invasion of the netherlands

I feel bad for APH France

I feel bad for APH France. Hetalia portrays him as a weak, pitiful country.

I mean look at this. France is the root of all military banter, and is constantly the joke of every malfunction known to man. France is belittled as a military power in everyway.

Personified as a country incapable of fighting and winning, this poor darling is never treated with respect because it is believed to be that he is a terrible fighting. (Similar to the misconception of the Italian Military).

Enough is enough. I have to say something.

Remember this guy? Terrifying, barbaric viking Denmark who constantly fights with Sweden and Prussia and is known in history as a ruthless military power? The guy that is never made fun of for lack of strength?

In World War II, Denmark surrendered one day into the German invasion.

Other examples are Belgium who fell in eighteen days, and the Netherlands, the bad a of Europe, who fell in five days. Now let’s talk about France.

France lasted for forty-two days.

You may argue France has more landmass and a bigger population than all three combined, and I would say you’re right. But get this.

Of France’s 200,000 military deaths in World War II, nearly half of them occurred in the six weeks of the German invasion in 1940.

That’s right.

France, the weakest and worst implied fighter of the Allied powers, lost over 100,000 of his people defending their country for forty-two days.

Next time you want to make fun of France, remember: he’s not the weak country Hetalia portrays him to be. He’s actually one of the strongest.

"There were no LGBT+ people in the 30's and 40's. Everyone was too homophobic"

1931 - Mädchen in Uniform, one of the first explicitly lesbian films and the first pro-lesbian film, is released.


1932 – Poland codifies the homosexual and heterosexual age of consent equally at 15. Polish law had never criminalized homosexuality, although occupying powers had outlawed it in 1835.


1933 – New Danish penalty law decriminalizes homosexuality.


1933 – The National Socialist German Workers Party bans homosexual groups. Homosexuals are sent to concentration camps. N

1934 – Uruguay decriminalizes homosexuality.


1936 – Mona’s 440 Club, the first lesbian bar in America, opened in San Francisco in 1936.


1936 – Federico García Lorca, Spanish poet, is shot at the beginning of the civil war.


1937 – The first use of the pink triangle for gay men in Nazi concentration camps.


1938 – The word Gay is used for the first time in reference to homosexuality.


1939 – Frances V. Rummell, an educator and a teacher of French at Stephens College, published an autobiography under the title Diana: A Strange Autobiography; it was the first explicitly lesbian autobiography in which two women end up happily together.


1940 – Iceland decriminalizes homosexuality; the NWHK is disbanded in the Netherlands in May due to the German invasion, and most of its archive is voluntarily destroyed, while the rest is confiscated by Nazi soldiers.


1942 – Switzerland decriminalizes homosexuality, with the age of consent set at 20.


1944 – Sweden decriminalizes homosexuality, with the age of consent set at 20 and Suriname legalizes homosexuality.


1945 – Upon the liberation of Nazi concentration camps by Allied forces, those interned for homosexuality are not freed, but required to serve out the full term of their sentences under Paragraph 175; Portugal decriminalises homosexuality for the second time in its history. Four honourably discharged gay veterans form the Veterans Benevolent Association, the first LGBT veterans’ group. Gay bar Yanagi opened in Japan.


1946 – “COC” (Dutch acronym for “Center for Culture and Recreation”), one of the earliest homophile organizations, is founded in the Netherlands. It is the oldest surviving LGBT organization.


1947 – Vice Versa, the first North American lesbian publication, is written and self-published by Lisa Ben (real name Edith Eyde) in Los Angeles.


1948 – “Forbundet af 1948” (“League of 1948”), a homosexual group, is formed in Denmark.


1948 – The communist authorities of Poland make 15 the age of consent for all sexual acts, homosexual or heterosexual.

Yes….all LGBT+ people suddenly popped into existence in 1950. Very good history.

2

That time when a naval fleet was defeated by Cavalry,

In 1795 pretty much ever major power in Europe was determined to quash the newly formed French Republic.  Enemies attacked from all sides, and in the Netherlands one of the most unusual events in military history would occur; the defeat of a naval fleet by a cavalry force.

