it's only been like 500 years


seokmin + MVs

↳ 1997.02.18 | happy birthday to the love & light of my life ☀️



Did our Sun have a twin when it was born 4.5 billion years ago?

Almost certainly yes – though not an identical twin. And so did every other Sun-like star in the universe, according to a new analysis by a theoretical physicist from the University of California, Berkeley, and a radio astronomer from the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory at Harvard University.

Many stars have companions, including our nearest neighbor, Alpha Centauri, a triplet system. Astronomers have long sought an explanation. Are binary and triplet star systems born that way? Did one star capture another? Do binary stars sometimes split up and become single stars?

Astronomers have even searched for a companion to our Sun, a star dubbed Nemesis because it was supposed to have kicked an asteroid into Earth’s orbit that collided with our planet and exterminated the dinosaurs. It has never been found.

The new assertion is based on a radio survey of a giant molecular cloud filled with recently formed stars in the constellation Perseus, and a mathematical model that can explain the Perseus observations only if all Sun-like stars are born with a companion.

“We are saying, yes, there probably was a Nemesis, a long time ago,” said co-author Steven Stahler, a UC Berkeley research astronomer.

“We ran a series of statistical models to see if we could account for the relative populations of young single stars and binaries of all separations in the Perseus molecular cloud, and the only model that could reproduce the data was one in which all stars form initially as wide binaries. These systems then either shrink or break apart within a million years.”

In this study, “wide” means that the two stars are separated by more than 500 astronomical units, or AU, where one astronomical unit is the average distance between the Sun and Earth (93 million miles). A wide binary companion to our Sun would have been 17 times farther from the Sun than its most distant planet today, Neptune.

Based on this model, the Sun’s sibling most likely escaped and mixed with all the other stars in our region of the Milky Way galaxy, never to be seen again.

“The idea that many stars form with a companion has been suggested before, but the question is: how many?” said first author Sarah Sadavoy, a NASA Hubble fellow at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. “Based on our simple model, we say that nearly all stars form with a companion. The Perseus cloud is generally considered a typical low-mass star-forming region, but our model needs to be checked in other clouds.”

The idea that all stars are born in a litter has implications beyond star formation, including the very origins of galaxies, Stahler said.

Stahler and Sadavoy posted their findings in April on the arXiv server. Their paper has been accepted for publication in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Stars Birthed in ‘Dense Cores’

Astronomers have speculated about the origins of binary and multiple star systems for hundreds of years, and in recent years have created computer simulations of collapsing masses of gas to understand how they condense under gravity into stars. They have also simulated the interaction of many young stars recently freed from their gas clouds. Several years ago, one such computer simulation by Pavel Kroupa of the University of Bonn led him to conclude that all stars are born as binaries.

Yet direct evidence from observations has been scarce. As astronomers look at younger and younger stars, they find a greater proportion of binaries, but why is still a mystery.

“The key here is that no one looked before in a systematic way at the relation of real young stars to the clouds that spawn them,” Stahler said. “Our work is a step forward in understanding both how binaries form and also the role that binaries play in early stellar evolution. We now believe that most stars, which are quite similar to our own Sun, form as binaries. I think we have the strongest evidence to date for such an assertion.”

According to Stahler, astronomers have known for several decades that stars are born inside egg-shaped cocoons called dense cores, which are sprinkled throughout immense clouds of cold, molecular hydrogen that are the nurseries for young stars. Through an optical telescope, these clouds look like holes in the starry sky, because the dust accompanying the gas blocks light from both the stars forming inside and the stars behind. The clouds can, however, be probed by radio telescopes, since the cold dust grains in them emit at these radio wavelengths, and radio waves are not blocked by the dust.

The Perseus molecular cloud is one such stellar nursery, about 600 light-years from Earth and about 50 light-years long. Last year, a team of astronomers completed a survey that used the Very Large Array, a collection of radio dishes in New Mexico, to look at star formation inside the cloud. Called VANDAM, it was the first complete survey of all young stars in a molecular cloud, that is, stars less than about 4 million years old, including both single and multiple stars down to separations of about 15 astronomical units. This captured all multiple stars with a separation of more than about the radius of Uranus’ orbit – 19 AU – in our solar system.

