Jellyfish, most of the time, look nothing like jellyfish. They look like tiny little bread-crumb sized sea anemones.
These “polyps”, as they’re technically (tragically?) called, can hide all over the place; under shells, docks, logs, etc.
They’re also really good at copying themselves. One polyp can turn into hundreds over a season by growing and dividing. The best part? Like little living 3D printers, they can churn out copies of their same old polyp body over and over again … or they can mix things up and start making a different body: Jellyfish.
Jellyfish as we know them start their lives as little jelly rolls (see what I just did there?) on the polyp body. Each jelly roll develops into a wee jellyfish, which eventually breaks off and swims into the ocean, starting the whole cycle over.
The first analysis of life-cycle regulation in a basal metazoan The life cycle of scyphozoan cnidarians alternates between sessile asexual polyps and pelagic medusa. Transition from one life form to another is triggered by environmental signals, but the molecular cascades involved in the drastic morphological and physiological changes remain unknown.
Our findings uncover the molecule framework controlling the polyp-to-jellyfish transition in a basal metazoan and provide insights into the evolution of complex life cycles in the animal kingdom.
CONSEQUENCES OF REMOVING LARGE PREDATORS FROM NATURE: A cascade of failing ecosystems
Review Article: Trophic Downgrading of Planet Earth James A. Estes, John Terborgh, et al.
“Modern extinctions are largely being caused by a single species, Homo sapiens. From its onset in the late Pleistocene, [this] sixth mass extinction has been characterized by the loss of larger-bodied animals in general and of apex consumers in particular.”
 “The loss of apex consumers is arguably humankind’s most pervasive influence on the natural world. This is true in part because it has occurred globally and in part because extinctions are by their very nature perpetual, whereas most other environmental impacts are potentially reversible on decadal to millenial time scales.”
 “The omnipresence of top-down control in ecosystems is not widely appreciated because several of its key components are difficult to observe. The main reason for this is that species interactions, which are invisible under static or equilibrial conditions, must be perturbed if one is to witness and describe them. Even with such perturbations, responses to the loss or addition of a species may require years or decades to become evident."
 "Recent research suggests that the disappearance of these animals reverberates further than previously anticipated, with far-reaching effects on processes as diverse as the dynamics of disease; fire; carbon sequestration; invasive species; and biogeochemical exchanges among Earth’s soil, water, and atmosphere.”
The Most Dangerous Species in the Mediterranean CREDIT: Agencia Catalan de l'Aigua Posted in March, 2011 on Visual.ly
The oceanic waters are home to many ferocious and intimidating creatures but the most dangerous of all creatures appears to be the humans. Human waste deposited into the oceanic waters can reap negative effects on the marine life in many ways.
This infographic examines the most common types of human wastes, how the waste affects the marine life, and how just how long the average lifespan of article is. Watch out for long living ferocious beasts like the plastic bottle, the tin can, and the battery.
The Milky Way, along the Galactic plane Seen in Wavelengths from Radio frequency through Gamma rays
Radio map at 408 Mhz, showing mainly emission due to scattering of free electrons in the interstellar plasma (i.e. hot gas). The large arc is due to a nearby supernova remnant.
21 cm radiation map, showing the distribution of neutral Hydrogen gas in the galactic disk, and a few nearby arcs from recent supernovae.
Distribution of H2, or molecular Hydrogen.This maps the “cold” gas in the Galaxy, from which stars will eventually form. The actual observed molecule is CO, rather than H2, which is very difficult to detect directly. The star forming layer of gas is remarkably thin. Infrared maps at the wavelengths 12, 60 and 100 microns.
Infrared emission predominately comes from interstellar dust which is “warmed” to a few 10’s of degrees Kelvin by the ambient radiation field of the Galaxy’s stars.
Near Infrared emission is dominated by cool stars. Since these are typically either old or long-lived stars, this is our best view of the Galaxy with the hot, bright young stars removed. Dust absorption at these wavelengths is very low and we get a clear view all the way to the Galactic center of the disk and bulge.
Opticalimage of the Galaxy showing the huge effects that dust absorption has on our view of the central regions of the Galaxy. The emission is dominated by young and old stars and by the effects of dust.
X-ray image taken by the Rosat satellite. This view, less clear than the others is dominated by supernova remnants (some of the arc-like features) as well as individual sources of X-radiation from close binary stars or black hole candidates.
