jean martin charcot

Note Taking Systems

The Cornell Method

The Cornell method provides a systematic format for condensing and organizing notes without laborious recopying. After writing the notes in the main space, use the left-hand space to label each idea and detail with a key word or “cue.”

Method

Rule your paper with a 2 ½ inch margin on the left leaving a six-inch area on the right in which to make notes. During class, take down information in the six-inch area. When the instructor moves to a new point, skip a few lines. After class, complete phrases and sentences as much as possible. For every significant bit of information, write a cue in the left margin. To review, cover your notes with a card, leaving the cues exposed. Say the cue out loud, then say as much as you can of the material underneath the card. When you have said as much as you can, move the card and see if what you said matches what is written. If you can say it, you know it.

Advantages

Organized and systematic for recording and reviewing notes. Easy format for pulling out major concept and ideas. Simple and efficient. Saves time and effort. “Do-it-right-in-the-first-place” system.

Disadvantages

None

When to Use

In any lecture situation.


The Outlining Method

Dash or indented outlining is usually best except for some science classes such as physics or math.

  1. The information which is most general begins at the left with each more specific group of facts indented with spaces to the right.
  2. The relationships between the different parts is carried out through indenting.
  3. No numbers, letters, or Roman numerals are needed.

Method

Listening and then write in points in an organized pattern based on space indention. Place major points farthest to the left. Indent each more specific point to the right. Levels of importance will be indicated by distance away from the major point. Indention can be as simple as or as complex as labeling the indentations with Roman numerals or decimals. Markings are not necessary as space relationships will indicate the major/minor points.

Advantages

Well-organized system if done right. Outlining records content as well as relationships. It also reduces editing and is easy to review by turning main points into questions.

Disadvantages

Requires more thought in class for accurate organization. This system may not show relationships by sequence when needed. It doesn’t lend to diversity of a review attach for maximum learning and question application. This system cannot be used if the lecture is too fast.

When to Use

The outline format can be used if the lecture is presented in outline organization. This may be either deductive (regular outline) or inductive (reverse outline where minor points start building to a major point). Use this format when there is enough time in the lecture to think about and make organization decisions when they are needed. This format can be most effective when your note taking skills are super sharp and you can handle the outlining regardless of the note taking situation.

Example:

  • Extrasensory perception
    • definition: means of perceiving without use of sense organs.
      • three kinds
        • telepathy: sending messages
        • clairvoyance: forecasting the future
        • psychokinesis: perceiving events external to situation
      • current status
        • no current research to support or refute
        • few psychologists say impossible
        • door open to future

The Mapping Method

Mapping is a method that uses comprehension/concentration skills and evolves in a note taking form which relates each fact or idea to every other fact or idea. Mapping is a graphic representation of the content of a lecture. It is a method that maximizes active participation, affords immediate knowledge as to its understanding, and emphasizes critical thinking.

Advantages

This format helps you to visually track your lecture regardless of conditions. Little thinking is needed and relationships can easily be seen. It is also easy to edit your notes by adding numbers, marks, and color coding. Review will call for you to restructure thought processes which will force you to check understanding. Review by covering lines for memory drill and relationships. Main points can be written on flash or note cards and pieced together into a table or larger structure at a later date.

Disadvantages

You may not hear changes in content from major points to facts.

When to Use

Use when the lecture content is heavy and well-organized. May also be used effectively when you have a guest lecturer and have no idea how the lecture is going to be presented.

Example:


The Charting Method

If the lecture format is distinct (such as chronological), you may set up your paper by drawing columns and labeling appropriate headings in a table.

Method

Determine the categories to be covered in the lecture. Set up your paper in advance by columns headed by these categories. As you listen to the lecture, record information (words, phrases, main ideas, etc.) into the appropriate category.

Advantages

Helps you track conversation and dialogues where you would normally be confused and lose out on relevant content. Reduces amount of writing necessary. Provides easy review mechanism for both memorization of facts and study of comparisons and relationships.

Disadvantages

Few disadvantages except learning how to use the system and locating the appropriate categories. You must be able to understand what’s happening in the lecture

When to Use

Test will focus on both facts and relationships. Content is heavy and presented fast. You want to reduce the amount of time you spend editing and reviewing at test time. You want to get an overview of the whole course on one big paper sequence.

Example:


The Sentence Method

Method

Write every new thought, fact or topic on a separate line, numbering as you progress.

