it was 800 degrees in that place

 continuing from here!

Yes, olivine, peridotite, and ringwoodite are all three found in meteors and asteroids! olivine seems to be particularly common, since olivine just needs the super-high heat to form, rather than heat AND pressure like peridotite, ringwoodite, and diamond. those kinds of temperatures occur all over the place in outer space, like meteor collisions, protostar formation disks, and planetary tectonics. the protostar formation disks in particular are important, because that explains how olivine ends up in comet trails. basically, if you’ve got enough heat and pressure to form an iron-nickel meteorite, and you’ve got enough of the right elements, you’ve got enough heat and pressure to form olivine!

you get ringwoodite by shoving olivine and water beneath around 14 gigapascals of pressure and set it to 800 degrees Celsius, which doesn’t really happen on smaller scales except for shock metamorphosis in instances where two olivine and water-bearing asteroids hit each other head-on. The presence of ringwoodite in the earth’s mantle means that it’s likely that there’s a LOT of water beneath the crust- up to three times the total surface amount, including the ice caps!

anonymous asked:

Do you know of any rituals for taking shrooms?

***Warning*** Please do not try to identify or ingest either of these species on your own, as especially psilocype mushrooms are INCREDIBLY difficult to distinguish from other extremely deadly fungi! I am not suggesting or promoting the use of these mushrooms, but the knowledge and lore surrounding their use and history as presented by Richard Alan Miller. Be safe and think cautiously!***


Yeah! I’m not going to write out all the history and everything behind it, honestly because it’s just way to fucking much, but here is some background and praxis relating to both Psilocybe Mushrooms and Fly Agaric:

PSILOCYBE MUSHROOMS

Psilocybe baeocystis, P. cyanescens, P. pelliculosa, P. semilanceata, P. strictipes

“PRIMARY EFFECTS
Colored hallucinations, muscular relaxation, hilarity, inability to concentrate, alteration of time and space perception, and feelings of total isolation from the environment. Peak occurs from one to one and a half hours after ingestion. Total experience is approximately six hours.

PREPARATION
There is really no preparation other than making sure all manure or dirt is off the mushroom. They should not be stored in a plastic bag and frozen. If you wish to store them, the only correct way is to string them by the stems and hang them up upside down, free to air dry.
Once they have completed dried, then they can be powdered and placed in a bag that can “breathe.” The best way to serve the dried mushroom is to powder it and mix it with a favorite liqueur. Heat over 150 degrees F will destroy much of the psilocin. In other words, speghetti dinners are nice only if the mushrooms are added to the sauce at the last moment.

RITUAL USE
Sex magic: The first use of sex within the rituals of western traditions of magic began with the Ordo Templi Orientis (O.T.O.), an 800-year-old Masonic order in Germany. Members had studied the Hindu traditions of Tantra and found that the energy contained in those rituals was greater than in any other known technique. At the turn of the century, Aleister Crowley became their new Outer Head of the Order (O.H.O.) and rewrote those rituals for a more contemporary application. For a clear picture of this technique, it is recommended that the student first read chapter 16 of The Tree of Life by Israel Regardie, followed by pages 82-86 of Liber Aleph, The Book of Wisdom or Folly by Aleister Crowley…
Mexican Love Feast: Each adult takes four, five, six, or thirteen pairs of mushrooms and experiences his or her own inner ecstasy while sharing feelings of brotherly love with the others. The curandero may chant or dance periodically during this event.
Mexican Prophecy Ritual: Before the ceremony a chocolate beverage is usually served. Women sing, dance, and clap hands. The curandero gathers some corn, parrot feathers, cacao beans, copal resin, green tobacco, and bark paper. He has fasted since noon of the preceeding day. For five days he has abstained from sex, alcohol, meat, and salt. This will continue for another five days after the ritual (otherwise he believes that he risks going mad). At sunset the altar candles are lit. Those present are seated on the floor. The question for prophesy is decided and clarified. The mushrooms are then eaten in pairs during a period of one hour. As many as fourteen pairs can be eaten. No one is allowed to leave. Silence is maintained. The curandero rubs green tobacco on his head and stomach and on the back of his neck. He blows out the candles. At 1:00 A.M. the prophecy begins.
Note of Caution: Make absolutely positive identification of the species of mushroom to be used. Also note that P. baeocystis contains other alkaloids that should not be used by any one with respiratory problems. In Mexico it is said that the mushroom is capable of driving a person mad if certain precautions are not taken. For this reason pregnant women do not consume the mushroom in Oaxaca.”



