intestinal lining

Hot Coffee and Boob Massages

Originally posted by hisirishsoufflegirl

Spencer Reid x @matthewgraygublerisalilbean and partially me because we’re both currently dying bc cramps and bloating (Hailey and I, not Spencer)

Spencer’s POV

We had been at the Palm Springs Police department for a couple of hours when I started to notice Hailey behaving differently. She and I had been only dating for a couple of months but unbeknownst to her, I had deep feelings of affection, maybe even love, for her. Hailey was the one person I could 100% trust with my all.

When she thought no one was looking she would massage her breasts, as if they pained her. An hour ago she took some medicine but every time she went to sit up straighter in her seat, she winced. She was also massaging her stomach like one would with a stomachache. Furthermore, she was also rubbing her forehead ever so often, meaning she had a headache on top of all that.

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Lance finds Pidge’s nail biting amusing, to say the least. Also, watching Allura and Hunk all flustered for such a silly thing makes him crack up even more. While he did understand it was disgusting and he did shudder to think of his own perfectly filed and rounded nails in that short, brittle, horrible condition, he still didn’t think it was that big a deal to throw a fit over.

But one night while he was dozing off under his mud pack, a sickening thought came to mind. A thought which involved curved and sharp bits of nails stuck to intestines and stomach linings and Pidge keeling over because she stabbed herself to death by consuming it all– oh no.

Which is why now Lance is constantly hovering over Pidge with a worried look and wants to just tie her hands to a pole or something. Never mind the innuendo in that statement, THiS IS MORE IMPORTANT, because Lance can’t have his shortie die on him like that, no quiznaking way would he allow it.


part 1 / part 2 / part 3 / part 4 / part 5

Submission - Dash and Harv fic, alien preg whump etc.!

Ripley: @thethespacecoyote wrote a lil sum sum for me and it is excellent. Happy reading folks:


I come bearing gifts of surgical angst and incubation  mixups and poor Dash’s organs getting wrecked. I just enjoy hurting the pretty boys. :P

————

“So…?” Dash rasped, one hand resting gingerly on his swollen stomach, “what’s the deal, doc?”

He was pretty pissed off, but tried not to take out his anger on his friend as Harvey took his blood pressure and temperature before proceeding with the rest of the checkup. But that didn’t mean he was going to be a frikkin’ peach considering this crappy turn of events. 

Just because Dash was used to being rushed to the hospital didn’t mean that he resented it any less. Especially when he’d been curled up all nice and comfortable with food delivery punched in and on the way. Sure, he’d been having some chest pains for the past few days since the incubation had started to encroach further and further on his organs, but that was largely par for the course until he’d wobbled to his feet towards the door to pay for his food—only for his consciousness to cut out like a light-switch the moment he’d keyed in the code for the door, sending him crashing over the threshold. 

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Canine Parvovirus, from a vet who treats it.

The early years of my career were spent in a rural Australian practice. I saw a lot of canine parvovirus from poorer socioeconomic areas, and by ‘a lot’ I mean up to 5 per week in Summer. 

There’s no way to sugarcoat parvo. It’s a nasty, highly infectious, highly durable virus with a near 100% mortality rate if not treated. Conventional hospitalization and treatment in early to mid cases can provide up to 98% survival though, which is why I laugh at ‘alternative treatment’ spruikers who want to prey on your vulnerability and make you buy their book with new ‘magic cures’. The difficulty is that treating it is expensive.

Canine parvovirus attacks stem cells in the dog. For most dogs, their must abundant stem cells are in their gut lining. This means their gut lining stops replenishing, producing foul, copious, watery and bloody diarrhea as their intestinal lining falls away. This is as horrendous and painful as it sounds. There are also stem cells in bone marrow and severely affected dogs will find those attacked as well, worsening anemia from blood loss and causing immunosuppression. In very young pups it will attack stem cells of the heart also, as though these pups didn’t have enough to worry about.

The virus itself is highly contagious. It’s also very durable, and by that I mean the virus survives in soil very well, potentially up to 20 years. This means that if there has ever been a parvo dog in your backyard, your soil is probably contaminated. It can also be spread by foxes and cats, so good luck keeping those off your property too.

It takes 3-7 days from infection to first clinical signs. People would often buy a healthy looking puppy only to have it come down with parvo a few days after it arrived home. Usually it was not vaccinated.

I want to make it very clear that vaccines do not cause parvovirus. The actual, live virus causes parvovirus. It’s common for an infected puppy to be brought to the vet on the first day with its new family, before it starts showing clinical signs, only to then become sick 3-5 days later. When you’re a vet in this situation, vaccinating the puppy becomes a race against time. You want to vaccinate them before they get a chance to be infected, but not before their mother’s immunity has faded. Generally the risks of having a parvovirus vaccination are less than not having it. This is especially frustrating when the pup has already been out in highly contaminated areas, like dog parks or the beach.

