islamic jurisprudence

@humano205 and @moemoeimouto

It must be understood that Islam cannot be seen from a monolith perspective and that Shi’a Islam and Sunni Islam differs greatly with each other; Tattoos are allowed in Shi’a Islam, not Sunni Islam, and the tattoos showed no imagery of God or the Prophets, but rather it was the Imams of Shi’a Islam, some Shi’as allow even imagery of the Prophet, but all scholars are unanimous in the impermissibility of depicting God. The person in the photoset is a Shi’a Muslim. It is very important that people do not conflate Shi’a Islamic and Sunni Islamic jurisprudence together.

@moemoeimouto Don’t make assumptions like that, you can simply come to me and ask instead.

I implore that people take this is an example and understand that the schools of Islam are heterogeneous, especially in regards to Sunni Islam and Shi’a Islam, and that one perspective or legal ruling from a particular branch does not represent the other.

evergloriousoverlord  asked:

I've been thinking about this for a while, so I decided to find out your thoughts on the matter. How would you go about creating a good fantasy religion?

When it comes to building a religion, the key things to remember is that religion is tied very much to ethics, the nature of reality, the meaning of life (and anything that comes after), and other deep philosophical underpinnings of what it means to be alive, to be good or evil, what responsibilities do we have in life. Religion offered to the people of the past (and continues to offer to the people in the present) profound comfort, meaning, and purpose for the entire life. So, you have your work cut out for you. But this is not beyond the ability of the aspiring worldbuilder and fantasy writer. I’m going to caveat this: I’ve studied religions, but a lot of my studies were focused on western religions. Someone who has studied more Eastern, African, or Pacific religions feel free to add anything. I acknowledge my limitations and have done what I could be as inclusive as possible, but I am certain there was stuff I missed.

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Is music really haram? I'm not talking about the Rihannas "Wild Thoughts" kind of music, more of peaceful piano, flute, violin, ancient music. The kind of music that doesn't give off sexual vibe and stuff, but the music that adheres peace, you know?

Many Islamic scholars reject the idea that music is prohibited. The scholar Ibn Hazm (d. 1064 CE, creator of the “fifth” school of Islamic jurisprudence) considers every hadith that has been used to make music haram fabricated, and considers listening to music the same as taking joy from a nature walk.

The scholar al-Shashi (d. 976 CE) says that Imam Malik permitted music. Imam al-Shafi`i says that there is no clear evidence to prohibit music.

The scholar al-Mawardi (d. 1058 CE) says that Abu Hanifah, Imam Malik and al-Shafi`i did not prohibit music.

The respected theologians Abu Hamid a-Ghazali, Ibn Daqeeq, Izz al-Din ibn Abd al-Salam (famous Shafi`ite scholar, known as the Sultan of Scholars in his time, d. 1262 CE), Abdul Ghani al-Nablusi, Ibn Qutaybah, al-Maqdisi, al-Dhahabi, Abu Talib al-Makki, Ibn al-Arabi al-Maliki and Imam al-Shawkani consider music permissible.

Among modern scholars who reject the prohibition on music are the Azhar scholars Muhammad al-Ghazali and Yusuf al-Qaradhawi, Hasan al-Attar, Muhammad Shaltoot, Ali al-Tantawi and Muhammad Rashid Radha.

The main issue here is the centuries-long feud between the scholars of fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence, i.e. Islamic law) and the scholars of hadith. Scholars of hadith often ignore rationalism if they can find a collection of hadith to support their opinions, which is why you have Saudi scholars defending their ridiculous prohibition on women driving. The scholars of fiqh, on the other hand, are well aware of the unreliability of hadith, the duty of skepticism toward all hadith narrations, and the necessity of judging hadith by the Quran, which is why their thinking is far more moderate and easier to accept.

The fiqh scholar Ibn al-Jawzi says: “If you ever hear a hadith narration that goes against common sense and (well-known theological) principles, do not consider yourself bound to obey it.”

I will add to that and say: In general, whenever you hear people say something supposedly Islamic that insults your intelligence, if you do a little research you will find that 1. that thing is not in the Quran and 2. there are many highly respected scholars who reject it.

Whenever hadith narrations try to attach new things to Islam that are non-existent in the Quran, we have to be extremely skeptical toward them. The Quran is the criterion (a word the Quran uses to refer to itself) by which we judge everything else in Islam.

The Prophet himself, peace be upon him, says in two authentic narrations:

“What God makes permissible in His book (the Quran), then that is permissible, and what He makes prohibited, that is prohibited, and what He is silent about, that is out of His mercy, so accept His mercy, for God does not forget anything.”