FLY AGARIC

Amanita muscaria
(Soma)

"PRIMARY EFFECTS
Dizziness, twitching, and possible nausea after thirty minutes followed by numbness of feet and twilight sleep for two hours, hallucinations both visual and auditory. The experience lasts from four to ten hours. Muscarine is a highly toxic hallucinogen, being a tropane. Muscimole is a CNS hallucinogen. Ibotenic acid causes flushing of the skin and lethargy or drowsiness.

PREPARATION
The fresh mushroom should be sliced vertically in ½-inch segments and heated in an oven at 165 degrees-175 degrees F until dried. The muscarine will mostly evaporate out of the mushroom and the ibotenic acid alter to muscimole. It is recommended that you have a friend available to help you in any emergency. The amount eaten should be conservative, perhaps a ¼ to a ½ of one mushroom with an 8-inch diameter, until you have a personal data on your own body’s reaction. Fasting is critical. The body does filter the muscarine, so you may wish to save the urine. Mushrooms that have dried unplucked in the ground are believed to be the most potent.

RITUAL USE
Soma has been regarded as spiritual food, which aids the growth of the spiritual body. Initiation (where the spirit comes out anew) occurs when this chemistry affects your psychic body. It is a major hallucinogen that defies comparison. Soma is the “flesh of the gods.” It is therefore used in initiation ceremonies and for spiritual growth.
Among the Koryaks, the women prepare the mushrooms for the men by moistening and softening them in their mouths and then by rolling them in their hands into sausage-shaped morsels. The men either chew these or swallow them whole. Usually three agarics are taken, one large and two small. Sometimes ten to twelve are eaten, but this could easily be a lethal dose.
Mushrooms are also added to soups, sauces, reindeer milk, or bogberry (similar to blueberry juice.
The Kamchadals prepare a wine by fermenting a mixture of amanita and bogberry juice.
The Aryans, as described in the Vedic hymns, gathered the mushrooms by the light of the full moon. The juices were then pounded out, filtered through a woolen cloth, mixed with water, milk, honey, or barleycorn infusion, and drunk during magical and religious rites.
The magical balance can be seen between muscimole and muscarine: although both are hallucinogens, they produce opposite effects on the body. One counters the effect of the other. One is a food for the spiritual body, the other a poison for the physical body.

Note of Caution: Although relatively small quantities of muscarine exist in A. muscaria, this is not true with other species, including A. pantherina, which is a white to yellow-white variety. Proper identification is extremely important.
The standard antidote for muscarine poisoning is atropine. If one of the more lethal amanitas (A. phalloidso or A. verna or A. verosa) has been ingested, there may be some chance of saving the victim’s life if
1. There is immediate medical attention
2. There is an immediate administration of antitoxin
3. There is a continuous intravenous administration of glucose to maintain the rapidly diminishing blood sugar level”

– This information comes from The Magical and Ritual Use of Herbs by Richard Alan Miller Copyright 1983, 1993, Destiny Books

TOP TEN THINGS I LOVE ABOUT SABETHA BELACOROS

(co-written by lisapizza and a bottle of jim beam, SORRY FOR ANY TYPOS.)

anyway: gosh, GOSH, i know i have literally an entire tag and like, six years of chat logs and several tumblr messages documenting how COMPLETELY, HEAD-OVER-HEELS, BUTTCRAZY IN LOVE in am with sabetha belacoros, but i’m feeling the need to write it all out again and i have whiskey so uh, gird your loins or whatever.

Keep reading

pithy headlines are why the $2.86 million mcdonalds coffee lawsuit is known by 90% of people as ‘that frivolous lawsuit by that woman who didn’t know coffee was hot lol’ and not 'that time when mcdonalds was serving coffee at 180–190 °F (82–88 °C) and as a result a 79 year old woman got third degree burns on 6% of her skin (16% of her skin suffered lesser burns, all mainly centered around her thighs and groin) requiring skin grafts and over a week’s stay in the hospital’

and it also leaves out that she only sued in the first place to cover medical expenses (roughly $20k) and the larger suit was in response to mcdonalds only wanting to settle for $800

basically whenever i see a dumb headline nowadays i make a point of trying to find out what actually happened and i recommend doing the same to everyone else

How Well Do You Know Mercury?

