies are a widespread and common feature on the Martian surface, mostly occurring between 30 and 50 degrees latitude in both the northern and southern hemispheres, generally on slopes that face toward the poles. On Earth, similar gullies are formed by flowing liquid water; however, under current conditions, liquid water is transient on the surface of Mars, and may occur only as small amounts of brine even at RSL streaks. The lack of sufficient water to carve gullies has resulted in a variety of theories for the gullies’ creation, including different mechanisms involving evaporation of water and carbon dioxide frost.

“The HiRISE team and others had shown there was seasonal activity in gullies – primarily in the southern hemisphere – over the past couple of years, and carbon dioxide frost is the main mechanism they suspected of causing it. However, other researchers favored liquid water as the main mechanism,” said Jorge Núñez of APL, the lead author of the paper.

“What HiRISE and other imagers were not able to determine on their own was the composition of the material in gullies, because they are optical cameras. To bring another important piece in to help solve the puzzle, we used CRISM, an imaging spectrometer, to look at what kinds of minerals were present in the gullies and see if they could shed light on the main mechanism responsible.”

Núñez and his colleagues took advantage of a new CRISM data product called Map-projected Targeted Reduced Data Records. It allowed them to more easily perform their analyses and then correlate the findings with HiRISE imagery.

“On Earth and on Mars, we know that the presence of phyllosilicates – clays – or other hydrated minerals indicates formation in liquid water,” Núñez said. “In our study, we found no evidence for clays or other hydrated minerals in most of the gullies we studied, and when we did see them, they were erosional debris from ancient rocks, exposed and transported downslope, rather than altered in more recent flowing water. These gullies are carving into the terrain and exposing clays that likely formed billions of years ago when liquid water was more stable on the Martian surface.”

Other researchers have created computer models that show how sublimation of seasonal carbon dioxide frost can create gullies similar to those observed on Mars, and how their shape can mimic the types of gullies that liquid water would create. The new study adds support to those models.

APL built and operates CRISM, one of six instruments with which the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter project has been examining Mars since 2006. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the Caltech in Pasadena, California manages the project for the NASA Science Mission Directorate in Washington. Lockheed Martin Space Systems of Denver built the orbiter and supports its operations.

IMAGE….The highly incised Martian gullies seen in the top image resemble gullies on Earth that are carved by liquid water. However, when the gullies are observed with the addition of mineralogical information (bottom), no evidence for alteration by water appears.
The pictured area spans about 2 miles (3 kilometers) on the eastern rim of Hale Crater. The High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment (HiRISE) camera on NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter took the visible-light image. Color-coded compositional information added in the lower version comes from the same orbiter’s Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM). Color coding in light blue corresponds to surface composition of unaltered mafic material, of volcanic origin. Mafic material from the crater rim is carved and transported downslope along the gully channels. No hydrated minerals are observed within the gullies, in the data from CRISM, indicating limited interaction or no interaction of the mafic material with liquid water. These findings and related observations at about 100 other gully sites on Mars suggest that a mechanism not requiring liquid water may be responsible for carving these gullies on Mars. (Gullies on Mars are a different type of feature than seasonal dark streaks called recurring slope lineae or RSL; water in the form of hydrated salt has been identified at RSL sites.)
The HiRISE image is a portion of HiRISE observation PSP_002932_1445. The lower image is from the same HiRISE observation, with a CRISM mineral map overlaid.