As part of the French Revolutionary Wars, France initiated a surprise attack and invasion of the Netherlands.  After captured Amsterdam in January of 1795, the French commander Gen. Jean-Charles Pichegru learned that the Dutch fleet was anchored off of Den Helder, 90km north of Amsterdam, and were quickly removing the ice covering the port’s bay so that they could escape to Britain. The winter was very cold that year, so much of the rivers and coastal bays were frozen over. Gen. Pichegru gave one of his commanders, Brig. Gen. Jean-Guillame de Winter command 8th Hussar Regiment and the 15th Line Infantry, and ordered him to make haste to Den Helder and either capture or destroy the Dutch fleet before they could escape.

To travel to Den Helder as fast as possible, Gen. de Winter order each Hussar to carry an infantrymen with him on his horse.  The men arrived 3 days later, and quietly made their way through Den Helder without being spotted by Dutch sailors.  The next morning they lined up at the bay’s shore and found the ice still intact, with the Dutch fleet still trapped in the harbor.  On the morning of Sept. 23rd, 1795, Gen. de Winter ordered his men to charge the Dutch fleet.  With the 8th Hussars at the lead, the French galloped over the ice and attacked the Dutch ships.  The Dutch, unprepared for a cavalry assault, were not cleared for action and hadn’t even loaded their guns.  By the time the Dutch were ready for combat, dismounted Hussars and infantry were scaling the ships and climbing on the decks.  

The attack on the Dutch fleet was a successful, with 14 ships of the line and 880 guns captured.  It was the only time in history a naval force has been defeated by a cavalry charge.

5

The ‘Rotterdam Blitz'  14 May 1940

The Rotterdam Blitz was the aerial bombardment of Rotterdam by the Luftwaffe on 14 May 1940, during the German invasion of the Netherlands in World War II. The objective was to support the German troops fighting in the city, break Dutch resistance and force the Dutch to surrender. Even though preceding negotiations resulted in a ceasefire, the bombardment took place nonetheless, in conditions which remain controversial, and destroyed almost the entire historic city centre, killing nearly nine hundred civilians and leaving 30,000 people homeless.

The psychological and physical success of the raid, from the German perspective, led the Oberkommando der Luftwaffe (OKW) to threaten to destroy the city of Utrecht if the Dutch Government did not surrender. The Dutch capitulated early the next morning.

The Wehrmacht attacked the Netherlands in the early hours of 10 May 1940. The attack started with the Luftwaffe crossing through Dutch airspace, giving the impression that Britain was the ultimate target. Instead, the aircraft turned around over the North Sea and returned to attack from the west, dropping paratroopers at Valkenburg and Ockenburg airfields, near the Dutch seat of government and the Royal Palace in The Hague, starting the Battle for the Hague. While Germany had planned to take over swiftly using this tactic, the Dutch halted the advance at the core region of Fortress Holland, slowing down the German invasion.

The situation in Rotterdam on the morning of 13 May 1940 was a stalemate as it had been over the past three days. Dutch garrison forces under Colonel Scharroo held the north bank of the Nieuwe Maas river, which runs through the city and prevented the Germans from crossing; German forces included airlanding and airborne forces of General Student and newly-arrived ground forces under General Schmidt, based on the 9th Panzer Division and the Leibstandarte Adolf Hitler, a motorized SS regiment.

Schmidt used the threat of destruction of the city to attempt to force Colonel Scharroo to surrender the city. Rotterdam, the largest industrial target in the Netherlands and of major strategic importance to the Germans, was to be bombed. Scharroo refused and stretched out negotiations. The start of the air raid had been set for 13:20 [Dutch time, MET – 1 hr 40].

Schmidt postponed a second ultimatum to 16:20.However, just as the Dutch negotiator was crossing the Willemsbrug to relay this information, the drone of bombers was heard: a total of 90 bombers from Kampfgeschwader 54 were sent over the city.