Gamma ray view of the Galaxy is dominated by emission from Cosmic Rays (high energy particles) decelerating in the interstellar medium
THE LARVAE (AND ADULT FEMALE) OF THE TRILOBITE BEETLE
The trilobite [beetle] genus (Duliticola) belongs to the family Lycidae, commonly known as net-winged beetles.
This family is a pretty interesting one, because many of its species display huge physical differences between their males and their females. Trilobite beetles are no exception. While the females are easily recognisable – that incredible form is retained from when they were larvae [see Wikipedia neoteny] – the males look entirely different. They pretty much just look like plain old beetles, with long, winged bodies and a pair of thick antennae.
May 27 marks the 107th anniversary of the birth of Rachel Louise Carson, the environmentalist whose research led to the 1972 banning, in the United States, of [DDT].
The American-born marine biologist and writer is best known for her 1962 book Silent Spring, which is credited with launching the global contemporary environmental movement.
Silent Spring focuses on the impact of synthetic pesticides on the environment—with the title referring to the absence of birdsong across swathes of agricultural landscape following the widespread introduction of pesticides and other intensive farming practices.
The book sparked a public outcry, bringing to widespread attention the effects of these chemicals both on the ecosystem and on human health.
Although her research was attacked by chemical companies, a decade after her book was published, and years after her death, her book led to a nationwide ban of DDT, a colourless and crystalline organochloride with insecticidal properties, and other pesticides. Silent Spring demonstrated that these pesticides could cause cancer and that their agricultural use was a threat to wildlife, particularly to birds.
FLY-BY OF A SCHWARZSCHILD BLACK HOLE What you’re seeing is a sequence of “Einstein Rings"
Einstein Ring is a term from observational astronomy. It’s an artifact of the gravitational lensing of light (from a star or galaxy) by a massively massive astronomical object (like a black hole or another galaxy).
In order for an Einstein Ring to appear, all three—the light source, the massive lens, and the observer—must all be aligned. In other words, it occurs when the object that you’re seeing as an Einstein ring is directly behind the object that is the gravitational lens.
Gravitational lensing is predicted by Albert Einstein’s theory of general relativity. Instead of light from a source traveling in a straight line (in three dimensions), it is bent by the presence of a massive body, which distorts spacetime.
The animation above is
a simulation depicting a zoom-in on a Schwarzschild black hole in front of the Milky Way.
The first Einstein ring corresponds to the most distorted region of the picture and is clearly depicted by the galactic disc.
The zoom then reveals a series of 4 extra rings, increasingly thinner and closer to the black hole shadow. They are easily seen through the multiple images of the galactic disk.
The odd-numbered rings correspond to [images of objects] which are behind the black hole (from the observer’s point of view); they correspond here to the bright yellow region of the galactic disc (close to the galactic center).
The even-numbered rings correspond to images of objects which are behind the observer. These objects appear bluer since the corresponding part of the galactic disc is thinner and hence dimmer. [WP]
NOTE: This is sometimes mistakenly called “Curry’s Paradox,” because it was originated by a New York magician named Paul Curry. The actual Curry’s Paradox is a paradox in logic named for Haskell Curry.
Rosalind Franklin’s 1952 X-ray diffraction image of DNA, known as photo 51, led to James Watson and Francis Crick’s famous model of the double helix.
The photograph provided key information that was essential for developing a model of DNA.The diffraction pattern determined the helical nature of the double helix strands (antiparallel). The outside linings of DNA have a phosphate backbone, and codes for inheritance are inside the helix. Watson and Crick’s calculations from Franklin’s photography gave crucial parameters for the size and structure of the helix.
James Watson was shown the photo by Maurice Wilkins without Rosalind Franklin’s approval or knowledge and along with Francis Crick, Watson used characteristics and features of Photo 51 to develop the chemical model of DNA molecule.
WITHOUT URGENT, COORDINATED ACTION NOW, THE WORLD IS HEADED FOR A “POST-ANTIBIOTIC ERA" Common infections and minor injuries — treatable now for decades — will once again become potential killers.
WORLD HEALTH ORGANIZATION ISSUES SPECIAL REPORT News release 30 APRIL 2014 | WHO, Geneva The new WHO report provides the most comprehensive picture of antibiotic resistance to date, with data from 114 countries.