“God has made certain things obligatory, so do not neglect those, and He has set certain bounds, so do not overstep those bounds, and He has remained silent on certain matters out of His mercy on you, not out of forgetfulness, so do not seek out those matters (i.e. do not argue about them and make a big deal of them).”

A prohibition on music is not in the Quran, which makes it one of the matters that God left out of the Quran intentionally, out of His mercy. Whenever something is not in the Quran, that’s a clear indication that it is not an important matter in God’s religion, and that people should make up their own minds about it, the same way they are allowed to make up their own minds about whether a PC or a Mac is a better computer.

The battle of rationalistic fiqh vs. hadith-centrism continues to be waged relentlessly in internet forum after internet forum, with much abuse of keyboards and caffeine. For a more detailed discussion of the fiqh vs. hadith matter and how it applies to the issue of terrorism and sexual crimes, you may find this essay on my blog helpful: Islamic Terrorism as a Genetic-Cultural Selective Pressure on Muslim Populations

Before people start replying with their arguments in favor of prohibiting music, please know that I am already aware of your arguments, and please see the following (Arabic) essay that has a detailed discussion of the relevant evidence on both sides of the debate:

Certain types of music can be considered forbidden due to things associated with the music, but that is a different matter.

anonymous asked:

asalamalaikum dear sister, i am having second guesses. i have been told that i have rushed into my faith, that i should have waited to revert, by a sister and by my therapist. one has to ask themselves, did Allah not lead me to Islam at the time he did for a reason? had Allah lead me to Islam, not to save me, but to watch in disappointment as i fumble through salah and the Qur’an? not much of a question, more as a vent, but im beginning to think reverting was a bad idea and i need advice ..

Wa Alaikumussalaam dear sister

Do you remember how the Quran was revealed in 42 years? Verse for verse, portion for portion? As you might know, Prophet Muhammad salallahu alayhi wassalaam received the revelation of Allah first in Makkah with the words ‘Iqra bismirabbika ladhi halaq’ - 'learn in the name of your Lord Who created’, and then proceeded to receive more during the time he lived there. These Makkan Surahs have one thing in common: they all deal with the basic fundamentals of Islam, the basic questions and answers, what Islam is about and how to be firmly convinced in this faith. Allah talks about Himself, His attributes and signs on earth, the pillars of Islam, the reality of this world, the nature of humankind, believers and disbelievers, our purpose and end - Jannah or jahannam.
After that comes the Surah that were revealed during the second period in Madinah meaning Allah goes more into detail with these. Rulings regarding issues of halaal and haraam (allowed and forbidden) follow (as an example alcohol was announced as forbidden after 13 years of revelation) and Allah would many times specifically direct His Verses to those people who have already converted to Islam while in the Makkan Surah He would introduce them with 'Oh people’ for instance in order to call everyone to this faith.

So you see, the way Islam has spread tells a lot about this way of life and how to approach it, and even though we can hold the complete speech of Allah in our hands, it does not mean that we should act any different towards it. Now I do not suggest that we should ignore a specific ruling when we learn about it, that’s not the point. The point is that you are granted a specific knowledge at a specific time depending in which 'stage’ you are. Like students of Islam in Madinah learn the Arabic language first in order to go into the explanation of the Qur'an later on. Thus it’s no different from a secular school education where you start with the smallest of things, so that you may connect these to a bigger picture in the future. Prophet Muhammad salallahu alayhi wassalaam stressed this as well when he said in one of his narrations:

“We, the assembly of Prophets have been commanded to speak to the people according to their level of intelligence”

Either way all of this indicates that Allah does not want us to overburden ourselves with doing things that are not within our capabilities, and knowledge falls under this category as well. Believe me, I’ve been going through this struggle a lot of being overwhelmed with knowledge and not knowing where to start and how to divide my time, and believe me too that it did nothing but harm me. Another Hadith gives an insight into this matter when prophet Muhammad salallahu alayhi wassalaam said:

"Religion is easy, and no one overburdens himself in his religion but he will be unable to continue in that way. So do not be extremists, but try to be near perfection and receive the good tidings that you will be rewarded. Gain strength by worshipping in the mornings and afternoons and during the last hours of the night.”

Narrated by al-Bukhaari (39) and Muslim (2816).

Therefore it’s not our faith or Allah who lays such burden on us, but our own selves. It is totally fine, especially as a fresh revert to struggle with the basics whether it’s something as important as prayer or reading the Qur'an. You may look up to those who may fulfill more acts of worship, but they as an other human needed time for that as well. So do not go into extremes, or as a famous saying in my language says, 'from eternity to eternity (where’s no end to it)’

This is why it is so important in Islam to have teachers, who break the knowledge into portions and give it to their students when they’ve reached a certain level of Islamic education in order to not confuse them. If noone is avaible over there for you who can guide you through this process, then I’d firstly recommend you to learn some (emotional) self control by being patient about your situation. Internalise that you are still new in this faith, and that there’s nothing wrong with starting like that and not being able to comprehend the wholeness of universe’s knowledge because in fact, only Allah is The Al-Knowing. Imagine your journey to be like a tree that firstly grows through their roots, them into a strong stem and later on develops further branches.

