itelmen

The Itelmen, sometimes known as Kamchadal, are an ethnic group who are the original inhabitants living on the Kamchatka Peninsula in Russia. The Itelmen language (ethnonym: Itelmen) is distantly related to Chukchi and Koryak, forming the Chukotko-Kamchatkan language family, but it is now virtually extinct, the vast majority of ethnic Itelmens being native speakers of Russian

The Itelmen had a substantial hunter-gatherer and fishing society with up to fifty thousand natives inhabiting the peninsula before they were decimated by the Cossack conquest in the 18th century.

So much intermarriage took place between the natives and the Cossacks that Kamchadal now refers to the majority mixed population, and the term Itelmens at some point became reserved for persistent speakers of the Itelmen language. By 1993, there were less than 100 elderly speakers of the language left, but some 2,400 people considered themselves ethnic Itelmen in the 1989 census. By 2002, this number had risen to 3,180, and there are attempts at reviving the language. According to the 2010 census, there were 3,193 Itelmen in Russia.

SIMPLE (and regular) VOWEL SYSTEMS

Simple vowel sytems ranging from 3 to 8 vowels. It includes no front rounded vowels, no back unrounded vowels, and only symmetrical systems with little allophony. Examples of languages for each type:

  • 3 vowels [i, u, a] - modern standard Arabic, most australian aboriginal languages, Aleut, Inkutitut (Eskimo langs.), Greenlandic, Quechua, Aymará, Miskito (in Nicaragua), Centras Atlas Berber
  • 4 vowels [i, e, a, o~u] - Cree, Ojibew, Slavey, Dene, Navajo, Nahuatl, Malagasy
  • 5 vowels [i, u, e, o, a] - Spanish, Basque, Sardinian, Mayan languages, Czech, Slovak, Greek, Hebrew, Georgian, Lezgian, Fula, Hausa, Songhay, Swahili, Kinyarwanda, Ganda, Turkana, Luvale, Mbundu, Nyanja, Chichewa, Shona, Ovambo, Xhosa, Zulu, Tsonga, Makua, Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilocano, Kadazan Dusun, Japanese, Tok Pisin, Telugu, Tamil, Kannada, Brahui, Divehi, Maori, Fijian, Samoan, Tuvaluan, Kiribati, Hawaian, Nama-Khoe, Sandawe, Lakota, etc.
  • 6 vowels [i, ɨ, u, e, o, a] - Polish, Russian, Ukrainian, Kashubian, Erzya, Guaraní, Mapuche, Garífuna
  • 6 vowels [i, u, e, o, æ, ɑ] - Persian, Pashto, Tajik, Uzbekh, Egyptian, Iraqi, Najdi, Tunisian and Levantine Arabic, Northern Sami, Nenets, Latvian, Orya, Sinhala.
  • 6 vowels [i, u, e, ə, o, a] - Itelmen, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Kanuri, Marathi, Nepali, Malay, Indonesian, Sundanese, Javanese, Moroccan and Algerian Arabic, Armenian, Cherokee.
  • 7 vowels [i, ɨ, u, e, ə, o, a] - Romanian, Komi, Udmurt, Hakka and Gan Chinese, Amami, Amharic, Tigrinya, Tigre, Malayalam.
  • 7 vowels [i, e, ɛ, u, o, ɔ, a] - Galician, Brazilian Portuguese, Italian, Corsican, Southern Catalan (Valencian), Tedaga, Dazaga, Zaghawa (in Chad), Yorubá, Igbo, Akan, Ewe, Fon, Lingala, Dinka, Nuer, Luo, Masai, Kikuyu, Tswana, Bengali, Haitian Creole.
  • 8 vowels [i, e, ɛ, ə, u, o, ɔ, a] - European Portuguese, Northern Catalan, Wolof, Slovenian, Burmese, Gujarati, Santali.
8

Nationalities in USSR: 

1 picture: 1. Abaza, 2. Abkhaz, 3. Avar, 4. Agul, 5. Adygei, 6. Azerbaijanis, 7. Ainu, 8. Assyrians, 9. Aleut, 10. Altaians, 11. Armenians,12. Archi, 13. Balkars, 14. Bashkirs. 

2 picture: 1. Belarusians, 2. Bulgaria, 3. Buryats, 4. Veps, 5. Vod, 6. Gagauz, 7. Greeks, 8. Georgians, 9. Dargins, 10. Dolgans,11. Dungans, 12. Jews. 

3 picture: 1. Izhors, 2. Ingush, 3. Itelmens, 4. Kabardians, 5. Kazakh,
6. Kalmyks, 7. Karachays, 8. Karakalpak, 9. Karelians, 10. Ket,
11. Kyrgyzstan, 12. Chinese. 

4 picture: 1. Komi, 2. Komi-Permian, 3. Koreans, 4. Koryak, 5. Kumyks, 6. Kurds, 7. Laks, 8. Latvians, 9. Lezgins, 10. Liw, 11 Lithuanians, 12. Mansi, 13. Mari, 14. Moldovans, 15. Mongolians.

5 picture: 1. Mordva-Moksha, 2. Mordva-erzya, 3. Nanai, 4. Nganasans,
5. German, 6. Nenets, 7. Nivkhi, 8. Nogai, 9. Orochi, 10. Ossetians,
11. Russian.

6 picture: 1. Russian, 2. Rutuls, 3. Sami, 4. Sekulps, 5. Serbs,
6. Slovakia, 7. Tabasaran, 8. Tajiks, 9. Astrakhan Tatars,
10. The Tatars of Kazan, 11. Crimean Tatars, 12. Central Asian Tatars.

7 picture: 1. Tata, 2. Tuvinians, 3. Turkmens, 4. Udine, 5. Udmurt, 6. Udege, 7. Uzbeks, 8. Uighurs, 9. Ukrainians, 10. Ulchis, 11. Finns, 12. Khakasses.

8 picture: 1. Hunt, 2. Circassians, 3. Montenegrins, 4. Chechens, 5. Chuvash,
6. Chukchi, 7. Shors, 8. Evenki, 9. Evens, 10. Enets, 11. Eskimos,
12. Estonians, 13. Yukaghirs, 14. Yakuts.