ionic temple

Alexander The Great in front of the tomb of Achilles.

This painting in the Louvre Museum is a work of Hubert Robert (1733 -1808) done around 1754.

The subject taken from the Greek rhetorician Claudius Aelianius or Aelian (Varia Historia, XII, 7), writing in the second century CE, and shows the Macedonian king having the tomb of Achilles opened in order to pay a homage to the Greek hero of the Trojan War.

Achilles’ relationship with Patroclus is a key aspect of his myth. Its exact nature has been a subject of dispute in both the classical period and modern times. Thus in 5th-century BCE Athens, the relationship was commonly interpreted as pederastic. Nowadays some see it as a love relationship of an egalitarian homosexual couple. It is the same case as the relationship between Alexander the Great and Hephaestion. The relationship between the Macedonian king and his dearest and closest friend and confidant, lasted their whole lives, and was compared, by others as well as themselves, to that of Achilles and Patroclus. Hephaestion and Alexander grew up in a time and place where homosexual affairs were seen as perfectly normal. Roman and later writers, taking the Athenian pattern as their example, have tended to assume either, that their sexual relationship belonged to their adolescence, after which they left it behind, or that one of them was older, the lover (erastes) and the other was the beloved (eromenos). Claudius Aelianus takes the latter view when he uses just such an expression when describing the visit to Troy: “Alexander laid a garland on Achilles’ tomb and Hephaestion on Patroclus’, indicating that he was Alexander’s eromenos, as Patroclus was of Achilles.” No other circumstance shows better the nature and length of their relationship than Alexander’s overwhelming grief at Hephaestion’s death. The many and varied ways, both spontaneous and planned, by which Alexander poured out his grief are overwhelming. In the context of the nature of their relationship however, one stands out as remarkable. Lucius Flavius Arrianus “Xenophon” (Arrian of Nicomedia, ca. 86 – 160), in his work Ἀλεξάνδρου ἀνάβασις says that Alexander “… flung himself on the body of his friend and lay there nearly all day long in tears, and refused to be parted from him until he was dragged away by force by his Companions.

This painting by Robert (known as Robert des Ruines) is close to Panini, who was his teacher during his long stay of 11 years in Rome, and it is considered to be one of the first productions of the French artist in that city. In the painting by the French vedutista, an architectural fantasy, we see a pyramid similar to that of Caius Cestius in Rome, the ruins of a temple with Ionic columns inspired by the temple of Saturn in the Roman Forum and a round temple, after the Roman temple of Vesta, or the temple of the Sybile in Tivoli. The statue standing at the left-hand side of the canvas is the so-called Antinous of the Belvedere, or Antinous Admirandus, the famous statue in the Pio-Clementino Museum of the Vatican. This statue, correctly identified as a Hermes in the 19th century, was long taken to be a depiction of the beautiful Bythinian lover of Emperor Hadrian, one of the great “eromenos-erastes” relationship of the antiquity.

Im officially advocating for the return of follies. They were very popular among the upper classes in france and britain during the 18th century. Greco-roman temples were incredibly popular which is why i mention it. And technically building laws are lax(at least here) as it could be considered a garden feature. This would be an idea for polytheists with some building skill or money

I found some online starting at like $9k premade.

(Pictured is Milton’s Temple An Ionic temple built in 1755 in Mount Edgcumbe Park)


Temple of Zeus

Aizanoi, Turkey

2nd century CE

35 m × 53 m

The construction of the temple, which was the main religious sanctuary of the city, started in the last half of the 2nd century AD. The preserved inscriptions indicate that emperor Hadrian was responsible for its commission.

The temple stands on a many-stepped podium and was built of marble. It is surrounded by a peristasis in a pseudodipteral arrangement, originally with 15 Ionic columns on its long side and 8 on the short side. The podiom itself measures 33 X 37 meters. Nowadays, only the columns on the western and northern side are still standing.

The temple was dedicated to two deities. Zeus - the ruler of the Olympians - was worshipped in its aboveground section, and the underground part of the building was the place of Cybele cult. Stylistically, the part dedicated to Zeus was built in accordance with the Greek patterns and the underground section - with the Roman ones as the barrel vaults are clearly visible.

The battle scenes depicted on the walls of the building come from much later period. They were made by the Tatars and illustrate their lives and battles fought in the 13th century AD. Nearby the entrance to the temple grounds there is an enclosed area where some interesting fragments of temple decorations are collected. Opposite the temple there are the remains of a small bouleuterion, but its history remains unknown.


Temple of Athena (traditionally Ceres) at Paestum 

Paestum was part of the region of southern Italy known as Magna Graecia, “Great Greece.” It was founded as Poseidonia by Greek settlers around the year 600 B.C. Poseidonia became a Roman colony in 273 B.C. and took the name Paestum. 

The major Greek temples at Paestum were constructed more than 200 years before the city became a Roman colony. The so-called Temple of Ceres was built c. 500 B.C. It had exterior Doric columns and interior Ionic columns. The Temple of Ceres was one of the first buildings to incorporate both Doric and Ionic elements, a change that anticipated architectural developments in Attica fifty years later. 