The roots for you are the fundamentals of Islam. These include aqeedah (matters of knowledge, it includes like attributes of Allah etc) and fiqh (islamic jurisprudence - school of thoughts (hanafi, maliki, hanbali, shafi). To make it easier for you, here’s a small checklist of what you need:

- The Qur'an firstly with the help of a basic Tafsir (explanation) like the one of Ibn kathir. You can even find it as an app for your phone. This will make it easier for you to understand the general meaning of the ayaat (verses). Like the Sahaba used to not move on to the next verse until they haven’t understood the meaning of the current. So make a habit of reading about like 5 verses each day. It may seem a little, but that’s the most effective way to embed it into your mind

- A basic Hadith Book like Riyadh Saliheen that will give you an insight into the life of our prophet salallahu alayhi wassalaam and help you to lead a day to day life as a Muslim

- The biography of Muhammad salallahu alayhi wassalaam such as The Sealed Nectar or the biographies of the other prophets (there’s this website called, it offers this book as a PDF version and as a side note, has a section for new Muslims as well)

- A basic tajweed book that will educate you about the Arabic alphabet and pronounciation

Anything else can be added later on as further branches but for now concentrate on these. It doesn’t have to happen in a month, not even in a year if it means that you get overwhelmed by it. Whenever such thoughts intrude you come back to your fundamentals because it means that you still haven’t reached the ability to move on further. And that’s totally ok. You can be Muslim and still read a lifetime long.

At least, let me tell you something sister. whether you have said your shahada publicly or not, that conviction in Islam that you have (assuming you’ve researched and found out that this is the only logical and spiritually uplifting faith for you) still remains inside your heart. So it does not matter how much there’s out to learn, leave that to the future learning process. What matters is where you are now and what you can learn at this moment.

I hope this could help you a bit and I really pray that Allah gives you enough patience, strength and intelligence and strengthen you in your faith even further. If you need something or don’t understand, you can always turn to me. I am not an Islamic student (but my replies are written with the help of them, may Allah bless them) but I’d do what’s in my reach, dear sister❤

ISLAM 101: Basic Islamic Phrases

Akhira: Hereafter

Alhamdulilah: Praise be to Allah (God)

Allah: God

Allahu Akbar: God is the greatest

Aqidah: Theology

Assalaam Alaykom: Peace be upon you (Islamic greeting)

Astagfarallah: I seek refuge (protection) in God 

Ayah: A verse in the Qur’an (also used to mean a sign)

Barakah: Blessing

Bismillah: In the name of God (said before completing a task to invoke the Lord’s name)

Dua: Supplication or prayer

Dunya: The physical world (as opposed to the Afterlife)

Fatwa: A legal opinion of a Muslim jurist (i.e. Muslim law)

Fiqh: Islamic Jurisprudence

Hadith: The sayings, actions, and approvals of the Prophet (pbuh)

Halal: Something lawful or permitted in Islam

Haram: Something that is sinful or impermissible in Islam

Hijab: Literally a cover, but commonly used to describe the headscarf that some Muslim women choose to wear

Iblees: Satan

Ilm: Knowledge

Islam: A submission to God

Jahannam: Hellfire

Jannah: Paradise

Jazak(i) Allahu Khairan: May God reward you with something good

Jihad: A struggle

Jummah: Friday Prayer or just Friday as a day (holy day for Muslims)

Kafir: People who conceal the Truth and actively plot against Islam

Masha Allah: Literally means “Whatever God wills,” but is taken to basically mean, “Glory to God”

Masjed: Mosque, place of worship for Muslims

Muslim: One who follows the religion of Islam

Nafs: The soul or lower self (ego/id)

Niyyah: Intention

Pbuh: Peace Be Upon Him (said to invoke peace and blessings on the Prophet Mohammad)

Rab: Lord

Sabr: Patience

Salah: Obligatory 5 prayers or any other of the structured prayers in Islam

Salaam: Peace

Seerah: The biography of the life of the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh)

Sheikh: Muslim clergy 

Subhan Allah: Glory to God

Sunnah: The example of the Prophet (pbuh) that Muslims try to follow. 

Surah: A chapter in the Qur’an

Tafsir: Qur’anic exegesis 

Taqwa: Righteousness and piety

Tawakkol: Reliance on God

Waalaykom assalaam: And on to you be peace (reply to greeting)

Beneficial Books Concerning Tawheed and Fiqh

Noble Shaykh, I hope that you will present us with names of valuable books concerning Tawheed and ’aqeedah.

