ir verb

Regular ER & IR Verb Endings

root + o
root + es
root + e
root + emos
root + éis
root + en

root + í
root + iste
root + ió
root + imos
root + isteis
root + ieron 

root + ía
root + ías
root + ía
root + íamos
root + íais
root + ían

Future *
infinitive + é
infinitive + ás
infinitive + á 
infinitive + emos
infinitive + éis
infinitive + án

Conditional *
infinitive + ía
infinitive + ías
infinitive + ía
infinitive + íamos
infinitive + íais
infinitive + ían

Present Perfect *
he + past participle  
has + past participle  
ha + past participle  
hemos + past participle  
habéis + past participle  
han + past participle   

Past Perfect *
había + past participle  
habías + past participle  
había + past participle  
habíamos + past participle  
habíais + past participle  
habían + past participle 

Future Perfect *
habré + past participle  
habrás + past participle
habrá + past participle  
habremos + past participle  
habréis + past participle  
habrán + past participle  

Conditional Perfect *
habría + past participle  
habrías + past participle  
habría + past participle  
habríamos + past participle  
habríais + past participle  
habrían + past participle 

Present Subjunctive
root + a
root + as
root + a
root + amos
root + áis
root + an 

Present Perfect Subjunctive *
haya + past participle  
hayas + past participle  
haya + past participle  
hayamos + past participle  
hayáis + past participle  
hayan + past participle  

Imperfect Subjunctive (-ra)
root + iera
root + ieras
root + iera
root + iéramos
root + ierais
root + ieran

Past Perfect Subjunctive (-ra) *
hubiera + past participle 
hubieras + past participle 
hubiera + past participle 
hubiéramos + past participle 
hubierais + past participle 
hubieran + past participle 

as AR verb endings

Conjugation Rules in French

1. Verb groups

There are three groups of verbs in French. The first one ends with –er, the second with –ir, and the third with –re, -oir, and –ir. These groups basically determine how the verbs are conjugated. For the most part, you can tell with group the verb belongs to just by looking at the ending, but in the case of –ir verbs, it’s a little trickier. The difference between second-group –ir and third-group –ir is the ending of the participe présent (present participle, a.k.a verbs ending in –ing): second-group verbs end in –issant, while third-group verbs end in –ant.

The third group is the one with all the irregular verbs, so it’s better to check the conjugation just to be sure.

2. Verb radicals

First group

For the present and imperfect tenses, the radical is the verb without the ending.

e.g.: aim- for aimer, parl- for parler

For the future and conditional tenses, the radical is the same as the verb.

e.g.: aimer- for aimer, parler- for parler

Second group

For the present tense, the radical is the verb with the r.

e.g.: fini- for finir, guéri- for guérir

For the imperfect tense, the radical is the same as the present tense, but you also add ss to it.

e.g.: finiss- for finir, guériss- for guérir

For the future and conditional tenses, the radical is the same as the verb.

e.g.: finir- for finir, guérir- for guérir

Third group (there are exceptions everywhere)


For the present and imperfect tenses, the radical is the verb without the ending.

e.g.: vend- for vendre, prend- for prendre

For the future and conditional tenses, the radical is the verb with the r.

e.g.: vendr- for vendre, prendr- for prendre


For the present and imperfect tenses, the radical is the verb without the ending.

e.g.: ouvr- for ouvrir, ment- for mentir

For the future and conditional tenses, the radical is the same as the verb.

e.g.: ouvrir- for ouvrir, mentir- for mentir

HOWEVER there are exceptions for the –ir verbs

For the present and imperfect tenses, the radical is the verb without the three last letters.

e.g.: sor- for sortir, dor- for dormir


These are all irregular and you should look them up.

e.g.: savoir, pouvoir, recevoir

Present: sa- (je/tu/il)/ sav- (nous/vous/ils) for savoir, peu- (je/tu/il)/ pouv- (nous/vous/ils) for pouvoir, rec/reç (je/tu/il)/ recev- (nous/vous/ils) for recevoir

Imperfect: sav- for savoir, pouv- for pouvoir, recev- for recevoir

Future and Conditional: saur- for savoir, pourr- for pouvoir, recevr- for recevoir

3. Verb endings

First group:

Second group:

Third group:


-oir (all irregular, please look these up)

e.g.: savoir

e.g.: pouvoir

e.g.: recevoir


e.g.: ouvrir

e.g.: dormir

*Since these are irregular verbs, it is possible that not all are conjugated according to these tables*

Le Passé Composé - Masterpost

The passé composé is the most commonly used past tense in French.

