james graham marquis of montrose

15th August 1645 saw the Battle of Kilsyth.

This battle was during the Wars of the Three Kingdoms. James Graham, the Marquis of Montrose, defeated General Baillie’s Covenanter Army. 

The Covenanter government of Scotland had entered into alliance with the English parliament and had entered the Civil War in England in early 1644, the Scottish army having a dramatic impact in the campaign for the north of England. In response, following the royalists’ dramatic defeat at Marston Moor, the King appointed the Marquis of Montrose as his military commander in Scotland. On 28th August 1644 Montrose raised the royal standard and, for most of the time with little more than 2000 troops, fought a campaign in which he won a series of dramatic successes in the Highlands against the Covenanter forces. Heavily outnumbered, he effectively exploited the terrain to outmanoeuvre the Covenanter army.  Having won victories at Tippermuir, Aberdeen, Fyvie, Inverlochy, Auldearn and Alford he now attempted to break into the Lowlands. This was the only positive news for the embattled Charles I, whose cause was now heading for destruction in England, having just lost the battles of Naseby (Northamptonshire) and of Langport (Somerset). The king’s strategy now moved towards the uniting of Scottish and English royalist forces in a final desperate attempt to salvage the war.

From Alford, the royalists headed south along the east coast making for Glasgow. Two Covenanter forces, under Argyll and Baillie, followed in pursuit. Montrose turned to engage them at Kilsyth, where the route from Stirling to Glasgow skirts south of the Campsie Fells. In the ensuing battle the royalists destroyed the last Covenanter army in Scotland, in what was to prove the high point of the royalist campaign in Scotland.