Stahler heard about the survey after approaching Sadavoy, a member of the VANDAM team, and asking for her help in observing young stars inside dense cores. The VANDAM survey produced a census of all Class 0 stars – those less than about 500,000 years old – and Class I stars – those between about 500,000 and 1 million years old. Both types of stars are so young that they are not yet burning hydrogen to produce energy.

Sadavoy took the results from VANDAM and combined them with additional observations that reveal the egg-shaped cocoons around the young stars. These additional observations come from the Gould Belt Survey with SCUBA-2 on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope in Hawaii. By combining these two data sets, Sadavoy was able to produce a robust census of the binary and single-star populations in Perseus, turning up 55 young stars in 24 multiple-star systems, all but five of them binary, and 45 single-star systems.

Using these data, Sadavoy and Stahler discovered that all of the widely separated binary systems – those with stars separated by more than 500 AU – were very young systems, containing two Class 0 stars. These systems also tended to be aligned with the long axis of the egg-shaped dense core. The slightly older Class I binary stars were closer together, many separated by about 200 AU, and showed no tendency to align along the egg’s axis.

“This has not been seen before or tested, and is super interesting,” Sadavoy said. “We don’t yet know quite what it means, but it isn’t random and must say something about the way wide binaries form.”

Egg-Shaped Cores Collapse into Two Centers

Stahler and Sadavoy mathematically modeled various scenarios to explain this distribution of stars, assuming typical formation, breakup and orbital shrinking times. They concluded that the only way to explain the observations is to assume that all stars of masses around that of the Sun start off as wide Class 0 binaries in egg-shaped dense cores, after which some 60 percent split up over time. The rest shrink to form tight binaries.

“As the egg contracts, the densest part of the egg will be toward the middle, and that forms two concentrations of density along the middle axis,” he said. “These centers of higher density at some point collapse in on themselves because of their self-gravity to form Class 0 stars.”

“Within our picture, single low-mass, Sun-like stars are not primordial,” Stahler added. “They are the result of the breakup of binaries. “

Their theory implies that each dense core, which typically comprises a few solar masses, converts twice as much material into stars as was previously thought.

Stahler said that he has been asking radio astronomers to compare dense cores with their embedded young stars for more than 20 years, in order to test theories of binary star formation. The new data and model are a start, he says, but more work needs to be done to understand the physics behind the rule.

Such studies may come along soon, because the capabilities of a now-upgraded VLA and the ALMA telescope in Chile, plus the SCUBA-2 survey in Hawaii, “are finally giving us the data and statistics we need. This is going to change our understanding of dense cores and the embedded stars within them,” Sadavoy said.

TOP IMAGE….Radio image of a very young binary star system, less than about 1 million years old, that formed within a dense core (oval outline) in the Perseus molecular cloud. All stars likely form as binaries within dense cores. (SCUBA-2 survey image by Sarah Sadavoy, CfA)

CENTRE IMAGE….A radio image of a triple star system forming within a dusty disk in the Perseus molecular cloud obtained by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array (ALMA) in Chile. (Image: Bill Saxton, ALMA (ESO/NAOJ/NRAO), NRAO/AUI/NSF)

LOWER IMAGE….This infrared image from the Hubble Space Telescope contains a bright, fan-shaped object (lower right quadrant) thought to be a binary star that emits light pulses as the two stars interact. The primitive binary system is located in the IC 348 region of the Perseus molecular cloud and was included in the study by the Berkeley/Harvard team. (Image: NASA, ESA and J. Muzerolle, STScI)

BOTTOM IMAGE….A dark molecular cloud, Barnard 68, is filled with gas and dust that block the light from stars forming inside as well as stars and galaxies located behind it. These and other stellar nurseries, like the Perseus molecular cloud, can only be probed by radio waves. Credit: FORS Team, 8.2-meter VLT Antu, ESO

anonymous asked:

I don't know if you already answered it but I'm plaining to visit Norway and Finland with my friend next year. Could you give me your opinion about places, cities to go in Norway and places that people talk about but you don't like that much? Tusen takk!

Sure! First off, I’ve spent a majority of my life in the smaller parts of Norway (places with 500-1800 ppl), so I’ve only been a tourist in most of the more ‘famous’ places in Norway. I do have some preferences though. 



