intestinal-tract

okay i gotta rant for a sec

people are always shitting on garfield for hating mondays like “ohh he doesn’t have a job” uhh maybe he does and they just don’t show it? because that would be a very boring comic? dilbert has shown us that comics about people having jobs are the worst and adding a smart-mouthed wise-cracking cat into the mix doesn’t do anything to change that. garfield probably works incredibly long hours which is why he is always so tired. and he loves eating because there’s an alien parasite in his intestinal tract that eats all his food, so he is perpetually starving. i am so fucking done with all of you.

okay listen up potential pet owners

if you have/are planning to have a hamster or any small rodent then listen up. this post is more specific on hamsters, but is also applicable for other small pets.

  • DO NOT use wood shavings as a bedding. i don’t care what it says on the packet or whatever renowned brand it is. don’t do it. these cause respiratory issues and should never ever be used. ever. the much better alternative is stuff like carefresh (and thats what i use too)
  • DO NOT use the ‘soft fluffy’ beddings they sell for hamsters and other small pets. this stuff is awful. i know the stuff looks and feels so comfy and you think ‘ah my hamster would love this’ but there are so many issues with this stuff. firstly, more respiratory issues. secondly, this stuff can and will block your hamster’s intestinal tract and compact in their stomach. hamsters like to put stuff in their cheek pouches, this stuff can get stuck in there too. tiny legs and arms (front legs?) can get tangled up and injured. you can use things like torn up tissue and toilet roll for this. and it’s best to leave clumps; let your hamster move it and rip it up themselves- it counts as enrichment and gives them something to do!
  • please please please get a cage that’s big enough. and i’m not talking about the ones you see in stores - everywhere. i’ve seen attendants guide a mother and her kid around, pointing out the stuff to get for their brand new hamster… which included wood shavings, fluff bedding, and a tiny cage…
  • carrying on from that last point, as a bare minimum you need something that’s 59cm x 36cm x 25cm. and on top of that you need multiple floors. depending on the size of your small pet, you have to make sure to give them proportional furniture. wheels, hide-houses, etc. chew toys are also a necessity. if your hamster starts chewing the bars, it can mean one of many things. your hamster is bored. the cage is too small and the hamster wants to get out. it’s a bad habit. either way, you need to stop them in whatever way possible. chewing bars could mess up their teeth, and consequently the teeth will grow too long and the hamster could starve since it can’t eat. another possibility is the teeth growing and injuring the hamster and possibly leading to death. note: roborovski shouldn’t be housed in cages with bars as these are very small and nifty critters and they’ll just get the heck outta there.

*an example of a cage you see in pet stores that are faaaaar too small. 


to conclude this ramble, know that although these companies sell materials and pet supplies, they are in it for the money. be wary of the treats as well, since different types of small pet can and cannot eat certain things. i remember reading a review of a woman saying she found apple seeds in her hamsters hanging treat. even though humans can deal with the tiny dose of cyanide, hamsters can’t. i mean, they’re tiny. almonds are also a big no for the same reason. honestly though, you can look up lists of what your pet can and cannot eat and how you should go about it. as an example, a syrian hamster can eat spinach. you have to give them small amounts over a period of time, so they can get used to it without causing an upset stomach.

anyway i hope anything i said has been useful, and please take these into account if you have/are planning on having a small pet. inadequate care for such a small animal could end up killing them.

3

EXTRAHEPATIC BILIARY TRACT OBSTRUCTION (EHBO)

What is EHBO?

In both dogs and cats Bile is produced in the Liver, it is secreted from the  Bile Canaliculi (small ducts within the Liver) into larger ducts before it then enters the  Bile duct and comes to be stored in the Gallbladder. From here the Bile drains through the Common Bile Duct which then empties into the Duodenum (The first part of the Small Intestine). 

EHBO is the blockage of normal Bile flow from the Liver to the Intestinal Tract.

What causes EHBO?

  1. Pancreatitis 
  2. Edema from perioperative handling of the Pancreas
  3. Gallstones
  4. Pancreatic, Bile Duct and Intestinal Neoplasia

What are the clinical signs of EHBO?

Clinical symptoms of EHBO are often nonspecific and can be the same as other abdominal conditions, in addition the signs can wax and wane and therefore patients are often not presented to a vet until icterus develops.

  • Decreased Appetite
  • Vomiting
  • Diahorrea
  • Lethargy
  • Pyrexia
  • Abdominal Pain
  • Dehydration
  • Icterus i.e Jaundice (Yellow discolouration to the mucus membranes, skins and sclera) usually present within 24hrs. 

How is EHBO diagnosed?

Blood Work - When the Bile Duct is obstructed serum levels of Bilirubin will be increased, and due to this the Liver enzymes (ALT & ALP) will also be increased. In severe cases the kidney values (UREA & CREA) will also be elevated and clotting times prolonged.

Radiographs - Useful in identifying stones within the biliary system and other abdominal disorders that could be contributing to the EHBO.  

Ultrasound - Abdominal ultrasound is a recommended diagnostic technique in all cases when the patient is suspected of either bile duct obstruction or disease of the Gallbladder.

How is EHBO treated?

The main aim = Confirm diagnosis, establish a patent biliary system and minimise post-operative complications. 

EHBO is almost always treated by surgical intervention which involves either removing the obstruction or bypassing it completely. Biliary-enteric anastomoses (cholecystoenterostomy) or rerouting bile from the Gallbladder to the Small Intestine will establish patency of the bile duct and help resolve clinical symptoms. 