It is formed using the following formula:

  • subject + avoir or être (conjugated in the present tense) + past participle

Conjugating avoir and être 

In the present tense, avoir (to have) is conjugated as follows:

  • je - ai ¹          | nous - avons
  • tu - as           | vous - avez
  • il/elle/on - a   | ils/elles - ont ²

In the present tense, être (to be) is conjugated as follows:

  • je - suis           | nous - sommes
  • tu - es              | vous - êtes
  • il/elle/on - est  | ils/elles - sont  

Forming the past participle

  • For regular -er verbs, drop -er and add -é (parler → parlé)
  • For regular -re verbs, drop -re and add -u (vendre  → vendu)
  • For regular -ir verbs , drop -ir and add -i (finir → fini)

Forms of past participles:

  • Nearly all past participles use the following endings to indicate gender and number:
    •               __Masculine__|__Feminine____
    • Singular |     é / u / i       |      ée / ue / ie
    • Plural     |   és / us / is    |   ées / ues / ies

Common irregular past participles:

  • être (to be) → été
  • faire (to do, make) → fait ³
  • offrir (to offer)  → offert ³
  • ouvrir (to open)  → ouvert ³
  • naître (to be born)  → né
  • mourir (to die)  → mort ³
  • avoir (to have) → eu
  • boire (to drink) → bu
  • connaître (to know) → connu
  • coire (to believe) → cru
  • devoir (must; to owe) → dû
  • lire (to read) → lu
  • pleuvoir (to rain) → plu
  • pouvoir (can; to be able to)  → pu
  • recevoir (to receive) → reçu
  • savoir (to know) → su
  • voir (to see) → vu
  • vouloir (to want) → voulu
  • venir (to come) → venu
  • mettre (to place)  → mis ³
  • prendre (to take) → pris ³
  • conduire (to drive) → conduit ³
  • dire (to say)→ dit ³
  • écrire (to write)  → écrit ³
  • asseoir (to sit down) → assis ³

Irregular verbs formed from other irregular verbs use the same base for their past participles: 

  • mettre → mis; permettre (to permit, allow) → permis
  • ouvrir → ouvert; couvrir (to cover) → couvert

When to use avoir or être

The majority of French verbs use avoir in the passé composé. Default to avoir, barring the following exceptions:

  • The following verbs usually use être as its auxilary verb ⁴ in the passé composé. They often have to do motion, but not all verbs of motion use être . They therefore must be memorized. 
    • aller - to go
    • arriver - to arrive
    • descendre ⁵   - to descend / go downstairs
    • entrer ⁵  - to enter
    • monter ⁵ - to climb
    • mourir - to die
    • naître ⁵   - to be born
    • partir ⁵ - to leave
    • passer - to pass
    • rester - to stay
    • retourner - to return
    • sortir ⁵ - to go out
    • tomber ⁵  - to fall
    • venir ⁶ - to come
  • All pronominal verbs, without exception, use être in the passé composé. 

Agreement in the passé composé

Agreement with avoir

  • The past participle normally agrees in gender and number with the direct object (or direct object pronoun) if it precedes the verb, barring the exceptions that follow.
    • J’ai lu les lettres. (I read the letters.)
    • Je les ai lues. (I read them.)
    • J’ai ouvert les lettres. (I opened the letters.)
    • Les lettres qui j’ai ouvertes sont lá-bas. (The letters that I opened are over there.) 
  • Exceptionally, the past participle does not have to agree with the direct object in causative constructions or with certain constructions with verbs of perception ⁷.
    • Je les a fait lire les lettres. (I made them read the letters.)
    • Les lettres que j’ai vu écrire. (I saw the letters get written.)

