islamic jurisprudence

evergloriousoverlord  asked:

I've been thinking about this for a while, so I decided to find out your thoughts on the matter. How would you go about creating a good fantasy religion?

When it comes to building a religion, the key things to remember is that religion is tied very much to ethics, the nature of reality, the meaning of life (and anything that comes after), and other deep philosophical underpinnings of what it means to be alive, to be good or evil, what responsibilities do we have in life. Religion offered to the people of the past (and continues to offer to the people in the present) profound comfort, meaning, and purpose for the entire life. So, you have your work cut out for you. But this is not beyond the ability of the aspiring worldbuilder and fantasy writer. I’m going to caveat this: I’ve studied religions, but a lot of my studies were focused on western religions. Someone who has studied more Eastern, African, or Pacific religions feel free to add anything. I acknowledge my limitations and have done what I could be as inclusive as possible, but I am certain there was stuff I missed.

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ISLAM 101: Basic Islamic Phrases

Akhira: Hereafter

Alhamdulilah: Praise be to Allah (God)

Allah: God

Allahu Akbar: God is the greatest

Aqidah: Theology

Assalaam Alaykom: Peace be upon you (Islamic greeting)

Astagfarallah: I seek refuge (protection) in God 

Ayah: A verse in the Qur’an (also used to mean a sign)

Barakah: Blessing

Bismillah: In the name of God (said before completing a task to invoke the Lord’s name)

Dua: Supplication or prayer

Dunya: The physical world (as opposed to the Afterlife)

Fatwa: A legal opinion of a Muslim jurist (i.e. Muslim law)

Fiqh: Islamic Jurisprudence

Hadith: The sayings, actions, and approvals of the Prophet (pbuh)

Halal: Something lawful or permitted in Islam

Haram: Something that is sinful or impermissible in Islam

Hijab: Literally a cover, but commonly used to describe the headscarf that some Muslim women choose to wear

Iblees: Satan

Ilm: Knowledge

Islam: A submission to God

Jahannam: Hellfire

Jannah: Paradise

Jazak(i) Allahu Khairan: May God reward you with something good

Jihad: A struggle

Jummah: Friday Prayer or just Friday as a day (holy day for Muslims)

Kafir: People who conceal the Truth and actively plot against Islam

Masha Allah: Literally means “Whatever God wills,” but is taken to basically mean, “Glory to God”

Masjed: Mosque, place of worship for Muslims

Muslim: One who follows the religion of Islam

Nafs: The soul or lower self (ego/id)

Niyyah: Intention

Pbuh: Peace Be Upon Him (said to invoke peace and blessings on the Prophet Mohammad)

Rab: Lord

Sabr: Patience

Salah: Obligatory 5 prayers or any other of the structured prayers in Islam

Salaam: Peace

Seerah: The biography of the life of the Prophet Mohammad (pbuh)

Sheikh: Muslim clergy 

Subhan Allah: Glory to God

Sunnah: The example of the Prophet (pbuh) that Muslims try to follow. 

Surah: A chapter in the Qur’an

Tafsir: Qur’anic exegesis 

Taqwa: Righteousness and piety

Tawakkol: Reliance on God

Waalaykom assalaam: And on to you be peace (reply to greeting)

anonymous asked:

Hello! I have a question about Islam - what exactly is the Sharia and does everyone follow it? How important is it?

Sharia is a broad term, because it doesn’t only refer to the redundant and overused term “Sharia Law” (just refer to it as Sharia, Sharia Law is a tautology), but a way of living for the Muslim subject. When Muslims talks about Sharia, it’s usually in the context of their own personal and individual praxis of religion, that is to say, that a Muslim refers to their “way of living”. In this sense, a Jewish person who practices the laws of the Torah are following Halakha, while a Muslim follows Sharia. 

