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HOW INFORMATION TRAVELS IN A CELL AND BETWEEN CELLS
Scientific Illustration by Nicole Rager Fuller / Sayo Studios, 2014

  1. The key components of genetics: chromosomes, DNA, RNA, and protein production.
  2. Cell Signaling and Drug Action
  3. Growth factors (the blue and purple spheres) bind to certain receiving proteins, called receptors, which relay the growth factor signals into the cell. These signals are further relayed through a large network of proteins by kinases, which eventually change the activity of genes within the nucleus.
  4. Cell signaling is the process used by cells to communicate with other cells. Signals (hormones, growth factors, calcium, nitric oxide, etc.) originate in a cell, leave, and then enter and are interpreted by another cell.
  5. The protein production process in an animal cell, from transcription and translation, to the folding of amino acids into functional proteins.

(via DNA and Genetics)

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THE MINERALOGY OF PROTO-PLANET ‘4 VESTA’
[Modified from an article at Discovery News - via astrovisual]

NASA’s Dawn spacecraft orbited the massive asteroid Vesta in 2011 and 2012, sending back data on landscape, craters and mineral composition.

Using data from the mission, scientists at Max Planck Institute for Solar System Research in Katlenburg-Lindau, Germany have produced a [false-color] view of this otherwise bland landscape.

  • Dawn’s camera system is equipped with seven filters, each filter sensitive to a specific wavelength of light.
  • Normally, Vesta would look gray to the naked eye,
  • but when analyzing the ratios of light through Vesta’s filters,
    the landscape pops with color,
  • each shade representing different kinds of minerals.
  • (Different minerals reflect and absorb different wavelengths of light,)

[1] A “global” model of Vesta shows the abundance of hydrogen on Vesta’s surface … likely from hydroxyl or water bound to minerals in the surface.

  • It is because of its non-ellipsoid shape that Vesta is not labelled a ’dwarf planet’ like Ceres.

[2] The flow of material inside and outside a crater called Aelia is demonstrated. Each color represents a different kind of mineral.

[3] Antonia, a crater located inside the huge Rheasilvia basin in the southern hemisphere of Vesta. 

[4] The impact crater Sextilia can be seen in the lower right of this image. The mottled dark patches are likely impact ejecta from a massive impact and the reddish regions are thought to be rock that melted during the impact. The diversity of the mineralogy is obvious here.

[5] This is the distinctive Oppia crater, an impact that occurred on a slope. This produced an asymmetric ejecta distribution around the crater – the red/orange ejecta material is more abundant around the downward slope than around the upward portion.

ALL IMAGES: NASA/JPL-CALTECH/UCLAMPS/DLR/IDA
SOURCE for images and text: Discovery News

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PYTHAGOREAN TRIPLE
 ►TOP◄  A Pythagorean triple consists of three positive integers
     a, b, and c, such that a2 + b2 = c2

  • Such a triple is commonly written (a, b, c).
  • A well-known example is (3, 4, 5).

A right triangle whose sides form a Pythagorean triple is called a Pythagorean triangle. (Pythagorean triple - Wikipedia)

BOTTOM  A depiction (by Adam Cunningham and John Ringland) of all the primitive Pythagorean triples (a,b,c) with a and b < 1170 and a odd, where a is plotted on the horizontal axis, b on the vertical. 
Continue reading

Larger version of the diagram …

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A BIODIVERSE CORNUCOPIA OF MARINE ANIMALS
Singapore Mega marine Survey 2013
Photographer: Dr Arthur Anker
Date Taken: 2013-06-01

  1. Sea anemone with a miniature sea pen on the disc
  2. Sea pen (Veretillum sp)
    Animalia  >  Phylum: Cnidaria  >  Class: Anthozoa  >
    Subclass: Octocorallia  >  Order: Pennatulacea
  3. Diopatra sp 
    Polychaete worm in the family Onuphidae
  4. Cucumariid sea cucumber
    Animalia  >  Phylum: Echinodermata  >  Subphylum: Echinozoa  >
    Class: Holothuroidea
  5. Gorgonian polyps [sea whips / sea fans]
    Animalia  >  Phylum: Cnidaria  >  Class: Anthozoa  > …
  6. Bornella stellifer -  a nudibranch
    Animalia  >  Phylum: Mollusca  >  Class: Gastropoda
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Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Laboratory 
Produces Quark Soup at Big Bang Temperatures of 4 trillion degrees Celsius