Agreement with être

  • The past participle must always agree with the subject with non-pronominal verbs that use être. 
    • Elle est allée à la poste pour déposer les lettres. (She went to the post office to drop off the letters.)
    • Vous êtes parties de la poste avec les lettres. (You ( left the post office with the letters.)
  • The past participle must agree with the reflexive pronoun of pronominal verbs when the reflexive pronoun is the direct object. It does not agree with the indirect object.
    • Elle s’est asisse à son bureau quand elle lisait la lettre. (She sat herself down at her desk when she was reading the letter.
    • Nous nous sommes envoyés des lettres. (We sent each other letters.) 

Negating in the passé composé

Add the standard ne… pas construction around avoir or être, excluding the subject and past participle. Include objective and adverbial pronouns that precede the auxiliary verb ⁸. When using inversion, include the subject and the verb between the negative constructions. 

  • Je n’ai pas écrit ces lettres (I did not write those letters.)
  • Je ne les ai pas écrits ces lettres. (I did not write them.)
  • Je ne suis pas allé à la poste pour déposer les lettres. (I did not go to the post office to drop off the letters.)
  • Je n’y suis pas allé. (I did not go there.)
  • N’êtes-vous pas retournés de la poste ? (Did you return from the post office?)

Questioning in the passé composé

Questions are formed in the passé composé using the inversion or est-ce que constructions.

  • Avez-vous déja écrit les lettres ? (Do you write the letters yet?)
  • Est-ce qu’ils sont allés à la poste ? (Did they go to the post office?)
  • Pourquoi n’avez-vous pas envoyé les lettres ? (Why did you not send the letters?)

Questions can be asked informally using standard SVO word order with a question tone at the end of the sentence.

  • Tu as déja envoyé les lettres ? (You sent the letters already?)

Translating the passé composé

The passé composé can be translated as [verb + ed], [to have + past participle] or [did / do + verb].

  • J’ai écrit les lettres. (I wrote / have written / did write the letters.)

¹ je and ai are elided as j’ai.

² Be sure to liaise the s and o to distinguish it from sont, the third person plural form of être.

³ These verbs use irregular past participle forms to indicate gender and number:

  • Fait, ouvert, offert, conduit, écrit, dit, and mort use the following:
    • _______|__Masculine__|__Feminine__
    • Singular |         ∅         |         e
    • Plural    |          s          |         es
  • Mis, pris, and assis use the following:
    • _______|__Masculine__|__Feminine__
    • Singular |         ∅         |         e
    • Plural    |         ∅          |        es

⁴ when used intransitively. When they take a direct object, they use avoir instead. 

⁵ These verbs can add re- to make verbs that indicate that the action was repeated; these derivatives use être as well. 

⁶ venir has the following derivatives: devenir (to become), parvenir (to reach, achieve), and revenir (to come again, come back); these use être as well. 

⁷ The six verbs of perception are apercevoir (to catch a glimpse of), écouter (to listen) entendre (to hear), regarder (to watch), sentir (to feel), and voir (to see); the past participle never agrees with the direct object of the infinitive; the past participle agrees with the subject of the infinitive when it precedes the verb.

⁸ Objective and adverbial pronouns precede the auxiliary verb and succeed the subject. 

Le futur Simple


Today we will learn the futur simple, i.e. “will do something” such as “I will have a great day” (not to be confused with le futur antérieur which we will cover later)

To form this tense with regular verbs, such as “-er” and “-ir,” verbs you must use the entire verb as the stem (so keep it in the infinitive form) and then add the “avoir” endings to the end of the verbs.

Here are two examples:

Chanter- to sing                                              Finir- to finish

Je chanterai                                                    Je finirai

Tu chanteras                                                   Tu finiras

Il/Elle/On chantera                                         Il/Elle/On finira

Nous chanterons                                             Nous finirons

Vous chanterez                                               Vous finirez

Ils/Elles chanteront                                        Ils/Elles finiront

With “-re” verbs, drop the “-e” and add the “avoir” endings

Descendre- to descend

Je descendrai

Tu descendras

Il/Elle/On descendra

Nous descendrons

Vous descendrez

Ils/Elles descendront

Now for the irregular verbs :