The books concerning the science of Tawheed and Islaamic fiqh are many, old and new. And those that I direct you to read are as follows:

  1. Al-Usooluth-Thalaathah
  2. Kashfush-Shubuhaat
  3. al-Qawaa’idul-Arba’
  4. Usoolul-Eemaanis-Sittah
  5. Masaa‘ilul-Jaahiliyyah
  6. Kitaabut-Tawheed

And all of these are by Shaykhul-Islaam Muhammad Ibn ’Abdul-Wahhaab (d.1206H) – rahimahullaah.

After these, there is:

  1. al-’Aqeedatul-Waasitiyyah
  2. Kitaabul-Hamawiyyah

And both of them are by Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah – rahimahullaah. And there is an-Nooniyyah by Ibnul-Qayyim (d. 751H), along with its explanation. There is al-Hayaat fee Dhillil-’Aqeedatil-Islaamiyyah by the writer of these words. There is al-Irshaad by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, and al-’Aqeedatus-Saheehah wa maa Yudaaduhaa by the Noble Shaykh, ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Baaz (d.1420H) – yarhamuhullaah. And there is also al-Qawlul-Mufeed by al-Fawzaan and Kitaabut-Tawheed by Ibn Khuzaymah (d .311H). And the books of the recorded Sunnah concerning the science of creed (al-i’tiqaad) are many. Indeed, I have recently mentioned some of them in the past.

As for the books of Islaamic fiqh, then likewise, the books are many. However, you must begin with al-’Uddah Sharh Kitaabil-’Umdah and the shorter books of the Hanaabilah. And there is al-Mulakhkhasul-Fiqhee by al-Fawzaan. And this must be followed by the books of hadeeth that have been explained, such as Sharh ’Umdatul-Ahkaam and Subulus-Salaam ’alaa Bulooghil-Maraam and al-Muntaqaa and its explanations, such as Naylul-Awtaar. Then, you must move onto reading the books along with striving hard in consulting the guidance of the Salaf concerning the book that you love to read, even if it be by way of the telephone or sending letters. May Allaah grant everyone success in whatever He is pleased with.

— Shaykh Zayd al-Madkhalee (rahimahullaah)

[Taken from al-’Iqdul-Munaddadul-Jadeed (p. 19-20). Translated by Maaz Qureshi]

Critic: What is your opinion on Shia?
Islamist: They are heretics. They do not represent the true Islam.
Critic: What do you think of Wahabis ?
Islamist: False Muslims. Their actions and teachings do not represent true Islam
Critic: What do you think of Taliban?
Islamist: False Muslims. They do not represent Islam.
Critic: What do you think of the Muslim Brotherhood ?
Islamist: Also false Muslims. They do not represent Islam.
Critic: How about ISIS and its actions in Syria?
Islamist: They are not true Muslims either. Their actions go against Islam
Critic: What do you think of those suicide bombers who blow themselves up in the name of Islam ?
Islamist: They do not represent the teachingsof Islam.
Critic: Why are most Islamic countries backward in regards to science and technology and progress ?
Islamist: Because Muslims do not understand Islam properly and do not follow its teachings. Also, they follow leaders and rulers and sheikhs who are false Muslims and do not apply Islam properly.
Critic: What of the problems of forced marriages, child marriages, lashing, whipping, beating, stoning,enforcing the veil, executions for apostasy and blasphemy prevalent in some Islamic communities ?
Islamist: Those actions are not from Islam, and those who do them are not true Muslims.
Critic: What do you say of the hadiths that advocate and support execution for apostasy and fighting non-believers ? and what about the numerous tafsirs and sources written by Muslim scholars (including those who established the major Islamic schools of jurisprudence) that confirm those, and clearly state that the earlier peaceful verses were abrogated later on by more violent ones?
Islamist: They are all false. They’re not truly from Islam, and those scholars who wrote this have misunderstood what the real teachings of Islam
Critic: Well, how many Muslims are there ?
Muslim: Allahu Akbar!! Islam is the fastest growing and most widespread religion in the world. We are the Ummah of more than 1.7 billion followers. Allahu Akbar!!

anonymous asked:

Hello! I have a question about Islam - what exactly is the Sharia and does everyone follow it? How important is it?

Sharia is a broad term, because it doesn’t only refer to the redundant and overused term “Sharia Law” (just refer to it as Sharia, Sharia Law is a tautology), but a way of living for the Muslim subject. When Muslims talks about Sharia, it’s usually in the context of their own personal and individual praxis of religion, that is to say, that a Muslim refers to their “way of living”. In this sense, a Jewish person who practices the laws of the Torah are following Halakha, while a Muslim follows Sharia. 