2

NASA’S CURIOSITY ROVER TEAM CONFIRMS ANCIENT LAKES ON MARS A new study from the team behind NASA’s Mars Science Laboratory/Curiosity has confirmed that Mars was once, billions of years ago, capable of storing water in lakes over an extended period of time. Using data from the Curiosity rover, the team has determined that, long ago, water helped deposit sediment into Gale Crater, where the rover landed more than three years ago. The sediment deposited as layers that formed the foundation for Mount Sharp, the mountain found in the middle of the crater today. “Observations from the rover suggest that a series of long-lived streams and lakes existed at some point between about 3.8 to 3.3 billion years ago, delivering sediment that slowly built up the lower layers of Mount Sharp,” said Ashwin Vasavada, Mars Science Laboratory project scientist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, and co-author of the new Science article to be published Friday, Oct. 9. The findings build upon previous work that suggested there were ancient lakes on Mars, and add to the unfolding story of a wet Mars, both past and present. Last month, NASA scientists confirmed current water flows on Mars. “What we thought we knew about water on Mars is constantly being put to the test,” said Michael Meyer, lead scientist for NASA’s Mars Exploration Program at NASA Headquarters in Washington. “It’s clear that the Mars of billions of years ago more closely resembled Earth than it does today. Our challenge is to figure out how this more clement Mars was even possible, and what happened to that wetter Mars.” Before Curiosity landed on Mars in 2012, scientists proposed that Gale Crater had filled with layers of sediments. Some hypotheses were “dry,” suggesting that sediment accumulated from wind-blown dust and sand. Others focused on the possibility that sediment layers were deposited in ancient lakes. The latest results from Curiosity indicate that these wetter scenarios were correct for the lower portions of Mount Sharp. Based on the new analysis, the filling of at least the bottom layers of the mountain occurred mostly by ancient rivers and lakes over a period of less than 500 million years. “During the traverse of Gale, we have noticed patterns in the geology where we saw evidence of ancient fast-moving streams with coarser gravel, as well as places where streams appear to have emptied out into bodies of standing water,” Vasavada said. “The prediction was that we should start seeing water-deposited, fine-grained rocks closer to Mount Sharp. Now that we’ve arrived, we’re seeing finely laminated mudstones in abundance that look like lake deposits.” The mudstone indicates the presence of bodies of standing water in the form of lakes that remained for long periods of time, possibly repeatedly expanding and contracting during hundreds to millions of years. These lakes deposited the sediment that eventually formed the lower portion of the mountain. “Paradoxically, where there is a mountain today there was once a basin, and it was sometimes filled with water,” said John Grotzinger, the former project scientist for Mars Science Laboratory at the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, and lead author of the new report. “We see evidence of about 250 feet (75 meters) of sedimentary fill, and based on mapping data from NASA’s Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and images from Curiosity’s camera, it appears that the water-transported sedimentary deposition could have extended at least 500 to 650 feet (150 to 200) meters above the crater floor.” Furthermore, the total thickness of sedimentary deposits in Gale Crater that indicate interaction with water could extend higher still, perhaps up to one-half mile (800 meters) above the crater floor. Above 800 meters, Mount Sharp shows no evidence of hydrated strata, and that is the bulk of what forms Mount Sharp. Grotzinger suggests that perhaps this later segment of the crater’s history may have been dominated by dry, wind-driven deposits, as was once imagined for the lower part explored by Curiosity. A lingering question surrounds the original source of the water that carried sediment into the crater. For flowing water to have existed on the surface, Mars must have had a thicker atmosphere and warmer climate than has been theorized for the ancient era when Gale Crater experienced the intense geological activity. However, current models of this paleoclimate have, literally, come up dry. At least some of the water may have been supplied to the lakes by snowfall and rain in the highlands of the Gale Crater rim. Some have made the argument that there was an ocean in the plains north of the crater, but that does not explain how the water managed to exist as a liquid for extended periods of time on the surface. “We have tended to think of Mars as being simple,” Grotzinger mused. “We once thought of the Earth as being simple too. But the more you look into it, questions come up because you’re beginning to fathom the real complexity of what we see on Mars. This is a good time to go back to reevaluate all our assumptions. Something is missing somewhere.” TOP IMAGE….Strata at Base of Mount Sharp A view from the “Kimberley” formation on Mars taken by NASA’s Curiosity rover. The strata in the foreground dip towards the base of Mount Sharp, indicating flow of water toward a basin that existed before the larger bulk of the mountain formed. The colors are adjusted so that rocks look approximately as they would if they were on Earth, to help geologists interpret the rocks. This “white balancing” to adjust for the lighting on Mars overly compensates for the absence of blue on Mars, making the sky appear light blue and sometimes giving dark, black rocks a blue cast. This image was taken by the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on Curiosity on the 580th Martian day, or sol, of the mission. LOWER IMAGE….Secrets of ‘Hidden Valley’ on Mars An image taken at the “Hidden Valley” site, en-route to Mount Sharp, by NASA’s Curiosity rover. A variety of mudstone strata in the area indicate a lakebed deposit, with river- and stream-related deposits nearby. Decoding the history of how these sedimentary rocks were formed, and during what period of time, was a key component in the confirming of the role of water and sedimentation in the formation of the floor of Gale Crater and Mount Sharp. This image was taken by the Mast Camera (Mastcam) on Curiosity on the 703rd Martian day, or sol, of the mission. Malin Space Science Systems, San Diego, built and operates Curiosity’s Mastcam. NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, built the rover and manages the project for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington.

Radio Occultation: Unraveling Saturn’s Rings
Specially designed Cassini orbits place Earth and Cassini on opposite sides of Saturn’s rings, a geometry known as occultation. Cassini conducted the first radio occultation observation of Saturn’s rings on May 3, 2005.
Three simultaneous radio signals of 0.94, 3.6, and 13 centimeter wavelength (Ka-, X-, and S-bands) were sent from Cassini through the rings to Earth. The observed change of each signal as Cassini moved behind the rings provided a profile of the distribution of ring material as a function of distance from Saturn, or an optical depth profile.
This simulated image was constructed from the measured optical depth profiles. It depicts the observed ring structure at about 10 kilometers (6 miles) in resolution. Color is used to represent information about ring particle sizes in different regions based on the measured effects of the three radio signals.
Purple color indicates regions where there is a lack of particles of size less than 5 centimeters (about 2 inches). Green and blue shades indicate regions where there are particles smaller than 5 centimeters (2 inches) and 1 centimeter (less than one third of one inch). The saturated broad white band near the middle of ring B is the densest region of ring B, over which two of the three radio signals were blocked at 10-kilometer (6-mile) resolution, preventing accurate color representation over this band. From other evidence in the radio observations, all ring regions appear to be populated by a broad range particle size distribution that extends to boulder sizes (several to many meters across).
The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The radio science team is based at JPL.

Mimas Stares Back

The great eye of Saturn’s moon Mimas, a 130-kilometer-wide (80-mile) impact crater called Herschel, stares out from the battered moon. Several individual ringlets within the F ring are resolved here, and the small moon Atlas is also seen faintly outside the main rings.

Mimas is 397 kilometers (247 miles across); the view shows principally the moon’s anti-Saturn hemisphere. Atlas is 32 kilometers (20 miles) across.

The image was taken in visible light with the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera on April 5, 2005, at a distance of approximately 2.1 million kilometers (1.3 million miles) from Mimas and at a Sun-Mimas-spacecraft, or phase, angle of 72 degrees. The image scale is 13 kilometers (8 miles) per pixel.

The Cassini-Huygens mission is a cooperative project of NASA, the European Space Agency and the Italian Space Agency. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA’s Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter and its two onboard cameras were designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team is based at the Space Science Institute, Boulder, Colo.

Image Credit: NASA/JPL/Space Science Institute