This is where I currently live, and its absolutely gorgeous. It’s the second biggest city in Norway, and I just love how you’re close to a city, but also near both the ocean and mountains. If you visit Bergen I recommend visiting Bryggen (pictured above), take a hiking trip to some of the nearby mountains (Fløyen, Ulriken, Stoltzen) to see the city from above, checking out Bergenhus Festning, and maybe the Hanseatic Museum. However, beware of rain. This is one of the wettest places in Europe, and last year it experienced about 280 rainy days. 


Another gorgeous city. I have family living nearby, so I’ve spend some time here growing up. This is the third largest city in Norway. If you go here I recommend Nidarosdomen, a medieval cathedral known for being the burial site of Saint Olav. Besides that you have Tyholttårnet, Old Town Bridge and Kristiansten Festning. 


Tromsø is one of the northernmost cities in Norway, and has earned the nickname “Paris of the North”. I don’t know when you’re visiting, but if you’re going during the winter you might experience the northern lights! Other things to check out is Ishavskatedralen and the lovely nature. 


Oslo, the capital city of Norway. In my opinion, it’s overrated and I personally prefer all the aforementioned cities. This is however a popular place for tourists and there are a lot of things to experience. The Royal Palace, home of the royal family, the National Opera, Vigelandsparken and the Viking Ship museum are all popular tourist attractions. 

There are also a bunch of beautiful places to visit that I can’t comment on considering I haven’t been there myself. Some of these places are:




boyfriend! mingyu

Originally posted by mountean

  • a really extra boyfriend
  • loves making jokes
  • and telling u abt them
  • like outta nowhere he’d come up to u and would be like “hey wanna hear what genius thing i came up with this time?”
  • teasing u 
  • loves back hugs!!!!! like wrapping his arms around ur waist and resting his chin atop of ur head
  • he’s a big sucker for neck kisses
  • like if u want to ask him for something and need to do some convincing just kiss him there and he’ll melt 
  • “…..fine”
  • occasionally surprises you by cooking you dinner
  • like you’ll just come home from a long day of work/school and he’d welcome you at the door with an apron and a big smile
  • “what are you doing here???”
  • “being the best boyfriend ever duh what else”
  • accepts thanks in form of kisses
  • honestly the type to wear “kiss the chef” aprons
  • outdoor dates!! like going mountain hiking or camping 
  • he’d pack ramen in his bag lol 
  • loves putting his arm around your shoulders in public
  • just to show everyone that you’re taken
  • gentle forehead kisses!!! 
  • like when he’s walking you home at night and you guys get to the front door he’ll gently grab you by your shoulders and press his lips against your forehead
  • he’ll tell u the softest goodnight u’ll ever hear
  • and he’d just linger there for a little bit more bc he knows he has to leave but he doesn’t really want to
  • texts you to come hang out at the dorm!!
  • when you get there half the time you’d find the dorm empty except for mingyu and other times it’s so loud bc the boys are playing some kind of game
  • “you’re finally here! ive been waiting for 500 years!!”
  • “its only been 20 minutes chill”
  • “in my book thats equal to 500 years “
  • when you’re out on dates and it’s late and chilly he’d automatically strip off his jacket and place it over your shoulders
  • and when you look at him like???? he’d just give u a cute lil shy smile omg
  • when you’re sick he’d come over and cook you all his home remedies for sickness
  • while lecturing you about getting sick
  • “i cant believe you got sick”
  • “i thought idiots dont get colds”
  • “mingyu shut up”
  • he’d put on some movie that wonwoo gave him to “put u at ease since ur  sick” 
  • “i honestly have no idea what it’s about but i trust wonwoo”
  • the type to ask you “me or _____?” as a joke but then gets salty when you dont say him
  • “hey mingyu can u pass me the sauce?”
  • “why dont you go ask minghao to pass u the sauce since u like him more than u like me”
  • he’d pass u the sauce anyway
  • his saltiness would only last like 5 minutes then he’ll forget about it
  • cuddling on the couch!!! with ur legs over his lap and some type of snack there for you two to munch on
  • sometimes when mingyus feeling extra cuddly he pats his legs for you to sit on his lap
  • cooking dinner together!!!!
  • he’ll tell you funny stories that the guys did while you guys are sharing the small space together, enjoying making you laugh
  • loves to hear u laugh
  • like he’d poke at your sensitive spots to hear u giggle
  • or tell you lame jokes that has u rolling ur eyes but u cant help but let out a small giggle
  • omg if u ever see a bug and scream he’ll come rushing over like “!!!! what!!! what happened!!!!”
  • but then when he sees it was just a bug he’d be like…….. u….. i’m leaving….. i can’t believe……
  • he’d kill it in the end anyway lmao
  • for your anniversary he’d buy you a diamond necklace that he’s been saving up for months for 
  • he’d put it on you himself like he’d tell you to hold up your hair and he’d come in really close like he was going to hug you
  • and he’d peer over your shoulders so he  could see what he was doing 
  • and when he steps back to look at it on your neck he’d just give you a smile with a special sparkle in his eyes and kind of mutters
  • “it’s beautiful on you”
  • he’d always gaze at you with that “wow i can’t believe youre mine” look in his eyes whenever youre not looking
  • and he’d wipe it right off his face when you turn back to look at him
  • if you ever catch him he’d put up a front like he’d scoff and would be like “me? do that? funny.”
  • he tells you he loves you for the first time late at night when you’re cuddled together on the bed at your house and your head is on his chest and he’s about to fall asleep
  • and he just cranes his neck to kiss the top of your head and mumbles “i love you” against your hair
  • after that first time, he continues to tell you he loves you at moments that you aren’t expecting it
  • like whenever you catch his eye and when the moment is right, he’ll just say it with a smile on is lips
  • whenever he isn’t feeling well he’d find you and just rest his head against your shoulder
  • loves it when you run your fingers through his hair
  • tells you about his problems over a cup of coffee, honestly just enjoying your company, like you wouldn’t need to give him comforting words or anything
  • he’d just be comforted by your presence 
  • loves falling asleep while laying in ur lap but would never admit this
  • becomes a giant blushing mess whenever one of the boys mentions u 
  • whenever you do something cute he’d coo and would pinch your cheeks
  • “awwwwwwwwwww omg”
  • just a giant puppy!!!