In fact, I practice Sharia; I pray five times, I refrain from consuming alcohol and pork, I don’t draw smut. I keep myself to a particular Sharia (a way of living)

It is, therefore, fundamental to understand that Sharia is not a homogenous system that refers to an entity or a source of legislation, but an individual way of living by the laws of Islam. It’s also important to understand that Sharia varies from land to land, therefore, we cannot assume that there is a specific law in accordance to what is termed “Orthodoxy”, some are strict, such as the Wahhabi interpretation of Islamic jurisprudence in Saudi Arabia, while some can be liberal and progressive like in Oman or Indonesia. 

In my opinion, because I am Shia, a proud follower of Ahlul Bayt (a), I do not believe that it is possible to implement the system of Sharia as a system of governance until Imam al-Mahdi (a) and Jesus Christ (a) returns, whenever that is. I do neither - as a follower of Grand Ayatollah Sayyed al-Sistani - accept the Khomeinist notion of a “Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist” (Wilayat al Fakih), which serves as an alternative system to govern the land by Islamic laws (Jafari interpretation) in place of the absence of an Imam, though only Iran have this, other Shia predominate nations, such as Iraq and Lebanon, opposes the notion of Wilayat al Fakih and separates Sharia and Democracy. 

anonymous asked:

As salamu aleykuma. Do we have to side with ISIS or condem them when we are salafi?

Walaykumasalaam wa rahmatullaah wa barakaatuh brother/sister,

We pray this message finds you in good emaan In shaa’ Allaah!

To be absolutely clear, as Salafis (those who follow the way of the Salaf) we condemn ISIS as a deviant, evil, terrorist organization that has nothing to do with the way of the Salaf nor those who adhere to the methodology [manhaj] of our beloved Pious Predecessors [Salaf-us-Saalih]. They have caused and continue to cause widespread corruption, the loss of innocent life, and other treacherous activities all falsely in the name of Islaam.

For more information on the position of the people of knowledge/Salafi scholars on ISIS, please see below:

*Shaykh Ubayd ibn Abdillah Al Jaabiree: Former Professor at the Islamic University of Madeenah. Presently teaching lessons in Masjid Al Haram in Makkah.

*Shaykh Muhammad bin Hādī Al-Madkhalī: Currently Professor, Faculty of Hadeeth, Islamic University of Madeenah. Teacher at the Prophet’s Masjid, Madeenah.

*Shaykh Saalih Al Suhaymee: Former President of the ‘Aqeedah section in the Islamic University of Madeenah, Presently teaches at the Prophet’s Masjid in Madeenah.

*Shaykh Muhammad bin Ramzān Al-Hājirī: The Shaykh holds a Master’s Degree in Islamic Jurisprudence from Imam ibn Saud University and studied under the likes of Shaykh ‘Abd al Azeez ibn Baaz (12 years), Shaykh Saalih Al Uthaymeen, Shaykh Muhammad Amaan Al Jaami, Shaykh Rabee Al Madkhalee, Shaykh Saalih Al Atram, Shaykh Hammad Al Ansari and others.

*Shaykh Dr. Abdullāh al-Bukhārī: He is Assistant Professor of Hadeeth and Islamic Studies at the Islamic University of Madeenah.

We hope this will suffice in answering your question bi’ithnilaah ta’aala.

Fatima al-Fihri

1. In 859 CE, she founded the world’s oldest degree-granting university: University of Al Quaraouiyine. Yes you heard me right, the world’s first university was founded by an oppressed Muslim woman. 

2. Alongside the Qur’an and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), other subjects that were also taught were grammar, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, history, geography and music. Gradually, a broader range of subjects were introduced in the university particularly natural sciences, physics and foreign languages.

3. Non-Muslims were welcome to matriculate. The university played a leading role in cultural and academic relations between the Islamic world and Europe. In fact, the University’s outstanding caliber attracted Gerber of Auvergne who later became Pope Sylvester II and went on to introduce Arabic numerals and the concept of zero to medieval Europe. One of the university’s most famous students was a Jewish physician and philosopher, Maimonides.

4. The university exists to this day, located in Fes, Morocco 

anonymous asked:

Salam. Something has been bothering me. I know that we Muslim women have the right to get an education, earn a living and to generally participate in our societies. But what nobody ever mentions is that in Islamic jurisprudence, a woman's husband/father/guardian has the default right to prevent her from leaving the home, going to work or going to school etc. Are we really empowered under the law if we must defer to men to grant us these basic rights? I don't understand.

Wa alykum as-salaam,

Nobody mentions that because that’s not true. I’m sorry, it just isn’t.