What is the prognosis?

To ensure the outcome is positive early detection and quick resolution is needed as other metabolic issues can arise the longer a obstruction is present. Survival rates following surgery can be anywhere from 40-70%. 

anonymous asked:

I just wanna say that I thought all that stuff in the book (for me the OG website) about ppl calling the cops on you for eating people was a joke! I thought no one is dumb enough to see your website & be like "that person is pretending to be a monster but is probably DEFINITELY a cannibal, because that seems PLAUSIBLE & clearly needs to be stopped." So yeah, now I'm sorry for not believing you, & I wanna say this whole thing has made me laugh & furious at same time

No, it was sadly not a joke. It actually does happen. I agree that the conclusion is silly, so while I am apparently inept at writing an immortal monster, I am adept at painting an image of the human intestinal tract that is by some measure believable. That is odd thinking.

Health problems of each sign

Aries

  • Body part: Mars rules the head.
  • Conditions: headaches, tooth issues, jaw grinding, and even facial blemishes. 

Taurus

  • Body part: Venus rules the lower jaw, the throat, and insulin production.
  • Conditions: throat infections, thyroid conditions, stiff necks, tonsillitis, and ear infections 

Gemini

  • Body part: Mercury rules the dual body parts (arms, legs, and so on) and the respiratory system.
  • Conditions: chronic coughs and colds, bronchitis, sore shoulders, and tendonitis

Cancer

  • Body part: Moon rules the stomach and digestive system.
  • Conditions: indigestion, intestinal maladies, and acid-reflux disease

Leo

  • Body part: Sun rules over hearts, circulation, and spine.
  • Conditions: back problems, heart ailments, and lethargy

Virgo

  • Body part: Mercury-ruled as well, but the health focus is on the digestive tract and intestines.
  • Conditions: work stress, ulcers, constipation, and food allergies could result

Libra

  • Body part: Venus-ruled as well, but health focus is on kidney and bladder functions.
  • Conditions: Excretory problems

Scorpio

  • Body part: Pluto rules the reproductive system, kidneys and bladder.
  • Conditions: painful and/or irregular menstruation, bladder infections, and diabetes

Sagittarius

  • Body part: Jupiter rules the thighs, hips, liver, and sciatic nerve.
  • Conditions:  spinal disorders, rheumatism to detoxification issues. 

Capricorn

  • Body part: Saturn rules the skeleton, teeth, and joints (specifically the knees).
  • Conditions:  arthritis, knee issues, and osteoporosis

Aquarius

  • Body part: Uranus rules circulation and nerve impulses.
  • Conditions: arthritis, heart problems, swollen limbs, varicose veins, asthma, and increased allergic reactions

Pisces

  • Body part: Neptune rules the lymphatic system and feet
  • Conditions: foot problems (corns, bunions, etc.) and a weakened immune system
OH MY GOD.

Look at this shit I just read on Coral snakes….

“When provoked, coral snakes will sometimes make a popping sound by expelling air from their cloaca, a single opening for the urinary, reproductive and intestinal tract, to startle the threat. According to researcher Joseph F. Gemano Jr. in an article in Reptiles magazine, these “microfarts" 

MICROFARTS.

MICROFARTS

Jesus christ I’m drawing a pic of this with NagaTony.

It’s time for a tummy tour, courtesy of the Museum exhibition The Secret World Inside You! Your digestive tract is home to around 100 trillion bacteria—more than all the stars in the Milky Way galaxy, and 99% of your body’s microbes. Let’s dive in:

Esophagus: Food drops quickly from your mouth to your stomach, with very little role for bacteria in this area. 

Stomach: Almost no nutrients are absorbed in the stomach. It is filled with harsh acids that kill most bacteria. Very few live here permanently and most digestion happens farther down the digestive tract. 

Small intestine: At about 20 feet (6 meters) long, most of your food is digested here! Sugar, fat, and protein are broken down and absorbed with the help of bacteria. 

Large intestine: Trillions of microbes ferment fibers and other foods you can’t digest in this area, frequently for 40 hours. This produces useful nutrients and protects your gut lining from inflammation. 

Appendix: This mysterious bulge may be a safe haven where bacteria can hide out. If diarrhea, disease or antibiotics sweep useful bacteria out of the intestines, this reservoir can help them grow back.

Learn much more about your microbiome in the exhibition, The Secret World Inside You, now open. 

File Under: There are Worse Things to be Known For…

When ‘father of the microscope’ Antonie van Leeuwenhoek first saw the giardia lamblia under his homemade microscope in 1681, he knew he was seeing something both alive and never before seen, but he could not appreciate the significance and danger of the parasite on the glass.  It would be more than another two centuries before French zoologist Alfred Giard identified and gave his name to the parasite.  

Giarda, is an anaerobic protozoan parasite that most often lives in the intestinal tracts of its hosts, often inflaming the lining and causing a host of malnutrition problems as a result.  The parasite is not typically fatal, but giadiasis can have long term effects on the host, including growth and development delays (tied to malnutrition) and lactose intolerance.  There are appoximately 40 species that have been identified.  For his part, Alfred Giard studied the symbiosis of parasites and their hosts for most of his career, and is credited with coining several words in his field, incuding anhydrobiosis, used to describe organisms able to survive severe dehydration, including the spore form of giardia.