anonymous asked:

One thing that has been of curiosity and frustration to me is how no one in the Tokugawa Shogunate (17th century) thought about doing a work like the Sanguozhi on important figures of the Sengoku Period. There is simply no Japanese equivalent of the SGZ, so Sengoku history tends to be a lot more 'fragmented' and prone to myths and legends when it comes to the lives / exploits of its key figures. Due to this lack of comprehensiveness in historical record, I find it much harder to appreciate SW.

What I mean is, numerous characters you play as in Dynasty Warriors, you read about these men in history, and you are like: Wow, they actually did some shit. SW, on the other hand, tends to have many more characters whose historical counterparts have been vastly exaggerated in terms of might / accomplishments by lore and popular culture. It’s interesting because the Sengoku was only 450-500 years ago, while Dynasty Warriors takes place over 1800 years ago.

Not being a Japanese history guy, I can’t comment on any of that.

the-fan-garbage-can  asked:

Hi yes I just discovered your Soul Eater AU and I love it. I'm not sure when the last time you updated that but whatever. I'm stoked for Yamaguchi's character sheet as he's going to be my next cosplay and I'd love to do an AU with him! Keep up the awesome work~ ^\\\^

AAA Thank you so so much for liking the Soul Eater AU bruh!!! :’D

I’m defs gonna do a character sheet for him don’t you worry my dude ᕦ༼ຈل͜ຈ༽ᕤ

It’s been 500 years since the last update but fear not I am working on the thing
[jazz jands]

Here’s a sneak peak of the bokuaka char sheet

(Sorry for the improvised graphic, I know its El from Stranger Things, but I mean I am Multi-fandom and I love this girl so)

I reached 500+ followers last night, and I legit though I was gonna cry boy. I’ve only had one other blog and it was just up to 70 followers in like almost a year. Its only been 4 months and I already made so many friends! It’s so insane guys! Thank you x100 for following me, and reblogging my content, and messaging me along these four months. If I forget anyone I’m extra super sorry!