There were situations in which women would have to inform their guardians that they were leaving, but that was because they faced a very different reality than we do today.

Have you seen the movie Gladiator? Remember the part where he’s crying after he buried his wife and child? What happens then? Slave traders just seem him there and then pick him up, and what happens next? He’s a slave. Like, ta da, you’re a slave!

That was the reality that people faced at the time, and thus you have Dar Al-Ifta’s Fatwa, which reads:

“…jurists permit a woman to travel alone if the way and destination are safe. They base their opinion on the hadith narrated by ‘Adi Ibn Hatem (may Allah be pleased with him) who said that the Prophet told him: "If you live a long life, you will surely see a woman traveling from Hira till she circumambulates the Ka'bah — fearing no one except Allah” [Bukhari].

Imam Ahmad’s version of the hadith includes: “I swear by He in whose hands is my soul: verily Allah will bring this matter [the religion of Islam] into completion till a woman travels from Hira and circumambulates the Ka'bah without being accompanied by anyone”.

Furthermore, there is a Hadith in which Abdullah ibn Amr ibn Al-As is reported to have said in Bukhari:

God’s Messenger (ﷺ) said, “O `Abdullah! Have I not been formed that you fast all the day and stand in prayer all night?” I said, “Yes, O God’s Messenger (ﷺ)!” He said, “Do not do that! Observe the fast sometimes and also leave them (the fast) at other times; stand up for the prayer at night and also sleep at night. Your body has a right over you, your eyes have a right over you and your wife has a right over you.

Thus requiring that a husband be at his home to help his wife in whatever she needed in the home.

So, I would suggest, with humility, that before you make declarative statements about the law, you actually know it, because it is not this black-and-white binary, or worse, this system of oppression and what not.

Marriage is about partnership, and the problem is that today we cannot look past our own experiences and seldom imagine that other people might have different concerns, far more serious concerns, than we do.

I hope this helped, insha Allah.

Narrated Abu Huraira (radhiAllāhu ‘anhu):

“Two fasts and two kinds of sale are forbidden: fasting on the day of ‘Eid ul  Fitr and ‘Eid-ul-Adha and the kinds of sale called Mulāmasa and Munābadha. (These two kinds of sale used to be practiced in the days of Pre-lslamic  period of ignorance; Mulāmasa means when you touch something displayed for  sale you have to buy it; Munābadha means when the seller throws something  to you, you have to buy it.)”

—  [Sahīh Bukhārī Vol. 3, Hadīth no. 213. Translated by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khān]
ISLAM 101: Your Zakaat

The Ultimate Objectives of Zakaat :

Allah May He be glorified and exalted has enjoined zakaat on the Muslims for a number of reasons including the following:

1) Love of wealth is an innate human tendency, and man does whatever he possibly can to acquire it. It is for this reason that Islam requires him to pay zakaat to purify his heart from selfishness and greed, as the Qur’an states, “Take zakaat from their wealth to purify and cleanse them.” (Soorat At-Tawbah, 9:103)

2) Paying zakaat nurtures feelings of affection and harmony and fosters community cohesion. Because people generally have a disposition to like those who do them a good turn, members of the Muslim society become so close-knit that they resemble bricks of a building, supporting one another. Crimes such as theft and robbery tend to drop off.

3) Paying zakaat is a vivid expression of true worship and total submission to Allah May He be glorified and exalted. When the wealthy pay zakaat they actually obey Allah’s commands, recognising that all prosperity ultimately comes from Allah’s favour and grace. By doing so, they also show thankfulness to Him for having bestowed His blessings upon them: “If you are grateful, I will certainly give you increase.” (Soorat Ibraaheem, 14:7)

4) By paying zakaat the concept of social security and relative equality among members of society is realised. When the wealthy distribute the annual amount of zakaat among the rightful beneficiaries, wealth ceases to build up in a few hands and is instead kept in constant circulation. As the Qur’an states, “This is so that they do not just circulate among those of you who are rich.” (Soorat Al-Hashr, 59:7)
Love of wealth is an innate human tendency, and Islam requires its followers not to be obsessively attached to wealth and to pay zakaat in order topurify their heartsfrom selfish greed.

Types of Wealth upon which Zakaat Is Due

Zakaat is not due on the necessities of life, such as food, drink, clothing, the house one lives in, even if it is a high-priced house, and the car one drives, even if it is a luxurious car.
It is only due on types of wealth which are not kept for immediate use and which are bound to increase, such as the following:

1) Gold and silver (with the exception of gold and silver ornaments used by women for their personal use)

Zakaat is due on gold and silver only if their value has reached or exceeded an established minimum threshold for this particular kind of wealth (nisaab) and after one has been in possession of this for a completelunar year (354 days).