SUMMARY Antimicrobial resistance, including antibiotic resistance, is no longer a prediction for the future, it is happening right now in every region of the world and has the potential to affect anyone, of any age, in any country. ________________________________________
Antibiotic resistance–when bacteria change so antibiotics no longer work to treat infections–is now a major threat to public health.
“Without urgent, coordinated action by many stakeholders, the world is headed for a post-antibiotic era, in which common infections and minor injuries which have been treatable for decades can once again kill,” says Dr Keiji Fukuda, WHO’s Assistant Director-General for Health Security. “Effective antibiotics have been one of the pillars allowing us to live longer, live healthier, and benefit from modern medicine. Unless we take significant actions to improve efforts to prevent infections and also change how we produce, prescribe and use antibiotics, the world will lose more and more of these global public health goods and the implications will be devastating.”
KEY FINDINGS OF THE REPORT The report focuses on antibiotic resistance in seven different bacteria responsible for common, serious diseases such as bloodstream infections (sepsis), diarrhea, pneumonia, urinary tract infections and gonorrhea. The results are cause for high concern, documenting resistance to antibiotics, especially “last resort” antibiotics, in all regions of the world.
The treatment of last resort for life-threatening infections caused by a common intestinal bacteria, Klebsiella pneumoniae is carbapenem antibiotics. Resistance to this has spread to all regions of the world. (K. pneumoniae is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections such as pneumonia, bloodstream infections, infections in newborns and intensive-care unit patients.) In some countries … carbapenem antibiotics do not work in more than half of people treated for K. pneumoniae infections.
Fluoroquinolones are one of the most widely used antibacterial medicines for the treatment of urinary tract infections caused by E. coli– Resistance is now very widespread. In the 1980s, when these drugs were first introduced, resistance was virtually zero. Today, there are countries in many parts of the world where this treatment is now ineffective in more than half of patients.
More than 1 million people are infected with gonorrhea around the world every day. The last resort of treatment for gonorrhea is third generation cephalosporins, but treatment failure has been confirmed in Austria, Australia, Canada, France, Japan, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Sweden and the United Kingdom.
Antibiotic resistance causes people to be sick for longer and increases the risk of death. For example, people with MRSA (methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus) are estimated to be 64% more likely to die than people with a non-resistant form of the infection. Resistance also increases the cost of health care with lengthier stays in hospital and more intensive care required.
Titin — also known as connectin — is a giant protein that functions as a molecular spring which is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle. … Titin is important in the contraction of striated muscle tissues.
The April 1, 2014 M 8.2 earthquake in northern Chile occurred as the result of thrust faulting at shallow depths near the Chilean coast.
The location and mechanism of the earthquake are consistent with slip on the primary plate boundary interface, or megathrust, between the Nazca and South America plates. At the latitude of the earthquake, the Nazca plate subducts eastward beneath the South America plate at a rate of 65 mm/yr.
Subduction along the Peru-Chile Trench to the west of Chile has led to uplift of the Andes mountain range and has produced some of the largest earthquakes in the world, including the 2010 M 8.8 Maule earthquake in central Chile, and the largest earthquake on record, the 1960 M 9.5 earthquake in southern Chile.
TSUNAMI INFORMATION STATEMENT NUMBER 3 NWS PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER EWA BEACH HI 235 PM HST TUE APR 01 2014
TO - CIVIL DEFENSE IN THE STATE OF HAWAII SUBJECT - TSUNAMI INFORMATION STATEMENT
THIS STATEMENT IS FOR INFORMATION ONLY. NO ACTION IS REQUIRED AT THIS TIME. HOWEVER… THE TSUNAMI THREAT TO HAWAII IS STILL BEING EVALUATED.
THE PACIFIC TSUNAMI WARNING CENTER HAS ISSUED AN EXPANDING REGIONAL TSUNAMI WARNING AND WATCH FOR PARTS OF THE PACIFIC LOCATED CLOSER TO THE EARTHQUAKE. AN EVALUATION OF THE PACIFIC WIDE TSUNAMI THREAT IS UNDERWAY AND THERE IS A POSSIBILITY THAT HAWAII COULD BE ELEVATED TO A WATCH OR WARNING STATUS.
IF TSUNAMI WAVES IMPACT HAWAII THEIR ESTIMATED EARLIEST ARRIVAL TIME IS 0324 AM HST WED 02 APR 2014