P.S: Once I hit another Milestone, I want to open up a “multifandom fampage” where my followers can choose to be whatever character they would like to be from any fandom!! Can you maybe give me your thoughts on that idea?? Send me a message here! (open to followers and anyone not on this list!)

both=I love you with everything I’ve got


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@jamescarstairs, @jenmish, @jensenlord, @joharvelly, @johnnwinchester, @judecas, @katnharper, @katteens, @kindajared, @loveitsallineed, @lullabysam, @lunamisha, @maddoxbrookes, @mattcohenss, @matthewmurrdock, @mattmurock, @mgmasters, @mishcollins, @moonboycas, @mxstersmeg, @novaks


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Special thanks to: @jenmish for helping me reach my milestone,,, and scaring me w/ shrek nightmares, @waywardlullabies for listening to my rants about shows she doesn’t watch, @deanwinchester-af for being the first friend I had on this whole website, and @freedomcas for being my matey!

Important Context: RuPaul and Tranny

I’m surprised that this debate has gotten so big. But, even more so, I’m surprised so many people are engaged in this debate while demonstrating a clear misunderstanding of RuPaul’s perspective, and why he’s so staunchly defending his right to use the word “Tranny” while simultaneously considering himself an ally of the trans-community. Let me attempt to clear it up.

Ru at this point has said a lot of different things about it, but if you want to get to the crux of his argument, you only need look at these two tweets:

A little history lesson: Keep in mind that RuPaul is 500 years old. For most of its existence as a term, “Trans” has been an umbrella reference for pretty much anyone who blurred the traditional lines of gender and gender expression (so you have transvestitism, transsexualism, transgenderism, etc.). Basically, if you fucked with society’s rigid ideas of what gender was and how it was properly represented, there was likely a “Trans___________” identifier just for you. This is the world RuPaul came up in.

 It hasn’t been until fairly recently (relatively speaking), and thanks to the efforts of the Tumblr Social Justice Warriors, that one facet of the “Trans” community has tried to take full ownership of that identifier, and pretty much any word that refers to gender duality, or fucking with the gender binary in any way.

There’s an undeniable tone from the people who are spearheading the hate campaign against Ru that the transgender community—specifically–is the only valid form of “Trans” and that these terms now belong exclusively to them; and anyone who now uses the term is doing so intentionally to cause offense to that specific community. They’re removing the context, and the history, and turning it into a thing of hate and fear and shame, and smearing hate on anyone who implies that it could be something else, or who doesn’t fit the new bill of who they now want the term to refer to. And, I’m sorry, but that’s what it is at this point: a hate campaign. Argue his use of specific words all you want, but one thing that is undeniable is that Ru has only EVER put love out into the world. He cares about everybody and NO community is lesser to him; and it’s frankly gross some of the horrible things I’ve seen said about Ru from “professional” people who see themselves as “doing good” and coming from a place of righteousness.

So, the long and short of it, is that Ru continues to use the term, and fight for his right to use it, because he sees himself as Trans. He’s always seen himself as Trans–going back further than this new effort to redefine what that word means. When he uses the word “Tranny” he’s using it as someone who views themselves as being not just an ally to the community, but a part of the Greater Trans Community.

Not an outlier.

Not a white person wanting to use the word “nigga.”

Not a straight person wanting to use the word “Fag.”

Not a male wanting to use the word “bitch.”

But a full-blown tranny in his own right.

So, you’re offended by the word tranny? Ru’s not. And, in Ru’s mind (and I will just put it out there that I agree), not only is he using the word from a place of love, but he has a right to use it, so your offense doesn’t matter to him.

Just wrote this to clarify, because a lot of people on BOTH sides of this debate don’t seem to grasp Ru’s perspective. To make an analogy of a similar debate, a lot of people are viewing Ru as a white person arguing for the right to use the word nigga. When, in reality, Ru sees himself as a black person arguing for the right to use the word nigga.

So when people take part in this debate, just understand that you’re not just arguing Ru’s use of a word (or words). What you’re really arguing is Ru’s right to view himself (and drag queens) as a subset of a much larger Trans community that used to be a lot more inclusive, because that’s what this is really about.


A Fucking Douchbag

Cant believe its only been a lil over a year since I made this (you can tell how old it is because this was before Pearl changed her clothes). I FINALLY COLORED IT.
The original uncolored one has around 500 notes. I remember bein so hype because seein like 200 notes in one day tripped me out so hard. PS i love steven universe. 

I still wonder what IanJQ and Rebecca would think of this.