Avoir- to have                                                 Être- to be

J’aurai                                                             Je serai

Tu auras                                                          Tu seras

Il/Elle/On aura                                                  Il/Elle/On sera

Nous aurons                                                    Nous serons

Vous aurez                                                      Vous serez

Ils/Elles auront                                               Ils/Elles seront

Aller- to go                                                      Faire- to do/make

J’irai                                                    Je ferai

Tu iras                                                 Tu feras

Il/Elle/On ira                                       Il/Elle/On fera

Nous irons                                           Nous ferons

Vous irez                                             Vous ferez

Ils/Elles iront                                      Ils/Elles feront

Savoir- to know                                   Voir- to see

Je saurai                                              Je verrai

Tu sauras                                            Tu verras

Il/Elle/On saura                                  Il/Elle/On verra

Nous saurons                                      Nous verrons

Vous saurez                                        Vous verrez

Ils/Elles sauront                                  Ils/Elles verront

Vouloir- to want                                 Valoir- to be worth

Je voudrai                                            Je vaudrai

Tu voudras                                          Tu vaudras

Il/Elle/On voudra                                Il/Elle/On vaudra

Nous voudrons                                    Nous vaudrons

Vous voudrez                                      Vous vaudrez

Ils/Elles voudront                                Ils/Elles vaudront

Here is some practice :

1.     Je/j’ ____________ (être) content quand je finis l’université.

2.     Nous ____________ (faire) le gâteau quand nous avons le temps.

3.     Ils _____________ (aller) à la piscine plus tard.

4.     On _____________ (voir) ses amis mardi.

Answers :

1.     Je serais

2.     Nous ferons

3.     Ils iront

4.     On verra

Bonne journée!

An IR verb that’s irregular in the indicative present (as a stem changing e>i shoe verb), in the indicative preterite (as a stem changing e>i log verb), every subjective tense (because you form each with the present tense yo form, which is “sigo” and irregular), and the imperative tense as well.

Can be used for physically following someone but also can be used for following someone on social media.

Pronounced like seh-geer
Decir - To say, tell

Irregular verb
Gerundio - diciendo - being
Past participle - dicho - been

digo - I say
dices -
dice -
decimos -
decís - 
dicen -  

dije - I said
dijiste -
dijo - 
dijimos -
dijisteis -
dijeron -  

Imperfect *
decía - I was saying
decías - 
decía - 
decíamos - 
decíais - 
decían -  

diré - I will say 
dirás - 
dirá - 
diremos - 
diréis - 
dirán -

diriá - I would say 
dirías -
diría -
diríamos -
diríais -
dirían -

Present Perfect *
he dicho - I have said
has dicho -
ha dicho -
hemos dicho -
habéis dicho -
han dicho -

Pluperfect [past perfect] *
habia dicho -  I had said
habías dicho -
había dicho -
habíamos dicho -  
habíais dicho -
habían dicho -

Future Perfect *
habre dicho -  I will have said
habrás dicho -
habrá dicho -
habremos dicho -
habréis dicho -
habrán dicho -

Conditional Perfect *
habría dicho - I would have said
habrías dicho -
habría dicho -
habríamos dicho -
habríais dicho -
habrían dicho -

Present Subjunctive
diga -  I say
digas -
diga -
digamos -
digáis -
digan -

Present Perfect Subjunctive *
haya dicho - I have said
hayas dicho -
haya dicho -
hayamos dicho -
hayáis dicho -
hayan dicho -

Imperfect Subjunctive (-ra)
dijera - I was saying
dijeras -
dijera -
dijéramos -
dijerais -
dijeran -

Past Perfect Subjunctive (-ra) *
hubiera dicho - I would have said
hubieras dicho -
hubiera dicho -
hubiéramos dicho -
hubierais dicho -
hubieran dicho -


French Verb Tenses: Le Passé Récent

Usage: The passé récent in French is used to describe something that just happened. 

Formation: pronoun + conjugated venir  + preposition de + infinitive of desired verb
    Ex. I just woke up.
          Je viens de réveiller.
Notes: venir is an irregular -ir verb, conjugated as follows:

je viens
tu viens
il/elle/on vient
nous venons
vous venez
ils/elles viennent

Happy Frenching!
~ Céleste (lafrance-et-celeste)