Vlasta Kálalová (1896-1971) was a Czech physician with a particular interest in tropical diseases and entomology. She studied medicine, Arabic and Persian in Prague, before moving to Baghdad to further her understanding of specific diseases of the area.
She established the Czechoslovak Surgical Institute in the city, becoming its first director in addition to working as a surgeon. She became so well-respected that she personally treated members of the Iraqi Royal Family. She also studied and collected local insects, which she sent to the Czech National Museum, enriching its collection with more than 500,000 specimens. She was fluent in 14 languages.