iv dynasty

Ancient Egyptian limestone statue of a married couple named Nebsen and Nebet-Ta. Artist unknown; 18th Dynasty, reign of Thutmose IV or Amenhotep III (ca. 1400-1352 BCE).  Thought to come from Dahamsha; now in the Brooklyn Museum.  Photo credit: David Liam Moran/Wikimedia Commons.

8

SONS AND DAUGHTERS OF YORK

Anne of York - Duchess of Exeter - 1439 - 1476

Edward IV - King of England - 1442 - 1483

Edmund of Rutland - Earl of Rutland - 1443 - 1461

Elizabeth of York - Duchess of Suffolk - 1444 - 1503

Margaret of York - Duchess of Burgundy - 1446 - 1503

George of Clarence - Duke of Clarence - 1449 - 1478

Richard III - King of England - 1452 - 1485

Richard and Cecily had thirteen children altogether, but Joan (1438), Henry (1441), William (1447), John (1448), Thomas (1450/51) and Ursula (1455) died young.

Let me introduce you to Rahotep and his wife Nofret who lived at the end of the III and beginning of the IV dynasty. They were contemporaries of Sneferu and perhaps of Khufu as well. Rahotep was a high official whose father may actually have been Khufu although this is speculation. His wife called Nofret may have also been of royal birth as her name means “known to the king.”

The Great Sphinx of Giza, dating from the reign of King Khafra, Old Kingdom, 4th Dynasty ca. 2558–2532 BC, and the dream stele of Thutmose IV, New Kingdom, 18th Dynasty.

Head of a human and body of a lion, stela records divine prediction that if Thutmose cleared the sand from the sphinx he would become king.

When the queen had been taken into custody by Sir William Kingston she had asked, ‘Master Kingston, shall I die without justice?’ and he had replied, 'The poorest subject the king hath, had justice,’ whereupon she laughed.

Wall relief of Ramesses IV.

20th dynasty.

He received the throne from his father, Ramesses III, and was by then middle-aged. He had been crown prince for 10 years, after his 4 older brothers died.

Ramesses IV came to the throne in difficult circumstances. A plot by one of his father’s secondary wives, Tiye, to establish her own son, Pentawer, on the throne led to an assassination attempt on Ramesses III. The king was badly wounded, and died soon after. Ramesses IV, however, was able to secure himself on the throne, and had the conspirators arrested and executed.

He was an active builder during his short reign. He started building two temples near Thebes, and completed the Temple of Khonsu at Karnak. He also built an inferior funerary temple near his father’s (Medinet Habu).

Despite Ramesses IV’s many endeavours for the gods and his prayer to Osiris - preserved on a stela at Abydos - that “thou shalt give me the great age with a long reign as my predecessor”, the king did not live long enough to accomplish his ambitious goals. He died after only 6 years in power.