  • Brookhaven’s accelerator physicists have begun pumping liquid helium into RHIC’s 1,740 superconducting magnets to chill them to near absolute zero (-273 degrees Celsius—the coldest anything can get).
  • When the magnets are operating with zero energy loss, the physicists will begin injecting beams of gold ions and steering them into head-on collisions at nearly the speed of light.
  • These collisions create temperatures of 4 trillion degrees Celsius, or 250,000 times hotter than the center of the sun.

  • The result is a liquid quark-gluon plasma, mimicking the universe an instant after the Big Bang.

SOURCE: Brookhaven National Laboratory Newsroom February 3, 2014

TOP IMAGE:  Credit: Enrique Diaz  ||  The massive STAR detector that tracks the thousands of particles produced by each ion collision weighs 1,200 tons and is as large as a house. It is used (with the HFT, below) to search for signatures of quark-gluon plasma (QGP), the form of matter that RHIC was designed to create.
_________________________

MIDDLE IMAGE:    Installed in the STAR detector, the Heavy Flavor Tracker tracks particles made of “charm” and “beauty” quarks, rare varieties (or “flavors”) that are more massive than the lighter “up” and “down” quarks that make up ordinary matter.

[1] The central portion of the Heavy Flavor Tracker (HFT) being installed at RHIC’s STAR detector (top), and  [2] the surrounding portion before installation (bottom).  Via BNL Newsroom.  
_________________________

BOTTOM IMAGE: Technician Mike Myers checks components of stochastic cooling “kickers,” which generate electric fields to nudge ions in RHIC’s gold beams back into tightly packed bunches.  (via ScienceDaily)

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TOP Aplysia fasciata || The Black sea hare || a/k/a mottled sea hare, sooty sea hare
Animalia  >  Mollusca  >  Gastropoda  >  Heterobranchia / Opisthobranchia  >  …
February 12, 2014

BOTTOM Azorean Sea hares.
Aplysia depilans || Aplysia fasciata || Aplysia punctata
February 10, 2014

Digital illustration by Justin Hart (Marine Life Photography and Art)
Biologist  ||  Madalena do Pico, Azores  ||  blog

Goblet and Secretory Cells
Colored transmission electron micrograph of a section through a goblet cell and secretory cells of the duodenum, part of the small intestine.

  • Goblet cells (pink & blue) secrete mucus which neutralizes stomach acid.
  • Mucigen granules (circular objects, at upper center) combine with water to form the mucus.
  • On either side of the goblet cell are the secretory cells whose secretions help in the digestive process.
  • The microvilli (green hair- like structures, upper frame) serve to increase the secretory capacity of the secretory cells by increasing their surface area. 

CREDIT: Science Photo

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Micrographia : or, Some physiological descriptions of minute bodies made by magnifying glasses : with observations and inquiries thereupon 

Robert Hooke, 1635-1703.
London : Printed by Jo. Marten, and Ja. Allestry, 1665.
Engraved title vignette  |  Copperplate engravings.
XXXVIII leaves of plates (some folded)
Initial imprimatur leaf by the Council of the Royal Society of London
________________________________________

Engravings at National Library of Medicine 
Text and engravings: Biodiversity Library 
Bibliographic information: NLM

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DAVID ATTENBOROUGH SPEAKS OUT ON
ANTI-EVOLUTIONISTS AND CLIMATE CHANGE DENIERS 
By Nico Hines for the Daily Beast, reprinted here in condensed form

Sir David Attenborough is one of the great naturalists of our time, celebrated for decades of peerless documentary making, an infectious love of the animal kingdom, and that distinctive and enthusiastic whisper.

In the U.S. Attenborough is perhaps best known for the Life on Earth series that was broadcast on PBS in the 1980’s. On the other side of the Atlantic he is an institution, recently winning a BBC poll to find the greatest living British icon.

