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SIMPLE (and regular) VOWEL SYSTEMS

Simple vowel sytems ranging from 3 to 8 vowels. It includes no front rounded vowels, no back unrounded vowels, and only symmetrical systems with little allophony. Examples of languages for each type:

  • 3 vowels [i, u, a] - modern standard Arabic, most australian aboriginal languages, Aleut, Inkutitut (Eskimo langs.), Greenlandic, Quechua, Aymará, Miskito (in Nicaragua), Centras Atlas Berber
  • 4 vowels [i, e, a, o~u] - Cree, Ojibew, Slavey, Dene, Navajo, Nahuatl, Malagasy
  • 5 vowels [i, u, e, o, a] - Spanish, Basque, Sardinian, Mayan languages, Czech, Slovak, Greek, Hebrew, Georgian, Lezgian, Fula, Hausa, Songhay, Swahili, Kinyarwanda, Ganda, Turkana, Luvale, Mbundu, Nyanja, Chichewa, Shona, Ovambo, Xhosa, Zulu, Tsonga, Makua, Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Kadazan Dusun, Japanese, Tok Pisin, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Brahui, Divehi, Maori, Fijian, Samoan, Tuvaluan, Kiribati, Hawaian, Nama-Khoe, Sandawe, Lakota, etc.
  • 6 vowels [i, ɨ, u, e, o, a] - Polish, Russian, Ukrainian, Kashubian, Erzya, Guaraní, Mapuche, Garífuna
  • 6 vowels [i, u, e, o, æ, ɑ] - Persian, Pashto, Tajik, Uzbekh, Egyptian, Iraqi, Najdi, Tunisian and Levantine Arabic, Northern Sami, Nenets, Latvian, Orya, Sinhala.
  • 6 vowels [i, u, e, ə, o, a] - Itelmen, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Kanuri, Marathi, Nepali, Malay, Indonesian, Sundanese, Javanese, Moroccan and Algerian Arabic, Armenian, Cherokee.
  • 7 vowels [i, ɨ, u, e, ə, o, a] - Romanian, Komi, Udmurt, Hakka and Gan Chinese, Amami, Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigre, Malayalam.
  • 7 vowels [i, e, ɛ, u, o, ɔ, a] - Galician, Brazilian Portuguese, Italian, Corsican, Southern Catalan (Valencian), Tedaga, Dazaga, Zaghawa (in Chad), Yorubá, Igbo, Akan, Ewe, Fon, Lingala, Dinka, Nuer, Luo, Masai, Kikuyu, Tswana, Bengali, Haitian Creole.
  • 8 vowels [i, e, ɛ, ə, u, o, ɔ, a] - European Portuguese, Northern Catalan, Wolof, Slovenian, Burmese, Gujarati, Santali.
8

Nationalities in USSR: 

1 picture: 1. Abaza, 2. Abkhaz, 3. Avar, 4. Agul, 5. Adygei, 6. Azerbaijanis, 7. Ainu, 8. Assyrians, 9. Aleut, 10. Altaians, 11. Armenians,12. Archi, 13. Balkars, 14. Bashkirs. 

2 picture: 1. Belarusians, 2. Bulgaria, 3. Buryats, 4. Veps, 5. Vod, 6. Gagauz, 7. Greeks, 8. Georgians, 9. Dargins, 10. Dolgans,11. Dungans, 12. Jews. 

3 picture: 1. Izhors, 2. Ingush, 3. Itelmens, 4. Kabardians, 5. Kazakh,
6. Kalmyks, 7. Karachays, 8. Karakalpak, 9. Karelians, 10. Ket,
11. Kyrgyzstan, 12. Chinese. 

4 picture: 1. Komi, 2. Komi-Permian, 3. Koreans, 4. Koryak, 5. Kumyks, 6. Kurds, 7. Laks, 8. Latvians, 9. Lezgins, 10. Liw, 11 Lithuanians, 12. Mansi, 13. Mari, 14. Moldovans, 15. Mongolians.

5 picture: 1. Mordva-Moksha, 2. Mordva-erzya, 3. Nanai, 4. Nganasans,
5. German, 6. Nenets, 7. Nivkhi, 8. Nogai, 9. Orochi, 10. Ossetians,
11. Russian.

6 picture: 1. Russian, 2. Rutuls, 3. Sami, 4. Sekulps, 5. Serbs,
6. Slovakia, 7. Tabasaran, 8. Tajiks, 9. Astrakhan Tatars,
10. The Tatars of Kazan, 11. Crimean Tatars, 12. Central Asian Tatars.

7 picture: 1. Tata, 2. Tuvinians, 3. Turkmens, 4. Udine, 5. Udmurt, 6. Udege, 7. Uzbeks, 8. Uighurs, 9. Ukrainians, 10. Ulchis, 11. Finns, 12. Khakasses.

8 picture: 1. Hunt, 2. Circassians, 3. Montenegrins, 4. Chechens, 5. Chuvash,
6. Chukchi, 7. Shors, 8. Evenki, 9. Evens, 10. Enets, 11. Eskimos,
12. Estonians, 13. Yukaghirs, 14. Yakuts.