Papahānaumokuākea Expands, Now Largest Conservation Area on Earth

Today, President Obama announced that Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument, located in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, will expand from 139,818 square miles to 582,578 square miles. That’s bigger than the total land area of the state of Alaska – and makes Papahānaumokuākea larger than any other land or ocean conservation area on Earth.

Map showing the expanded area of Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. The new boundary extends out to the U.S. EEZ (shown in purple). The monument’s original area is shown in blue. Image: NOAA

Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument hosts an amazing array of wildlife, from 14 million seabirds representing 22 species that breed and nest within its boundaries, to over 7,000 species of marine life, one quarter of which are found only in the Hawaiian Archipelago.

Fishes on a deep reef at Pearl and Hermes Atoll in Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument. Photo: Greg McFall/NOAA

The monument is also of great importance to Native Hawaiians, with significant cultural sites found in the original monument area on the islands of Mokumanamana and Nihoa. This expansion will help protect and sustain Hawai’i’s marine life and cultural sites for future generations.

Mokumanamana, or Necker Island, is known for its numerous wahi pana (religious places) and mea makamae (cultural objects). Photo: James Watt/NOAA

Originally designated in 2006 by then-President George W. Bush, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument previously protected the waters within 50 miles of the uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands. In 2010, the monument was inscribed as a mixed natural and cultural World Heritage Site by UNESCO, making it the first mixed UNESCO World Heritage Site in the United States.

Now, President Obama has expanded most of the monument out to 200 nautical miles within federal waters. The expanded area will provide additional protection for open ocean features including seamounts, submerged reefs and sunken islands. The monument will continue to be managed by NOAA, US Fish and Wildlife, and the State of Hawai'i, and will also include the Office of Hawaiian Affairs within the co-trusteeship.

Commercial fishing and other resource extraction activities, which are currently prohibited in the boundaries of the existing monument, are also prohibited within the expanded monument boundaries. Noncommercial fishing, such as recreational fishing and the removal of fish and other resources for Native Hawaiian cultural practices, is allowed in the expansion area by permit, as is scientific research.

This previously-undescribed species of octopod was discovered in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands in 2016 at a depth of 4,290 meters. Photo: NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 2016 Hohonu Moana: Exploring Deep Waters off Hawaiʻi

“We are honored to be a partner in the management and protection of what is now the largest protected area in the world,” said John Armor, acting director of NOAA’s Office of National Marine Sanctuaries. “Through daily interaction, management, research and outreach, we will continue working with our partners to to protect this unique ocean treasure, home to rare natural and cultural resources. The monument holds a sacred place in Native Hawaiian culture. With this announcement, it also holds a place in history for global ocean conservation.”

A high-density community of brisingid sea stars was discovered in the expansion area of Papahānaumokuākea in 2016. Photo: NOAA Office of Ocean Exploration and Research, 2016 Hohonu Moana: Exploring Deep Waters off Hawaiʻi

This expansion not only provides direct protection to this global resource, but also brings critical attention to the need for increased ocean conservation and protection worldwide. Despite its remote location in the Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, Papahānaumokuākea Marine National Monument faces a looming threat of global climate change that will affect its land and marine ecosystems, as well as its cultural resources – a threat that ocean resources are facing across the globe.

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Looking for some space? How about 218,000 acres of wilderness spanning across two Western states for your #mypubliclandsroadtrip?

That is exactly what the Hells Canyon Wilderness offers in northeast Oregon and western Idaho. Much of the area is split by the Wild and Scenic Snake River, too.

On the Oregon side, the higher elevation areas are characteristic of rocky slopes and grasslands laced with ‘stringer canyons’ and groves composed of Douglas fir and ponderosa pine. The lower elevations are dominated by grassland benches with steep canyons and ravines dissecting the isolated Oregon-side.

Two National trails are found at various elevations: Western Rim/Summit Ridge Recreation Trail at the upper elevation; and the Nez Perce National Historic Trail near the Snake River. And the wilderness is known to be home to Rocky Mountain elk, bighorn sheep, mule deer and chukar.

The wilderness is so big, it is jointly managed with the U.S. Forest Service. Recently, the Wallowa Whitman National Forest obtained BLM wild horses from Nevada that were trained to be pack animals in the rugged wilderness area! Read more about that partnership effort

Plucking Troops From A Hot LZ

Reprint from: SKY SOLDIER Time Life Books

Photo Credit: National Archives (negative7680) #11C6

A Casper Platoon UH-1 Huey, its door gunner firing at a well-concealed enemy, prepares to extract troops of the 173d Airborne Brigade pinned down near the Ai Loa River in the Binh Dinh Province on March 29, 1970.  

With circling gunships providing support from above, Sky Soldiers return VC sniper fire and Casper completes the extraction.  Such rescue missions were frequent, necessary and fraught with danger.

Troop-carrying Huey “Slicks” often had to descend into determined VC & NVA fire to pluck the stranded soldiers from their predicament.  Often these missions succeeded, with largely inconsequential damage to the helicopters.  At other times, the toll on the choppers was a heavy one.


Hoshi no Kirby / 星のカービィ, AKA Kirby’s Dream Land (Game Boy - HAL Laboratory - 1992)
Formerly called Tinkle Popo / ティンクル☆ポポ.

When Tinkle Popo - which had already been publicly announced as going on sale in late January 1991 - caught Miyamoto’s eye toward the end of 1990, he forced them to halt development on it, even though a respectable 26,000 copies had already been preordered. He decided it would be a waste not to make it the best game it could be. He also believed that the game would sell better if Nintendo and not HAL published it.
The protagonist’s name was changed from "Popopo” to “Kirby”, and one year and three months later, the game was reborn, released to the world as Kirby’s Dream Land
Osamu Inoue - Nintendo Magic

Nintendo Magicティンクル★ポポ