italy pack

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いたりあもちのほんきPixiv ID: 23425226
Member: 理人

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Sto malissimo, mi fa male il petto.
Ho quell'angoscia che mi preme sul cuore e mi fa annodare la gola.
Vorrei piangere, ma devo impormi di non farlo.

Va a finire sempre così.

Ormai dovrei esserci abituata e invece eccomi qui come tante altre volte a scrivere dei miei problemi nel tentativo di fare ordine tra i miei pensieri e le mie emozioni.
E no, non sto parlando del fidanzato che mi ha lasciata: non ce l'ho nemmeno quello e per fortuna non mi importa di averlo ora come ora.

Io piango perché ho paura di non essere abbastanza forte da realizzare il mio sogno di adolescente.
Ho il terrore che non riuscirò mai ad abbracciare quei quattro meravigliosi ragazzi che sanno come colorare le mie giornate.
Quei quattro ragazzi che da più di tre anni mi rendono felice.
Quei quattro ragazzi che significano tutto per me e non lo sanno nemmeno.

E giudicatemi pure.
Tanti penseranno che io sia infantile e stupida per sognare di abbracciare quattro “persone che cantano”.

Ma infondo non posso pretendere che chi non condivide la mia passione riesca a capire.

Se solo vedeste ciò che vedo io.
Se solo ascoltaste come ascolto io.
Se solo apprezzaste ciò che apprezzo io di quei ragazzi.
Allora forse capireste quanta passione c'è dietro ad ogni parola o gesto che faccio per loro; anzi che facciamo per loro.
Io sono solo una delle tante che ama i One Direction.

Per loro passo notti insonni al solo scopo di guardarli cantare dal vivo e essere consapevole che in quei secondi so realmente cosa stanno facendo e non sono solo costretta ad immaginarlo.
Per loro voto instancabilmente nomination e awards perché vederli felici dei premi che vincono rende felice anche me.
Per loro quel sabato sera di giugno ho dato tutta la mia energia e la mia voce tra 80.000 fans nello stadio di San Siro.
Per loro sorrido e piango allo stesso tempo.

Perché avere Liam, Louis, Niall e Harry come idoli è qualcosa di meraviglioso e terribilmente amaro allo stesso tempo.
Sanno farmi ridere fino allo sfinimento, ma sanno anche svuotarmi di tutte le lacrime che possiedo.

—  🌹
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This is revealing a really amazing summer with these beautiful sunsets. I’ve decide to print them out and stick them in my Bullet Journal. Plus, THERE ARE SO MANY FLOWERS HERE, so I was inspired by the sunflowers fields, and draw this little guy.

There is also a little packing list for my vacation in a little city near Urbino (Italy). Always hoping I haven’t forgotten anything. ^^’

Culinary History (Part 38): Ice

Ice harvesting is a very old profession – there were ice harvests in China before 1000 BC.  In Athens, snow was sold from the 400’s BC onwards.  In the 1600’s AD, aristocrats ate puddings from ice bowls, drank wine chilled with snow, and ate iced creams and water ices. But it wasn’t until the 1800’s in America that ice became an industrial commodity, and that its main use became refridgeration and preservation.

Ice was used for cold storage before the 1800’s, but not on a large scale.  Many Italian estates had ice houses – pits or vaults, heavily insulated (usually straw or turf).  Unevenly-hacked slabs of ice could be put in there in winter, and kept cold for the summer.

Ice house, or ghiacciaia, in the Boboli Gardens (Florence, Italy), half-sunk into a shady slope.

These ice houses weren’t used for preserving food, but preserving the ice itself.  Then the rich could have cool drinks or ice-creams in the middle of summer.  Sometimes they were used to supplement the larder, but not often.  Having ice in the summer was a sign of wealth – when Laura Ingalls Wilder said, “The rich get their ice in the summer, but the poor get theirs in the winter,” this is what she was referring to.