Advantages

Slightly more organized than the paragraph. Gets more or all of the information. Thinking to tract content is still limited.

Disadvantages

Can’t determine major/minor points from the numbered sequence. Difficult to edit without having to rewrite by clustering points which are related. Difficult to review unless editing cleans up relationship.

When to Use

Use when the lecture is somewhat organized, but heavy with content which comes fast. You can hear the different points, but you don’t know how they fit together. The instructor tends to present in point fashion, but not in grouping such as “three related points.”

Three Examples:

Example 1:

A revolution is any occurrence that affects other aspects of life, such as economic life, social life, and so forth. Therefore revolutions cause change. (See page 29 to 30 in your text about this.)

Sample Notes:

Revolution - occurrence that affects other aspects of life: e.g., econ., socl., etc. C.f. text, pp. 29-30

Example 2:

Melville did not try to represent life as it really was. The language of Ahab, Starbuck, and Ishmael, for instance, was not that of real life.

Sample Notes:

Mel didn’t repr. life as was; e.g., lang. of Ahab, etc. not of real life.

Example 3:

At first, Freud tried conventional, physical methods of treatment such as giving baths, massages, rest cures, and similar aids. But when these failed, he tried techniques of hypnosis that he had seen used by Jean-Martin Charcot. Finally, he borrowed an idea from Jean Breuer and used direct verbal communication to get an unhypnotized patient to reveal unconscious thoughts.

Sample Notes:

Freud 1st – used phys. trtment; e.g., baths, etc. This fld. 2nd – used hypnosis (fr. Charcot) Finally – used dirct vrb. commun. (fr. Breuer) - got unhynop, patnt to reveal uncons. thoughts.

general-sleepy  asked:

Hi! Do you have any theories/headcanons about the Dracula characters' ages are? We know Jack is 29 and says Jonathan, Quincey, and Arthur are younger than him, and Jonathan would probably have to be a certain age to be a official solicitor. Do you have any thoughts? Thanks!

Okay! I do not have hard and fast headcanons for exact numbers here, but –as is often the case– I do have some overly zealous research facts that shape my impressions. So, because everyone knows I love to geek out about this stuff, I’m going to list out some of those assorted facts with my resulting thoughts about the characters’ ages and what their ages probably tell us. This will probably make this a much longer answer than this ask might seem to demand, but it’s Dracula Day (or it was when I started) and I am ready to Dracula as hard as I can.

So, just to set the stage, the generally agreed upon date during which the events of the book take place is 1893, based on the fact that Stoker’s timeline in his notes has days of the week that align with this year, and the mention of the recent death of Jean-Martin Charcot and the term “New Woman” position. This is the date I’m using in trying to extract fun pre-Dracula-timeline Dracula ideas. Some people, of course, tend to favor an 1890 date, given that the epilogue of the novel seems to indicate the events took place 7 years prior to the publication of the novel, but I prefer ‘93 because more minor details of the text make sense with it. (I won’t even get started with Leonard Wolf and his attempt to assign dates based on moon phases.)

R. M. Renfield: Renfield is explicitly 59 (b. 1834). We don’t know much about him; heck – we don’t even know his first name; and there’s not a lot we can draw conclusions about. It might be sort of interesting to someone, I guess, that Stoker initially gave his age as 49 in the typescript before crossing it out and that Renfield and that Patrick Rourke (a brain injury patient from whom some of Renfield’s medical info was drawn) was 50, but it’s not super interesting to me. Slightly more interesting may be the fact that he is within an age range where he feels chill speaking about Arthur’s dad as a peer, but there’s not a terrible lot to be extrapolated from that given that Renfield still has no past and Lord Godalming still has no personality.

Jack Seward: Jack is explicitly 29 (b. 1864), and if we take Van Helsing being his mentor as an indication that he studied in Amsterdam, he would have had to have spent 6 years of his life earning his M.D. in addition to spending however many it takes to wrangle himself into being superintendent of a private asylum and however many it takes one to go on adventures in Siberia and Korea with one’s bros when the latter country only opened its borders in 1882. This all feeds into my long held headcanon that he inherited his post as superintendent at a private asylum that was some manner of dynastic institution, as this makes more sense than Jack being some sort of savant who was able to get himself a superintendency immediately after a decade of med school and shooting wolves. Also, this allows Jack to join the “everyone’s parents are dead” club that has the rest of the novel as its membership.