In fact, I practice Sharia; I pray five times, I refrain from consuming alcohol and pork, I don’t draw smut. I keep myself to a particular Sharia (a way of living)

It is, therefore, fundamental to understand that Sharia is not a homogenous system that refers to an entity or a source of legislation, but an individual way of living by the laws of Islam. It’s also important to understand that Sharia varies from land to land, therefore, we cannot assume that there is a specific law in accordance to what is termed “Orthodoxy”, some are strict, such as the Wahhabi interpretation of Islamic jurisprudence in Saudi Arabia, while some can be liberal and progressive like in Oman or Indonesia. 

In my opinion, because I am Shia, a proud follower of Ahlul Bayt (a), I do not believe that it is possible to implement the system of Sharia as a system of governance until Imam al-Mahdi (a) and Jesus Christ (a) returns, whenever that is. I do neither - as a follower of Grand Ayatollah Sayyed al-Sistani - accept the Khomeinist notion of a “Guardianship of the Islamic Jurist” (Wilayat al Fakih), which serves as an alternative system to govern the land by Islamic laws (Jafari interpretation) in place of the absence of an Imam, though only Iran have this, other Shia predominate nations, such as Iraq and Lebanon, opposes the notion of Wilayat al Fakih and separates Sharia and Democracy. 

Many people say that Islam did not spread by the sword. They try to conceal Jihad for the sake of Allah as a means of spreading Islam. They say that the Muslims were only defending themselves, and that if they conquered some country or another, it was only in order to put an end to tyranny. In other words, if people were suffering under tyranny, the Muslims would put an end to that tyranny. Then why should [the Muslims] remain in those countries and instate Islam in them? Is it true that the Muslims would not set out to conquer a country, unless there was tyranny in that country? in accordance with Islam. Any system of governance in the world is tyranny against humanity, except Islam. If we look at it this way, we find that there is tyranny in every country. Let us not forget that the Quran makes it incumbent upon us to spread Islam through Jihad: “Fight the infidels who are near you, and let them find harshness in you.” “Fight the infidels who are near you” means the ones who are on your borders. This means that the Jihad continues as long as there are infidels who are not ruled by Islam. Thus, the jurisprudents defined the reason for Jihad as the existence of infidels, or to be more precise, the existence of infidels not ruled by Islam - because there are infidels in the Islamic state, the dhimmis, but if they are ruled by Islam, the Jihad against them ceases, and we move on to others.
—  Palestinian cleric Sheikh ‘Abd Al-Salam Abu Al-'Izz in Al-Aqsa Mosque
Beneficial Books Concerning Tawheed and Fiqh

Noble Shaykh, I hope that you will present us with names of valuable books concerning Tawheed and ’aqeedah.

The books concerning the science of Tawheed and Islaamic fiqh are many, old and new. And those that I direct you to read are as follows:

  1. Al-Usooluth-Thalaathah
  2. Kashfush-Shubuhaat
  3. al-Qawaa’idul-Arba’
  4. Usoolul-Eemaanis-Sittah
  5. Masaa‘ilul-Jaahiliyyah
  6. Kitaabut-Tawheed

And all of these are by Shaykhul-Islaam Muhammad Ibn ’Abdul-Wahhaab (d.1206H) – rahimahullaah.

After these, there is:

  1. al-’Aqeedatul-Waasitiyyah
  2. Kitaabul-Hamawiyyah

And both of them are by Shaykhul-Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah – rahimahullaah. And there is an-Nooniyyah by Ibnul-Qayyim (d. 751H), along with its explanation. There is al-Hayaat fee Dhillil-’Aqeedatil-Islaamiyyah by the writer of these words. There is al-Irshaad by Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan, and al-’Aqeedatus-Saheehah wa maa Yudaaduhaa by the Noble Shaykh, ’Abdul-’Azeez Ibn Baaz (d.1420H) – yarhamuhullaah. And there is also al-Qawlul-Mufeed by al-Fawzaan and Kitaabut-Tawheed by Ibn Khuzaymah (d .311H). And the books of the recorded Sunnah concerning the science of creed (al-i’tiqaad) are many. Indeed, I have recently mentioned some of them in the past.