The minimum prescribed limit on which zakaat becomes obligatory (nisaab)on this type of wealth is as follows:

Zakaat due on gold is approximately 85 grams and that due on silver is 595 grams.

Therefore, if a Muslim has held such an amount for a whole year, he must pay zakaatat the minimum rate of two and a half per cent (2.5%).

2) All types of currency (banknotes and coins) held as cash in hand or bank balances

The nisaab liable to zakaat on cash, banknotes and coins is to be determined according to its corresponding value of gold (85 grams of pure gold) at the time zakaat falls due, based on the current rates of the country in which the payer of zakaat is resident. If such currency has been held in one’s possession for an entire lunar year, two and a half per cent (2.5%) of its value must be given out as zakaat.

To illustrate, if one gram of pure gold at the time zakaat falls due is worth, say $25, the nisaab of the currency will be as follows:

25 (price of one gram of gold, which is unstable) x85 (number of grams, which is stable)= $2125 is the minimum exemption limit (nisaab).
It is worth noting that estimating the nisaab liable to zakaat on banknotes, coins and commercial commodities is generally based on their corresponding minimum amount of gold, since the value of gold is more stable than any other kind of property.

3) Commercial commodities

This term stands for all properties owned with the aim of investing them in trade. They generally include assets, such as real property, and commodities, such as consumer goods and foodstuffs.

The value of commercial assets, which have been held in one’s possession for an entire lunar year, must be estimated according to the current market value on the day zakaat falls due. If the commercial commodities reach the nisaab,two and a half per cent (2.5%) of their value must be given out as zakaat.

4) Farm produce

The Qur’an states, “O you who believe, give away some of the good things you have earned and some of what We have produced for you from the earth.” (Soorat Al-Baqarah, 2:267)

Zakaat is due only on certain types of agricultural produce on condition zakaat ableproduce has reached the minimum amount on which zakaat is due (nisaab)

In consideration of people’s different circumstances, the amount of zakaat payable on farm produce varies according to costs spent and effort exerted in irrigation.

Livestock: Zakaat is due on livestock, such as cows, camels and sheep, only if the animalsgraze on pasture and the owner does not take a lot of trouble to supply them with fodder.

If he supplies them with fodder all or most of the year, zakaat is not due on them.

Details as to the minimum amount upon which zakaat is due (nisaab)on livestock are available in books on Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh).

Recipients of Zakaat

Islam has specified the beneficiaries of zakaat, and a Muslim may pay it to one or more categories or simply give it to charitable societies which undertake to distribute it to those entitled to it. It is more appropriate, however, to pay it in the country where one lives.

Those who qualify to receive zakaat funds are as follows:

1)The poor and the needy are those who cannot meet their basic needs.

2) The destitute who live in absolute poverty as well as those who cannot meet their basic needs.

3) Those employed to collect and distribute zakaat.

4) Slaves who need money to purchase their freedom.

5) Those who have run into debt and cannot possibly pay it off, regardless of whether they have assumed debt for public or personal interest.

6) Those who struggle in the cause of Allah: This includes those who fight in defence of their religion and country as well as those who engage in any activity which aims to support and propagate Islam.

7) Those whose hearts are to be reconciled: These are those who have recently embraced Islam or those expected to embrace it. The duty of giving zakaat to this category of recipients does not belong to individuals but rather to government bodies, Islamic centres and charitable organisations that determine the real benefit behind that.

8) The travellers who are undergoing financial difficulties even if they are very rich back home.

Regarding the deserving beneficiaries of zakaat, the Qur’an states, “Zakaat is for the poor, the destitute, those who collect it, those whose hearts are to be reconciled, for those in debt, for the cause of Allah and the stranded travellers. It is a legal obligation from Allah. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” (Soorat At-Tawbah, 9:60)

It’s not that people cannot criticize Islam–criticism of ideologies, factors of lifestyle etc etc, should always remain an open ground for criticism–it’s that people must be specific in their criticism.

They cannot say “Islam is a terroristic religion” and merely disregard the overwhelming majority of adherents to Islam who do not mirror that statement. They cannot say “Sharia is oppressive” and disregard the fact that a variety of different interpretations of Sharia and Sharia standards exist, and that different schools of Islamic jurisprudence exist. They cannot say “Islam is oppressive towards women” and disregard the entirety of the historical and social status of women through an “Islamic” point of view–furthermore, they cannot disregard the hundreds of millions of women that find liberation and peace and comfort in religion that they do not feel oppressed by. If you are going to criticize an entire platform of religion, lifestyle, and culture it is YOUR responsibility to be specific in your criticism. 