Mercury is the smallest planet in our solar system and is only slightly larger than Earth’s moon. To give you some perspective, if the sun were as tall as a typical front door, Earth would be the size of a nickel and Mercury would be about as big as a green pea.

Mercury is the closest planet to the sun. Daytime temperatures can reach 430 degrees Celsius (800 degrees Fahrenheit) and drop to –180 degrees Celsius (-290 degrees Fahrenheit) at night.

Here are a few fun facts about Mercury:

  • Mercury takes only 88 Earth days to orbit the sun
  • If we could stand on Mercury’s surface when it is at its closest point to the sun, the sun would appear more than three times larger than it does here on Earth
  • Mercury is home to one of the largest impact basins in the solar system: the Caloris Basin. The diameter of this impact basin is the length of 16,404 football fields (minus the end zones) placed end to end!
  • Mercury is one of only two planets in our solar system that do not have moons (Venus is the other one)
  • Mercury completes three rotations for every two orbits around the sun. That means that if you wanted to stay up from sunrise to sunrise on Mercury, you’d be up for 176 Earth days…you’d need a LOT of coffee! 

Two missions have visited Mercury:

Mariner 10 was the first mission to Mercury, and 30 years later, our MESSENGER mission was the second to visit the planet. Mariner 10 was also the first spacecraft to reach one planet by using the gravity of another planet (in this case, Venus) to alter its speed and trajectory.

MESSENGER was the first spacecraft to orbit Mercury, The spacecraft had its own shades to protect it from the light of the sun. This is important since sunlight on Mercury can be as much as 11 times brighter than it is here on Earth. The spacecraft was originally planned to orbit Mercury for one year, but exceeded expectations and worked for over four years capturing extensive data. On April 30, 2015, the spacecraft succumbed to the pull of solar gravity and impacted Mercury’s surface.

Water Ice?

The MESSENGER spacecraft observed compelling support for the long-held hypothesis that Mercury harbors abundant water ice and other frozen volatile materials in its permanently shadowed polar craters.

This radar image of Mercury’s north polar region. The areas shown in red were captured by MESSENGER, compared to the yellow deposits imaged by Earth-based radar. These areas are believed to consist of water ice.

Mercury Transit of the Sun

For more than seven hours on Monday, May 9, Mercury will be visible as a tiny black dot crossing the face of the sun. This rare event – which happens only slightly more than once a decade – is called a transit.

Where: Skywatchers in Western Europe, South America and eastern North America will be able to see the entirety of the transit. The entire 7.5-hour path across the sun will be visible across the Eastern U.S. – with magnification and proper solar filters – while those in the West can observe the transit in progress at sunrise.

Watch: We will stream a live program on NASA TV and the agency’s Facebook page from 10:30 to 11:30 a.m. – an informal roundtable during which experts representing planetary, heliophysics and astrophysics will discuss the science behind the Mercury transit. Viewers can ask questions via Facebook and Twitter using #AskNASA. Unlike the 2012 Venus transit of the sun, Mercury is too small to be visible without magnification from a telescope or high-powered binoculars. Both must have safe solar filters made of specially-coated glass or Mylar; you can never look directly at the sun.

To learn more about our solar system and the planets, visit: http://solarsystem.nasa.gov/

Make sure to follow us on Tumblr for your regular dose of space: http://nasa.tumblr.com

Dressed Up

Clark had taken him on proper dates before - formally asked him to dinner and all, though the places they had gone were never too upscale, knowing Jacket was comfortable in more casual settings and in more casual clothes.

This time, however, it was Jacket who had done the asking, a whole week in advance, in fact. And he had cautioned the half-demon to dress up. 

He hoped Clark had taken that to heart, because Jacket arrived at his door in a dark blue suit. Sleek, tailored and fitted, with two buttons at the front and four on the sleeves. He had not pushed himself into a tie but certainly looked no worse for it, the shirt beneath the suit jacket a bit opened on top, lax but not out of place.

And he was dressed accordingly for where they were going, though he hadn’t specified the place to Clark yet, wanting the whole thing to be some degree of a surprise. He wanted to thank the man for his company, his affection, his tolerance and patience - and stepping a bit out of his comfort zone and more into Clark’s element seemed a good way to do that.