As for the books of Islaamic fiqh, then likewise, the books are many. However, you must begin with al-’Uddah Sharh Kitaabil-’Umdah and the shorter books of the Hanaabilah. And there is al-Mulakhkhasul-Fiqhee by al-Fawzaan. And this must be followed by the books of hadeeth that have been explained, such as Sharh ’Umdatul-Ahkaam and Subulus-Salaam ’alaa Bulooghil-Maraam and al-Muntaqaa and its explanations, such as Naylul-Awtaar. Then, you must move onto reading the books along with striving hard in consulting the guidance of the Salaf concerning the book that you love to read, even if it be by way of the telephone or sending letters. May Allaah grant everyone success in whatever He is pleased with.

— Shaykh Zayd al-Madkhalee (rahimahullaah)

[Taken from al-’Iqdul-Munaddadul-Jadeed (p. 19-20). Translated by Maaz Qureshi]

Fatima al-Fihri

1. In 859 CE, she founded the world’s oldest degree-granting university: University of Al Quaraouiyine. Yes you heard me right, the world’s first university was founded by an oppressed Muslim woman. 

2. Alongside the Qur’an and Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence), other subjects that were also taught were grammar, medicine, mathematics, astronomy, chemistry, history, geography and music. Gradually, a broader range of subjects were introduced in the university particularly natural sciences, physics and foreign languages.

3. Non-Muslims were welcome to matriculate. The university played a leading role in cultural and academic relations between the Islamic world and Europe. In fact, the University’s outstanding caliber attracted Gerber of Auvergne who later became Pope Sylvester II and went on to introduce Arabic numerals and the concept of zero to medieval Europe. One of the university’s most famous students was a Jewish physician and philosopher, Maimonides.

4. The university exists to this day, located in Fes, Morocco 

anonymous asked:

As salamu aleykuma. Do we have to side with ISIS or condem them when we are salafi?

Walaykumasalaam wa rahmatullaah wa barakaatuh brother/sister,

We pray this message finds you in good emaan In shaa’ Allaah!

To be absolutely clear, as Salafis (those who follow the way of the Salaf) we condemn ISIS as a deviant, evil, terrorist organization that has nothing to do with the way of the Salaf nor those who adhere to the methodology [manhaj] of our beloved Pious Predecessors [Salaf-us-Saalih]. They have caused and continue to cause widespread corruption, the loss of innocent life, and other treacherous activities all falsely in the name of Islaam.

For more information on the position of the people of knowledge/Salafi scholars on ISIS, please see below:

*Shaykh Ubayd ibn Abdillah Al Jaabiree: Former Professor at the Islamic University of Madeenah. Presently teaching lessons in Masjid Al Haram in Makkah.

*Shaykh Muhammad bin Hādī Al-Madkhalī: Currently Professor, Faculty of Hadeeth, Islamic University of Madeenah. Teacher at the Prophet’s Masjid, Madeenah.

*Shaykh Saalih Al Suhaymee: Former President of the ‘Aqeedah section in the Islamic University of Madeenah, Presently teaches at the Prophet’s Masjid in Madeenah.

*Shaykh Muhammad bin Ramzān Al-Hājirī: The Shaykh holds a Master’s Degree in Islamic Jurisprudence from Imam ibn Saud University and studied under the likes of Shaykh ‘Abd al Azeez ibn Baaz (12 years), Shaykh Saalih Al Uthaymeen, Shaykh Muhammad Amaan Al Jaami, Shaykh Rabee Al Madkhalee, Shaykh Saalih Al Atram, Shaykh Hammad Al Ansari and others.

*Shaykh Dr. Abdullāh al-Bukhārī: He is Assistant Professor of Hadeeth and Islamic Studies at the Islamic University of Madeenah.

