Symptom, Dispute, Barreness, and Entropy: the Four Stable Boys of the Apocalypse!

“Their whole purpose is to push a potentially false apocalypse into the real thing.”

(from Xombi vol. 1, no. 3)

Comic book religion factoid!: The Four Horsemen of the Apocalypse first appear in the Book of Revelation in the Christian Bible (6:1-8). They are not named in the text, but they are often called Conquest (riding a white horse), War (red), Famine (black), and Death (pale green). However, most comic book representations of the Horsemen–here, as well as in the X-Men comics and Wonder Woman–change Conquest/white to Pestilence or Plague, who does not appear at all in the biblical texts. Presumably a disease-bearer makes for a better super-villain than Conquest, who, by definition, cannot lose.

Union Army guard at Price, Birch & Co. slave pen at Alexandria, Virginia, circa 1865. Detail of albumen print. Photograph by Andrew J. Russell

The pens were torn down in 1870, and the building then spent nearly a century as a nondescript Alexandrian row house. In 1996 the house became the headquarters for the Northern Virginia Urban League. The building was renamed Freedom House, and contains offices and also a museum in the basement.

Between 1830 and 1836, at the height of the American cotton market, the District of Columbia, which at that time included Alexandria, Virginia, was considered the seat of the slave trade.

The most infamous and successful firm in the capital was Franklin & Armfield, whose slave pen is shown here under a later owner’s name. Three to four hundred slaves were regularly kept on the premises in large, heavily locked cells for sale to Southern plantation owners. According to a note by Alexander Gardner, who published a similar view,“Before the war, a child three years old, would sell in Alexandria, for about fifty dollars, and an able-bodied man at from one thousand to eighteen hundred dollars. A woman would bring from five hundred to fifteen hundred dollars, according to her age and personal attractions.”

Late in the 1830s Franklin and Armfield, already millionaires from the profits they had made, sold out to George Kephart, one of their former agents. Although slavery was outlawed in the District in 1850, it flourished across the Potomac in Alexandria. In 1859, Kephart joined William Birch, J. C. Cook, and C. M. Price and conducted business under the name of Price, Birch & Co. The partnership was dissolved in 1859, but Kephart continued operating his slave pen until Union troops seized the city in the spring of 1861.