Which aspects of Islam are terroristic? Which factor of Sharia do you deem unacceptable and why? How and in which instances are the application of Islamic values oppressive towards women? These are the questions you are obligated to answer instead of aiming misdirected hatred towards people who do not deserve it. 

anonymous asked:

Do you know why there no classical female scholars who are heavyweights in the fields of Islamic jurisprudence and exegesis on the level of the scholars you referred to in you post? I know some female scholars have contributed and assisted in these fields in the past but I do wonder why they never founded any of their own schools of thought or pioneered great works that are considered staples in classical Islamic scholarship.

If you are referring to my “Imam Starting XI” that was a joke, and a means to give people an insight into many of those Islamic scholars, i.e. I’m up to my old tricks of tricking people into learning.

As far as the idea that there are “no classical female scholars who are heavyweights” that’s just, incorrect.

Umm Al-Mumineen Aisha is not only a cornerstone of Hadith, but her Fiqh rulings are the backbone of all the four schools, without question.

Hafsah bint Umar did not only narrate many Hadiths herself, but it is her copy of The Qur’an which Caliph Othman used to be the standard and the authoritative and accurate text of The Qur’an.

But I understand your point, people may know Imam Abu Hanifa and Ibn Taymiyyah, and not the next names, but I think that’s more of an issue with regards to what we want to know, rather than whether they were important or not. I’d just like to note a few giants in Islamic scholarship:

Sittina Nafeesa bint Al-Hasan ibn Zayd was the teacher of Hadith for Imam Shafi’i, Al-Yafi’ee says: “It is narrated that when Imam Shafi’i came to Egypt, he called upon her and heard Hadith from her, and when he died, his funeral was carried to her and she prayed over him in her house.”

It is from Sittina Nafeesa that the entire bases for isnad (chains) are rooted, she is a massively important figure, a giant without question.

Karima bint Ahmad al-Marwaziyya is responsible for one of, if not the most, authoritative narrations of Sahih Bukhari. In other words, she preserved the work and maintained it, to the point that scholars came from Toledo and even from different schools (Hanafis and Malikis) to learn from her.

The famous scholar Ibn Hajar’s wife, Anas Khatun was also a very famous scholar in her own right, Ibn Hajar’s teachers, who he mentioned in his work Ad-Durar Al-Karimah, he underlines 170 female scholars, many of them who taught him. He includes scholars like Juwayriyah bint Ahmed, who was a famed traditonalist, and in the words of Ibn Hajar “Some of my own teachers, and many of my contemporaries, attended her discourses.” There is also Aisha bint Abdul-Hadi who was Ibn Hajar’s teacher, who was famous to the point that people traveled simply to “sit at her feet and study the truth of religion” as said by Ibn Al-Imad.

The keepers and authenticators of our most valuable works were women. Whether it was Zaynab bint Abdur-Rahman who taught Imam Malik’s Muwatta, or Imam Suyuti studying under Hajar bint Muhammad to understand Imam Shafi’i Risalah, while Ibn Taymiyyah’s teacher of Hadith was Zaynab bint al-Makki; Imam Ad-Dhahabi had over one hundred female teachers.

One of the major problems we face is that we don’t understand the significance of a teacher. We think “oh they were just teachers,” but to be the student of someone is not how we think of it. We think we exceed our teachers, that we beat them, or something like that. 

Imam Malik was the teacher of Imam Shafi’i, to which Imam Shafi’i describes Malik as a star.

There are absolute giants in our tradition, the problem is no one wants to hear about them, no one wants to study them, and they don’t realize their impact upon our discourse because people are willingly ignorant.

The idea that people just “list female scholars” is a rebuke that misunderstands the true impact of women within the Islamic tradition. It erases them, because the impact of female scholars is at odds with their view of the Islamic tradition.

As far as women not establishing schools, very few people established schools, I mean, there are only four existing Sunni schools today, and the extinct schools that we refer to are very small, Thawri, Zahiri, and Jariri are the only ones that come to mind.

Oh, and I’d like to add: there is a difference between us having their works in our hands today, and whether they made any. Like, there are several gigantic works that we only have in pieces, including works from Imam Shafi'i, let alone others, so I think the issue of existing works also is a product of history: a lot of times stuff just doesn’t survive.

However, again, the tradition abounds with female scholarship, it truly does, and they functioned in a role that is most important: teachers. I think we dismiss this role because we live in a discourse that says: “those who cannot do, teach.” But this is not the mentality that exists within Islamic scholarship, to teach is to be in the highest position, to teach someone is to be their guide, to be their gateway into knowledge.

So, we have choice to either continue to pretend that female scholarship wasn’t the cornerstone of Islam from the start, or we can acknowledge that from the very foundations of our tradition, from The Qur’an, to the narrations of the Hadith, and to the Fiqh rulings that emerged from those sources, women were, and still very much are, part of the tradition.