In total, 1,150 50-kilogram (110 lb) and 158 250-kilogram (550 lb) bombs were dropped, mainly in the residential areas of Kralingen and the medieval city centre. Most of these hit and ignited buildings, resulting in uncontrollable fires that worsened the following days when the wind grew fiercer and the fires emerged into a firestorm. Hooton states that bombs ignited vegetable oil tanks on the dockside, which caused fires that spread into the city centre, causing massive devastation. Although exact numbers are not known, nearly 900 people were killed and 30,000 made homeless. Around 2.6 square kilometres (1.0 sq mi) of the city was almost levelled. 24,978 homes, 24 churches, 2,320 stores, 775 warehouses and 62 schools were destroyed.Schmidt sent a conciliatory message to the Dutch commander General Winkelman, who surrendered shortly afterwards, at Rijsoord, a village southeast of Rotterdam.The school where the Dutch signed their surrender was later turned into a small museum.

7

The Indian Legion

The Indian Legion (GermanIndische Legion), officially the Free India Legion (GermanLegion Freies Indien) or Infantry Regiment 950 (Indian) (GermanInfanterie-Regiment 950 (indisches), I.R. 950) and later the Indian Volunteer Legion of the Waffen-SS (GermanIndische Freiwilligen Legion der Waffen-SS), was a military unit raised during World War II in Nazi Germany. Intended to serve as a liberation force for British-ruled India, it was made up of Indian prisoners of war andexpatriates in Europe. Because of its origins in the Indian independence movement, it was known also as the “Tiger Legion”, and the “Azad Hind Fauj”. Initially raised as part of the German Army, it was part of the Waffen-SS from August 1944. Indian independence leader Subhas Chandra Bose initiated the legion’s formation, as part of his efforts to win India’s independence by waging war against Britain, when he came to Berlin in 1941 seeking German aid. The initial recruits in 1941 were volunteers from the Indian students resident in Germany at the time, and a handful of the Indian prisoners of war who had been captured during the North Africa Campaign. It would later draw a larger number of Indian prisoners of war as volunteers.

Though it was initially raised as an assault group that would form a pathfinder to a German-Indian joint invasion of the western frontiers of British India, only a small contingent was ever put to its original intended purpose. A hundred legionnaires were parachuted into eastern Iran under Operation Bajadere and infiltrated into Baluchistan Province to undertake sabotageoperations, which they reportedly did successfully, but with insignificant effect. A small contingent, including much of the Indian officer corps and enlisted leadership, was transferred to the Indian National Army in south-east Asia. The majority of the troops of the Indian Legion were only ever stationed in Europe in non-combat duties, in the Netherlands, and in France until the Allied invasion. They saw action in the retreat from the Allied advance across France, fighting mostly against theFrench Resistance. One company was sent to Italy in 1944, where it saw action against British and Polish troops and undertook anti-partisan operations.

At the time of the surrender of Nazi Germany in 1945, the remaining men of the Indian Legion made efforts to march to neutral Switzerland over the Alps, but these efforts proved futile as they were captured by American and French troops and eventually shipped back to India to face charges of treason. Because of the uproar the trials of Indians who served with the Axis caused among civilians and the military of British India, the legion members’ trials were not completed. The Legion was even less successful than Bose's Indian National Army in Burma and eastern India in military terms; however, Bose’s volunteers and the uproar that their trials caused forced the British to reconsider whether the Indian military would remain loyal to their rulers, so many historians give the INA and Free India Legion some credit for India’s independence after World War II.

5

Happy Memorial of Blessed Titus Brandsma – July 27

After the invasion of the Netherlands by the Third Reich in May 1940, it was Brandsma’s fight against the spread of Nazi ideology and for educational and press freedom that brought him to the attention of the Nazis. In January 1942 he undertook to deliver by hand a letter from the Conference of Dutch Bishops to the editors of Catholic newspapers in which the bishops ordered them not to print official Nazi documents, as was required under a new law by the German occupiers. He had visited 14 editors before being arrested on the 19th of that month at the Boxmeer monastery. After being held prisoner in Scheveningen, Amersfoort, and Cleves, Brandsma was transferred to the Dachau concentration camp, arriving there on 19 June. His health quickly gave way, and he was transferred to the camp hospital. He died on 26 July 1942, from a lethal injection administered by a nurse of the Allgemeine SS, as part of their program of medical experimentation on the prisoners