japanese american relocation

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February 19th 1942: Japanese internment begins

On this day in 1942, US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive order 9066 which allowed the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to internment camps. A climate of paranoia descended on the US following the attack on the naval base at Pearl Harbor by the Empire of Japan, which prompted the US to join the Second World War. Americans of Japanese ancestry became targets for persecution, as there were fears that they would collude with Japan and pose a national security threat. This came to a head with FDR’s executive order, which led to 120,000 Japanese-Americans being rounded up and held in camps. The constitutionality of the controversial measure was upheld by the Supreme Court in Korematsu v. United States (1944). Interned Americans suffered great material and personal hardship, with most people losing their property and some losing their lives to illness or the violence of camp sentries. The victims of internment and their families eventually received an official government apology in 1988 and reparations began in the 1990s. This dark episode of American history is often forgotten in the narrative of US involvement in the Second World War, but Japanese internment poses a stark reminder of the dangers of paranoia and scapegoating.

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August 10th 1988: Reparations for Japanese-Americans

On this day in 1988, U.S. President Ronald Reagan signed the Civil Liberties Act of 1988 into law, apologising and providing reparations to Japanese-Americans who were interned in camps during the Second World War. After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, which prompted the United States to join World War Two on the Allied side, President Franklin D. Roosevelt issued an executive order allowing the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to internment camps. The order withstood a Supreme Court challenge, and ultimately nearly 120,000 people were held in such camps. Those imprisoned suffered great material and personal losses, with most losing property and some losing their lives to illness or the violence of sentries. There were frequent calls for reparations for this crime against people of Japanese descent, and in 1988 the government officially apologised and provided for $20,000 in compensation for each survivor, with payments beginning in 1990. The 1988 Civil Liberties Act bill received primarily Democratic votes, with many Republican members of Congress voting against it.

“The Congress recognizes that…a grave injustice was done to both citizens and permanent residents of Japanese ancestry by the evacuation, relocation, and internment of civilians during World War II”

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February 19th 1942: Japanese internment

On this day in 1942 US President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive order 9066 which allowed the military to relocate Japanese-Americans to internment camps. Japanese-Americans were considered a national threat due the attack on Pearl Harbour which prompted the US to join World War Two. Other groups were also detained, but it was Japanese-Americans who were mostly targeted, with 120,000 being held in camps. In Korematsu v. United States (1944), the Supreme Court upheld the constitutionality of the executive order. Those interned suffered great material and personal losses, with most losing a lot of property and some losing their lives to illness or the violence of sentries. The victims and their families eventually received an official government apology in 1988 and reparations began in the 1990s.

Santa at a WWII Internment Camp - Children of Japanese-American U.S. Soldiers - Minidoka Relocation Center, Hunt, Idaho - 1944

heyits_poky:

“In this photo provided by the War Relocation Authority, beneath their sage-brush Christmas tree, children of Japanese American soldiers now overseas are entertained by Seiichi Hara, USO chairman at the Minidoka Relocation Center, Hunt, Idaho, Dec. 18, 1944, who as Santa Claus brought them presents from their soldier fathers fighting in the United States army. (AP Photo/Interior Department War Relocation Authority)” Source: AP Images

businessinsider.com
46 photos of life at a Japanese internment camp, taken by Ansel Adams
In 1943, legendary photographer Ansel Adams visited Manzanar, a Japanese internment camp in California's Sierra Nevada mountains.
By Brian Jones

Even at the time, this policy was opposed by many Americans, including renowned photographer Ansel Adams, who in the summer of 1943 made his first visit to Manzanar War Relocation Camp in the Sierra Nevada Mountains.

Invited by the warden, Adams sought to document the living conditions of the camp’s inhabitants.

His photos were published in a book titled “Born Free and Equal: The Story of Loyal Japanese-Americans” in 1944, with an accompanying exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art.

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W.R.A. Leave Pass, Teiji Okuda, No. 15771

Those incarcerated at the War Relocation Centers (Japanese Internment Camps) were denied many of their civil and personal liberties. The freedom to travel outside of the camps was severely restricted. However, internees could leave the camps if they were able to join the work-release program. 

(Smithsonian Institution)

anonymous asked:

first girl born at tule lake

Thanks for your question!  A quick search of our online catalog doesn’t turn up the first girl born at the Tule Lake Relocation Center, but we do have photos of the first baby reportedly born at Tule Lake:

Tule Lake Relocation Center, Newell, California. Proud Mrs. Kumiko Noda, 23, evacuee from Florin, California, holds her new son, Newell Kazuo Noda. Baby Newell arrived at 6:12 A.M., Sunday, June 12, and was the first child born at this War Relocation Authority center for evacuee of Japanese descent." 07/01/1942
National Archives Identifier: 538210
Series: Central Photographic File of the War Relocation Authority, 1942 - 1945

More photos and records from the Tule Lake Relocation Center: