κατάκισσος (katakissos), ivy-wreathed κισσεοχαίτης (kisseochaitēs), wreathed with ivy, epith. of Apollo κισσηρεφής (kissērephēs), ivy-clad κίσσινος (kissinos), of ivy κισσόβρυος (kissobruos), luxuriant with ivy κισσοειδής (kissoeidēs), like ivy κισσοκόμης (kissokomēs), ivy-crowned κισσόπλεκτος (kissoplektos), ivy-twined κισσοποίητος (kissopoiētos), made of ivy κισσοστέφανος (kissostephanos), ivy-crowned, of Dionysus κισσοφάγος (kissophagos),
ivy-eating κισσοφόρος (kissophoros), ivy-wreathed, of Dionysus; luxuriant with ivy κισσοχαίτης (kissochaitēs), ivy-tressed, i.e. ivycrowned
κισσοχαρής (kissocharēs), delighting in ivy κισσοχίτων (kissochitōn), ivy-clad κισσωτός (kissōtos), decked with ivy φιλοκισσοφόρος (philokissophoros), fond of wearing ivy, of Dionysus
Gold Ivy and Fruit Wreath found in Chalkidike, Macedonia, Greece, late 4th century BC
From the era of Philip II of Macedon, Alexander the Great’s father. It consists of 30 gold leaves and two sets of fruit. Archaeologists have unearthed only two similar Macedonian wreaths. They claim that they were used by priests during Dionysus’ feast.
Wonderfully Royal has graciously allowed me to host the Royal Tiara Challenge this year. If you would like to look back at last year’s or perhaps still participate in it search the tag #RoyalTiaraChallenge16. This year’s challenge will begin on February 1st and is a mix of old and new prompts. Everyone’s welcome to participate even if it’s only for part of it. Please use the tag #RoyalTiaraChallenge17
A Priestess of Apollo, c.1888, by Sir Lawrence Alma-Tadema
In Greco-Roman mythology, Apollo was the sun god who lived on Mount Olympus, and who, in the guise of the sun, rode his chariot drawn by four horses across the sky each day. In this painting one of the priestesses stands barefoot inside the temple of Apollo looking up towards the sky, perhaps awaiting Apollo’s return in the evening. She wears a spectacular leopard skin tunic and has a wreath of ivy in her hair. These symbolic ornaments, as well as her business in serving wine, suggest her licentious behaviour in the temple.
In ancient times real wreaths of ivy were worn during the festival of Dionysus. The god Dionysus (Roman Bacchus) was usually depicted wearing an an ivy wreath in ancient Greek and Roman art. A wreath such as this one was probably used as funerary goods for a wealthy individual.
Ivy head garland wildharvested in the Scottish highlands, fits head size 22inch , very robust, leaves will dry, but can be removed with simple pinch, ideal for decorating with seasonal flowers etc. Or kept as simple wreath.
MELPOMENE was one of the nine Mousai (Muses), the goddesses of music, song and dance. When the Mousai were assigned specific artistic and literary spheres, Melpomene was named
named Muse of Tragedy and in this guise she was oft portrayed holding a tragic mask or sword, and sometimes wearing a wreath of ivy and cothurnus boots.
Melpomene was so named by the chanting by which she charmed her listeners and derived from the Greek verb melpô or melpomai; her name literally means"to celebrate with dance and song.“
Tetradrachm of Mithradates VI Eupator (Mithradates the Great 120-63 BC), Kingdom of Pontus, struck in September of 73 BC
The coin shows the wonderully detailed head of Mithradates VI facing right, wearing a diadem. The reverse has the inscription BAΣIΛEΩΣ / MIΘPAΔATOY / EYΠATOPOΣ , a stag grazing to the left, a star in crescent above a monogram on left, the date ΔKΣ (year 224) on right, IB in exergue, all within a Dionysiac wreath of ivy and fruit.
The Kingdom of Pontus or Pontic Empire was a state of Greek and Persian origin. It was founded by Mithradates I in 281 BC and lasted until its conquest by the Roman Republic in 63 BC. The kingdom grew to its largest extent under Mithradates VI Eupator (Mithradates the Great). Mithradates VI was the last of the Hellenistic kings to fend off the Romans. He conquered Colchis, Cappadocia, Bithynia, the Greek colonies of the Tauric Chersonesos and for a brief time the Roman province of Asia. After a long struggle with Rome in the Mithridatic Wars, Pontus was defeated. Part of Pontus was incorporated into the Roman Republic as the province Bithynia et Pontus and the eastern half survived as a client kingdom.
Mithradates VI is remembered as one of the Roman Republic’s most formidable and successful enemies, who engaged three of the prominent generals from the late Roman Republic in the Mithridatic Wars: Lucius Cornelius Sulla, Lucullus and Pompey. He was also the greatest ruler of the Kingdom of Pontus, a prince of Persian and Greek ancestry. He claimed descent from Cyrus the Great, from the family of Darius the Great. On the Greek side he was descended from Antigonus I Monophthalmus and Seleucus I Nicator, who were generals of Alexander the Great. After Alexander’s death, they became kings of parts of Alexander’s divided empire.
Mithradates VI issued this coin during his temporarily successful military campaign to free Greece from Roman rule. Like others before him, Mithradates purposely adopted the tousled hair and fierce gaze of the young Macedonian king Alexander the Great (example). However, at the time this coin was struck, Mithradates VI was 50 years old, demonstrating that well over two centuries after Alexander’s death, his portrait was still the archetypal image for kings.