America is a huge country, but because there was no refridgeration, dairy and meat could only be sold locally.  Most butchers killed what meat they could sell in a day, and no more.  Unsold meat was called shambles, and left out on the streets to rot.

Green vegetables were rare, unless you lived in the country and had a garden.  The basic diet was salt pork and bread (or cornbread). Producers in the countryside and consumers in the city were too far away from each other.

One of the first fridges was invented in 1803 by Thomas Moore, a Maryland farmer who realized he could sell more butter if he could take it further to sell.  His fridge was an egg-shaped wooden tub (cedar), with a metal container inside for the butter.  He packed the gap between the two containers with ice.

Thomas Moore’s patent.

Ice harvesting in America was done by hand, with axes and saws, and produced uneven blocks of ice.  But in 1829, Nathaniel J. Wyeth patented the horse-drawn ice cutter, which produced perfectly square blocks, easy to stack and transport.  Ice harvesting was extremely profitable – in 1873, it would cost 20c per ton to harvest ice on the Hudson River, but you could sell it to private customers for up to $4-8 a ton.  This was a profit margin of 4,000%.

Ice harvesters of the Tudor Ice Company.

Then in 1855, steam power began to be used – with this, you could harvest up to 600 tons an hour.  Demand was increasing, too.  In 1856, New York City used 100,000 tons of ice; in 1879-80, it was nearly a million tons, and still increasing.

Nearly half of the ice sold went to private families.  Ice companies would deliver ice to them by wagon or truck, charging a flat daily or monthly fee.  The family kept the ice in an ice-box – a miserable contraption, usually just a tin- or zinc-lined wooden box with shelves (like a cabinet), and a drainage hole at the bottom for the melted water.  It was smelly and inefficient, and there was no way to circulate the air within it.  But it was still an improvement – fresh milk could be stored and prevented from going cheesy for a few hours, which had previously been impossible, and you could chill food, such as fruit.

Ice-box (1890).

But ice was most important of all for the new cold-storage warehouses and refridgerationd railroad cars, which opened up new food markets, especially for meat, dairy and fresh produce.  By the 1940’s, America was well-known for its consumption of meat and milk (supplemented with green salads and fresh orange juice).

In 1851, four years before steam was used to cut ice, butter was first transported in refridgerated railroad cars, from New York to Boston.  Fish also began to be transported.  In 1857, fresh meat travelled from New York to the western states.  Refridgerated “beef cars” created a meat-packing industry, centred on Chicago.

By 1910, there were 85,000 refridgerator cars in America, but only 1,085 in Europe (mostly in Russia).  There was no need, now, to kill your meat fresh every day – “dressed beef” could be cooled, stored, and then transported all around the country.

1907.

Of course, there was resistance.  Local butchers and slaughter-houses lost business, and were not happy with Chicago’s growing monopoly on the meat trade.  The conditions in Chicago’s meat-packing factories were horrific, described in Upton Sinclair’s The Jungle.  And the public were afraid of the new technology, and suspicious of cold-stored food.  By 1915, there were 100 million tons of butter in cold-storage in America.

Critics said that cold storage was bad for the food, making it less nutritious and worse-tasting.  Another common fear was that cold storage was just a scam, allowing salesmen to charge more.  Also, natural ice was often dirty, with pondweed and other plant matter in it.  This was especially a problem for dairy foods, which had to be kept perfectly clean.  Local health boards often condemned large amounts of ice as unfit for human consumption.

Partially for this reason, factory-made ice gradually took over from natural ice.  Even though people had been making artificial ice for centuries, it had seldom been for the purpose of refridgeration.

One of exception was the scientist Francis Bacon, who died in 1626 from a chill, which he caught when trying to preserve a chicken with snow.  He experimented with saltpetre (potassium nitrate) for “the experiment of the artificial turning of water into ice”.  He criticized the rich for not using ice for refridgeration, saying that it was “poore and contemptible” to make ice only for cooling things rather than “conservatories”.