Lucy Westenra: Lucy is explicitly 19 (b. 1874), but she is due to turn 20 in September of the year in which the novel takes place, and we do not know if she has a birthday somewhere in the midst of tragically dying that month. If we want to get super sad and well into the spirit of Stokerian Victorian melodrama, let’s just say that she was going to get married on her birthday (September 28) and instead of getting either married or having any sort of birthday celebration, she had a violent post-mortem confrontation with her fiance in which she was about to chew on a baby. On a tangential chronology-related note, her parents may have been a bit old or predestined to tragedy, given that her father has been dead for over two years at the time of the novel (She is described as wearing white – i.e. not in mourning.) and given that her mother has a heart problem that seems suited to those who are elderly, cursed, or shameless plot devices.

Mr. Swales: Mr. Swales is the character claims that he is nearly 100 (b. 1793?) and he was apparently already sailing around with the Greenland fishing fleet at the time of the Battle of Waterloo (1815), which means he was probably killing whales and speaking incomprehensible dialect with his bros from the age of 22 to possibly some time in his late 40s when the fleet was phased out of existence in the 1840s. What he did with his life afterwards remains a mystery until around 1873, when he started sitting on Geordie Canon’s grave and bothering tourists.

Jonathan Harker: Jonathan’s age isn’t given, but I’m going to put him at around 21 (b. 1872). Why this specific number? Because it required 5 years apprenticeship to a trained solicitor to qualify for examination in the 1890s, and while I haven’t looked up the laws, I imagine that you probably can’t start that sort of thing before the age of 16, even if the solicitor in question is your adoptive dad and you’ve probably been soliciting under him forever. While theoretically Jonathan could have started a formal apprenticeship later or gotten special permission to take the exam after a 3 year stint, I’m going with the narrative that he started his apprenticeship to Hawkins as soon as humanly possible. I also like this because I envision Mina as being of his age or slightly older, and as we’ll get to next, I envision her as being in her early twenties.

Mina Harker: Mina’s age isn’t given, and I don’t have any fun historical facts to help pinpoint it, but I’m on board with the headcanon that many adapters and annotators have, which is that she attended the same boarding/finishing school as Lucy, where they became friends, and was eventually taken by the institution on as an assistant schoolmistress. Somewhere between 21-23 (b. 1869-72) is my general estimate for her.

Arthur Holmwood and Quincey Morris: Arthur and Quincey are explicitly mentioned as being younger than Jack, but I don’t think they’re as young as Jonathan is. The only date we have that connects all three men is the Korea thing, and given that Jack was 18 when the borders opened and probably wasn’t out of med school until the age of 22 at least, I’m going to place the expedition around ‘87 and assume Arthur and Quincey were in their early twenties at the time, with Quincey being a little older to account for him having likely adventured more in his life than Art. I’d put them around 25 (Art, b. 1868) and 27 (Quincey, b. 1866) at the time of the novel.

Abraham Van Helsing: Abraham is given as being in his 50s. I’m putting him at 52 because this was William Thornley Stoker’s age at the time of Dracula’s publication, and I tend to imagine that Van Helsing is pretty solidly based, at least in part, on Thornley.

Dracula: I post about how i’m like… not at all a fan of the Drac = Vlad III from time to time, but if you want to get into specifics as to what age I think he hails from, it’s the 1500s to 1600s rather than the 1400s. I could explain, but this guy already did.

I don’t demo in public too much anymore I guess I’m getting shy in my old age but this was for the tempt one tournament benefiting victims of ALS and raising awareness beyond the ice bucket challenge.The hard part for me was that I wasn’t allowed to hit the floor but with the help of the tournament participants we raised over $15,000 yesterday to benefit victims of ALS.

Just what is ALS?

ALS was first found in 1869 by French neurologist Jean-Martin Charcot, but it wasn’t until 1939 that Lou Gehrig brought national and international attention to the disease. Ending the career of one of the most beloved baseball players of all time, the disease is still most closely associated with his name. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects nerve cells in the brain and the spinal cord. Motor neurons reach from the brain to the spinal cord and from the spinal cord to the muscles throughout the body. The progressive degeneration of the motor neurons in ALS eventually leads to their death. When the motor neurons die, the ability of the brain to initiate and control muscle movement is lost. With voluntary muscle action progressively affected, patients in the later stages of the disease may become totally paralyzed.