We hope this will suffice in answering your question bi’ithnilaah ta’aala.

Narrated Abu Huraira (radhiAllāhu ‘anhu):

“Two fasts and two kinds of sale are forbidden: fasting on the day of ‘Eid ul  Fitr and ‘Eid-ul-Adha and the kinds of sale called Mulāmasa and Munābadha. (These two kinds of sale used to be practiced in the days of Pre-lslamic  period of ignorance; Mulāmasa means when you touch something displayed for  sale you have to buy it; Munābadha means when the seller throws something  to you, you have to buy it.)”

—  [Sahīh Bukhārī Vol. 3, Hadīth no. 213. Translated by Dr. Muhammad Muhsin Khān]
ISLAM 101: Your Zakaat

The Ultimate Objectives of Zakaat :

Allah May He be glorified and exalted has enjoined zakaat on the Muslims for a number of reasons including the following:

1) Love of wealth is an innate human tendency, and man does whatever he possibly can to acquire it. It is for this reason that Islam requires him to pay zakaat to purify his heart from selfishness and greed, as the Qur’an states, “Take zakaat from their wealth to purify and cleanse them.” (Soorat At-Tawbah, 9:103)

2) Paying zakaat nurtures feelings of affection and harmony and fosters community cohesion. Because people generally have a disposition to like those who do them a good turn, members of the Muslim society become so close-knit that they resemble bricks of a building, supporting one another. Crimes such as theft and robbery tend to drop off.

3) Paying zakaat is a vivid expression of true worship and total submission to Allah May He be glorified and exalted. When the wealthy pay zakaat they actually obey Allah’s commands, recognising that all prosperity ultimately comes from Allah’s favour and grace. By doing so, they also show thankfulness to Him for having bestowed His blessings upon them: “If you are grateful, I will certainly give you increase.” (Soorat Ibraaheem, 14:7)

4) By paying zakaat the concept of social security and relative equality among members of society is realised. When the wealthy distribute the annual amount of zakaat among the rightful beneficiaries, wealth ceases to build up in a few hands and is instead kept in constant circulation. As the Qur’an states, “This is so that they do not just circulate among those of you who are rich.” (Soorat Al-Hashr, 59:7)
Love of wealth is an innate human tendency, and Islam requires its followers not to be obsessively attached to wealth and to pay zakaat in order topurify their heartsfrom selfish greed.

Types of Wealth upon which Zakaat Is Due

Zakaat is not due on the necessities of life, such as food, drink, clothing, the house one lives in, even if it is a high-priced house, and the car one drives, even if it is a luxurious car.
It is only due on types of wealth which are not kept for immediate use and which are bound to increase, such as the following:

1) Gold and silver (with the exception of gold and silver ornaments used by women for their personal use)

Zakaat is due on gold and silver only if their value has reached or exceeded an established minimum threshold for this particular kind of wealth (nisaab) and after one has been in possession of this for a completelunar year (354 days).

The minimum prescribed limit on which zakaat becomes obligatory (nisaab)on this type of wealth is as follows:

Zakaat due on gold is approximately 85 grams and that due on silver is 595 grams.

Therefore, if a Muslim has held such an amount for a whole year, he must pay zakaatat the minimum rate of two and a half per cent (2.5%).

2) All types of currency (banknotes and coins) held as cash in hand or bank balances

The nisaab liable to zakaat on cash, banknotes and coins is to be determined according to its corresponding value of gold (85 grams of pure gold) at the time zakaat falls due, based on the current rates of the country in which the payer of zakaat is resident. If such currency has been held in one’s possession for an entire lunar year, two and a half per cent (2.5%) of its value must be given out as zakaat.

To illustrate, if one gram of pure gold at the time zakaat falls due is worth, say $25, the nisaab of the currency will be as follows:

25 (price of one gram of gold, which is unstable) x85 (number of grams, which is stable)= $2125 is the minimum exemption limit (nisaab).
It is worth noting that estimating the nisaab liable to zakaat on banknotes, coins and commercial commodities is generally based on their corresponding minimum amount of gold, since the value of gold is more stable than any other kind of property.