Eighteenth-century adventurers named the temple after the Roman goddess of agriculture, Ceres, but later archaeological discoveries linked the temple instead with the goddess Athena. A deposit of terracotta figurines, dating from the late sixth and early fifth centuries, was found near the site. These figurines depict Athena with her customary helmet, shield, and aegis. A fragment of pottery from the Roman period bearing the inscription MENERVA, the Roman counterpart of Athena, has also been discovered. 


Temple  of Athena Nike

Athens’ Acropolis, Greece

420 BCE

Stylobate: 8.27 m x 5.64 m; height: ca. 4 m.

The Temple of Athena Nike was named after the Greek goddess, Athena Nike. The temple is the earliest fully Ionic temple on the Acropolis. It was a prominent position on a steep bastion at the south west corner of the Acropolis to the right of the entrance, the Propylaea. In contrast to the Acropolis proper, a walled sanctuary entered through the Propylaea, the Victory Sanctuary was open, entered from the Propylaea’s southwest wing and from a narrow stair on the north. The sheer walls of its bastion were protected on the north, west, and south by the Nike Parapet, named for its frieze of Nikai celebrating victory and sacrificing to their patroness, Athena Nike.

Nike means victory in Greek, and Athena was worshipped in this form, as goddess of victory in war and wisdom. The citizens worshipped the goddess in hope of a successful outcome in the long Peloponnesian War fought on land and sea against the Spartans and their allies.


Temple of Hadanares

Niha (nihata), Lebanon

2nd century CE

This temple used as the oracle of the god Hadanares, who was comparable to the Baal-Zeus-Jupiter of Baalbek or to Hadad, and the Syrian goddess Atargatis. The temple was still in use when it was destroyed by an earthquake.

To the left and right of the main entrance are doors; the left one leads to a staircase that allows you to look into the sanctuary from quite high. (An arrangement similar to the one in the temple of Bacchus in Baalbek and the eastern temple in Akrine.) The facade walls are decorated with wreaths, but there’s also an exceptionally fine portrait of a priest named Narkisos, with a conical hat and - on his breast - the portraits of Hadanares and Atargatis. The inscription (Ναρκισος Κασιου βουλευτικος κοληα) identifies him as member of the Council of Baalbek, although the last word is unusual. 

The cella, which was graced by a water canal, consists of a lower part and a higher “adyton” (the part of the sanctuary that was only accessible to the priests). This latter part is similar to the adyton in the temple of Bacchus in Baalbek. Between these two sections are two stairs; at the mid-level is the entrance to a U-shaped crypt. Its function is not known, but it may have been the place of the oracle. That it was important, can perhaps be deduced from the fact that the architect’s model of the stairs and crypt was carefully preserved. Next to the entrance of the crypt is another relief, showing an animal with someone riding on it, a woman, and someone who can - because of the resemblance to Narkisos - be identified as a priest.


Temple of Artemis Leukophryene

Magnesia on the Maeander

2nd century BCE

The temple of Artemis Leukophryene wasconsecrated to a local deity, Artemis Leukophryene, the goddess “with white eyebrows,” known only to the Magnesians. Some people consider her to be the descendant of an ancient Phrygian mother goddess. Others compare her with the Artemis honored at Ephesus. She probably had the general features of Artemis (huntress, mistress and protector of animals, etc.) but was also considered the founder and benefactress of the town.

Vitruvius mentioned the Temple of Artemis Leukophryene, an Ionic building with eight columns along the façade, as one of the major works of the architect and theoretician Hermogenes.


Temple of Dionysos Kathegemon

Pergamon, Turkey

159 BCE

~14 m. high

The Temple of Dionysos Kathegemon was built at the foot of the theatre’s cavea (seating area), at the north end of a colonnaded terrace.

A 4.5 metre high stairway of 25 marble steps led up to the temple, which was 13.17 metres wide and 21.6 metres long. It had a porch at its entrance (prostyle), supported by four Ionic columns (tetrastyle), with a further column behind each of end columns. Each of the columns was over 11 metres tall and 1.13 metres in diameter.

It appears that the temple was never quite completed, and that a frieze planned for it was also unfinished. This may have been due to the fact that the sculptors were busy on several other of Eumenes’ building projects, including the enormous Great Altar of Zeus.


Sanctuary of Athena Polias Nikephoros

Pergamon, Turkey

2nd Century BCE

12.72 x 21.77 m.

The Sanctuary of Athena Polias Nikephoros (Athena of the City, Bringer of Victory) was at the Pergamon Acropolis. The monumental gateway, which stood at the northeast corner of the sanctuary, was built by Eumenes II in the early 2nd century BC.

The two-storey building, had a porch of four Doric columns (tetrastyle) on the ground floor, above which was a dedicatory inscription by Eumenes to Athena Nikephoros. The upper storey was a balcony with four Ionic columns and fronted by a military frieze depicting armour and weapons. 

The Sanctuary of Athena Nikephoros, on the southwest corner of the walled citadel on the Acropolis, was one of Pergamon’s oldest religious centres, used for the worship of Athena and Nike.