Attenborough says he has grown sick of America’s attitude to climate change.

“I think it’s very sad that people won’t accept evidence for what it says—it’s extraordinary that one of the wealthiest, materially advanced societies in the world can support irrational myths in that way,” he said. “That they should do it privately is up to them but since what they do effects that whole world it’s pretty serious that they should not accept that humanity has been responsible for these changes that are absolutely evident to everyone else.”

He does have sympathy for those who resist the prevailing science on climate change.

There are very good reasons why people should not wish to accept it, because it interferes with their business,” he said. “I would much prefer it wasn’t true—but it is true and unless we can do something about it we are going to be in trouble.” 

He has less time for those who deny the existence of evolution, however.

Every society in the world has found it necessary to produce a story to account for the fact that humanity is on earth,” he said. “The Australian Aboriginals think that the first humans were regurgitated by a great rainbow serpent in the sky, the people in Thailand think the beginning of the world was a huge pool of milk and a snake was pulled by demons, and the milk coagulated and that formed human beings and there was a time, two and a half to three thousand years ago, when people on the east end of the Mediterranean thought woman was made from the rib of the first man.

“If somebody says to me I believe every word of the Bible is true, you can’t argue against that degree of irrationality…there is actually a way of looking at the natural world and seeing the evidence and it’s all there. And what’s more it’s the same evidence whether it’s in Australia or Northern Europe or wherever. It’s all the same—it all produces the same answer and you can all see the evidence—if you reject that then there’s nothing I can say.”

Attenborough and his fellow naturalists have been demonstrating the science behind evolution and the fossils that show the development of animal species for decades, and yet recent years have seen an uptick in the number of Americans who believe God put humans directly on earth. One suggested explanation, has been the surge of unchecked disinformation available online.

“Never before in history has the entire world been able to speak to one another. We are at the beginning of an extraordinary evolution as a species—one species is able to communicate instantly with every member,” Attenborough said. “I’m not so cynical as to think that ignorance will always win.”

Abbreviated form of article/interview by Nico Hines in the Daily Beast (February 2014) published in their entertainment section (they have no science section)

Portrait photograph by Sam Faulkner.

Crash in sardine population may explain sick sea lion pups

Colder water in the Pacific beside California may be why we’re seeing more giant squid and different types of whales — the annual gray whale migration toward Baja California is booming this year — but it may also be part of the cascading causes of an alarming crash in the numbers of sardines.

Read more

SOURCE: Ocean Conservation Society on Facebook

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  • Levûre de bière, vue au microscope
    Yeast in beer seen through a microscope
  • Coupe d'un grain de blé grossi 40 fois
    A grain of wheat, in [cross-]section, magnified 40 times

Collated and posted by El Bibliomata on Flickr.
FROM: Les merveilles de l’industrie ou, Description des principales industries modernes / par Louis Figuier.
Paris : Furne, Jouvet, [1873-1877]

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Selected Micrographs of Embryos & Larvae
from Participants in the 2013 Marine Biological Laboratory
Widefield and Confocal Microscopy Summer Courses
Woods Hole, Massachusetts
Via ZEISS Microscopy on Flickr

  1. 3rd instar wing disk from Drosophila melanogaster. Various cell lineage clones shown in yellow, blue, and purple / nuclei shown in gray.
  2. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of a multistained squid embryo
  3. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of a multistained Platynereis larva.
  4. Confocal fluorescence microscopy of a multistained Capitella larva.

[source]
 More details at theNode and the Marine Biological Laboratory …

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Vintage Scientific Illustration

Demostraçao experimental do principio d’Archimedes
1031042   

From El Bibliomata on Flickr.
_______________________________

Balanças
1031076 

From Biblioteca de la Facultad de Derecho y Ciencias del Trabajo Universidad de Sevilla on Flickr.

SOURCE:  Novo diccionário encyclopédico luso-brasileiro / organizado e publicado pela Livraria Lello sob a direcçao de Joao Grave e Coelho Netto. - Porto : Lello & Irmao,