3) Commercial commodities

This term stands for all properties owned with the aim of investing them in trade. They generally include assets, such as real property, and commodities, such as consumer goods and foodstuffs.

The value of commercial assets, which have been held in one’s possession for an entire lunar year, must be estimated according to the current market value on the day zakaat falls due. If the commercial commodities reach the nisaab,two and a half per cent (2.5%) of their value must be given out as zakaat.

4) Farm produce

The Qur’an states, “O you who believe, give away some of the good things you have earned and some of what We have produced for you from the earth.” (Soorat Al-Baqarah, 2:267)

Zakaat is due only on certain types of agricultural produce on condition zakaat ableproduce has reached the minimum amount on which zakaat is due (nisaab)

In consideration of people’s different circumstances, the amount of zakaat payable on farm produce varies according to costs spent and effort exerted in irrigation.

Livestock: Zakaat is due on livestock, such as cows, camels and sheep, only if the animalsgraze on pasture and the owner does not take a lot of trouble to supply them with fodder.

If he supplies them with fodder all or most of the year, zakaat is not due on them.

Details as to the minimum amount upon which zakaat is due (nisaab)on livestock are available in books on Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh).

Recipients of Zakaat

Islam has specified the beneficiaries of zakaat, and a Muslim may pay it to one or more categories or simply give it to charitable societies which undertake to distribute it to those entitled to it. It is more appropriate, however, to pay it in the country where one lives.

Those who qualify to receive zakaat funds are as follows:

1)The poor and the needy are those who cannot meet their basic needs.

2) The destitute who live in absolute poverty as well as those who cannot meet their basic needs.

3) Those employed to collect and distribute zakaat.

4) Slaves who need money to purchase their freedom.

5) Those who have run into debt and cannot possibly pay it off, regardless of whether they have assumed debt for public or personal interest.

6) Those who struggle in the cause of Allah: This includes those who fight in defence of their religion and country as well as those who engage in any activity which aims to support and propagate Islam.

7) Those whose hearts are to be reconciled: These are those who have recently embraced Islam or those expected to embrace it. The duty of giving zakaat to this category of recipients does not belong to individuals but rather to government bodies, Islamic centres and charitable organisations that determine the real benefit behind that.

8) The travellers who are undergoing financial difficulties even if they are very rich back home.

Regarding the deserving beneficiaries of zakaat, the Qur’an states, “Zakaat is for the poor, the destitute, those who collect it, those whose hearts are to be reconciled, for those in debt, for the cause of Allah and the stranded travellers. It is a legal obligation from Allah. Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise.” (Soorat At-Tawbah, 9:60)

It’s not that people cannot criticize Islam–criticism of ideologies, factors of lifestyle etc etc, should always remain an open ground for criticism–it’s that people must be specific in their criticism.

They cannot say “Islam is a terroristic religion” and merely disregard the overwhelming majority of adherents to Islam who do not mirror that statement. They cannot say “Sharia is oppressive” and disregard the fact that a variety of different interpretations of Sharia and Sharia standards exist, and that different schools of Islamic jurisprudence exist. They cannot say “Islam is oppressive towards women” and disregard the entirety of the historical and social status of women through an “Islamic” point of view–furthermore, they cannot disregard the hundreds of millions of women that find liberation and peace and comfort in religion that they do not feel oppressed by. If you are going to criticize an entire platform of religion, lifestyle, and culture it is YOUR responsibility to be specific in your criticism. 

Which aspects of Islam are terroristic? Which factor of Sharia do you deem unacceptable and why? How and in which instances are the application of Islamic values oppressive towards women? These are the questions you are obligated to answer instead of aiming misdirected hatred towards people who do not deserve it.