On March 23rd 1708 a French fleet with James Francis Edward Stuart reached the Firth of Forth where they tried to land James on the Fife shore at the head of a 5,000-strong French army. They were prevented from doing so by English warships under Admiral Byng combined with bad weather.
The French admiral in charge of the fleet called off the attempt, refusing James’ pleas to be put ashore, alone if necessary. James returned had no choice but to France.
Mary of Modena, 1658 - 1718. Consort of James VII and II
By Willem Wissing, 1687
This glamourous portrait of Mary of Modena was painted following her husband, James VII and II’s, accession to the throne in 1685. A devout catholic, Mary had intended to enter a convent. However, in 1673, following the Pope’s encouragement that she should marry, she became James’s second wife. Wissing has included a cockatoo as a reference to the significance of religion in Mary’s life. Her new role as Queen Consort is emphasised by the addition of a crown, which sits on a ledge to her right. Mary gave birth to James Francis Edward Stuart in 1688, the Jacobite claimant to the throne following James VII and II’s deposition.
'Arlequin sur l'Hippogryphe a la croisade Lojoliste Armée van den heylige lingue voor der jesuiten monarchy.' (1689) / Romeyne de Hooghe
Print shows Louis XIV as the harlequin, with pegged leg, riding on the “hippogryphe” or jackass, leading a holy crusade. He wears a large biretta that also fits over the head of James II sitting behind him; they both wear armor. Hanging from the saddle is a shield bearing the monogram IHS of the Society of Jesus. In the foreground, Father Petre, confessor of James II, rides a lobster; he is holding James Francis, the infant son of James II, known as the Pretender, with a small windmill on top of his head. On the left, behind the main scene, ambassadors of the holy league ride on a snail and councillors and vicars ride on owls; on the right, monks drag cannon past a gallows. In the background, a ship, “Sinte Reynuyt”, departs, and men pull down statues from church facades. Includes descriptive verse with key to numbered figures.