And when the poor little pup, or the young adult dog, does come down with parvo, hopefully its owners brought it in early instead of wasting two days researching ‘cures’ on the internet before coming in.

Treatment is expensive. Parvovirus dogs need to be in isolation to stop every other pup that comes into the clinic from potentially becoming sick as well. They need lots of fluid therapy, pain relief (those guts hurt), gut protectants, antibiotics (bacteria cross the damaged gut into the bloodstream too easily) and anti-nausea medication. Sometimes they need intravenous nutrition, and you know its bad at that point.

There’s no cheap miracle cure for canine parvovirus. A canine plasma transfusion is the closest I’ve found, because it contains antibodies from a vaccinated donor, as well as proteins the patient needs. A plasma transfusion can have a pup going home 48 hours later. The trouble is, it costs about $300 wholesale for only 200ml.

Vaccination is the only way to prevent canine parvovirus. Vaccinate the mother before she gets pregnant. Vaccinate every dog that comes onto your property. Vaccinate adult dogs to keep them from shedding. Keep pups away from likely contaminated areas until after their 16 week vaccine, especially in known parvovirus hotspots. Vaccinate pups as per your veterinarian’s directions. Don’t buy them if they’ve not had at least their first vaccine, no matter how cute they are. 

Parvovirus absolutely sucks and I would happily never see it again, despite the enormous vet bills it generates. I now work in a higher socioeconomic area where people have generally listened to their veterinarian’s advice and vaccinated their pups and adult dogs as recommended. I haven’t seen a parvovirus case in 18 months in general practice, and only two in emergency. Vaccination makes a huge difference. 

I’m not trying to sell you anything, unlike every other ‘miracle cure for parvo’ and ‘what-your-vet-wont-tell-you’ salesman. This is just free advice, and my sincere condolences if you’ve ever found yourself with a parvo puppy.

tohoxinki  asked:

hi! i sent u tht ask abt my mom having cancer, n i have a (rly dumb) question. i know shes on epoch-r, and i read about that, but im just. confused about how chemo in general works? ive tried looking it up but everywhere i looked says "chemo attacks cancer cells" and doesn't explain further.

hi hi hi!!! 

that’s totally not a dumb question. i’ve always been confused too, especially since there are so many cancer treatment terms and honestly it gets really confusing sometimes (like holy cow are cancer drug names awful to pronounce?)

historically, the term “chemotherapy” used to mean just any chemical compound (aka a drug) that can be used to treat a disease, such as antibacterial chemotherapy. and then the nomenclature slowly became known as just any drug that’s used to attack and kill cancer cells. this was way before anything like “targeted therapy” or “immunotherapy” was discovered, so you can look at chemotherapy being the grandfather or umbrella term for cancer-killing agents. 

chemotherapy is also used to describe a treatment that’s given systemically–as in it goes everywhere in the body, usually through intravenous (IV) injections. therefore it’s pretty darn useful to, for example, treat cancers that have metastasized to different organs. (that’s not the exclusive use of chemo tho; patients with primary tumors that haven’t metastasized can still use chemo). this is in comparison to radiation therapy, which uses radiation to blast a very very specific area of the body where the tumor is. 

the majority of the time, chemotherapy is a group of drugs that kill cancer cells because they attack their more-or-less unique characteristic of being crazy fast cell dividers. these drugs will often go after the mitosis machinery, and cause so much chaos that the cells have no choice but to undergo apoptosis, or a type of programmed cell death. 

however, chemo can’t really tell the different between a cancer cell and a healthy normal cell; it just so happens to be more effective at killing cells that divide quickly. so that’s why chemo regimens aren’t given over a really long period of time (treatment usually only lasts days), and why patients can experience side effects such as immunosuppression and gastrointestinal issues, as the immune cells and the cells lining our intestines are also fast dividers. they’re civilian casualties, so to say :(

certain chemos tend to work better with certain cancers, which is why there are specific chemo regimens. chemos are oftentimes given as a batch rather than individually. for example, EPOCH-R is a combo of drugs that work as a team to attack different aspects of the NHL cells, and can achieve much better results than if any of them went on a solo mission. here’s a breakdown of what each drug does:

Rituximab: this is an antibody that can bind specifically to B-cells, which in NHL have gone rogue and replication-happy. B-cells have a very specific protein on their surface, CD20, and rituximab gloms on like velcro. This causes natural killer cells and macrophages to recognize the B-cells as “foreign” and attack them. It also causes the complement system to be activated by the B-cells, which also furthers destruction of the cell. The downside of rituximab is it doesn’t discriminate between cancerous B-cells and normal B-cells though. 

Etoposide: these dudes inhibit the topoisomerase, which is an enzyme that helps unwind DNA during cell replication. when DNA unwinds, the downstream strands tend to get tangled and bent (think of unwinding one of those old-school phone cords–the part of the cord you’re not straightening gets super stressed and coils in on itself). Cells don’t like that, so they tell topoisomerase to go in and form small harmless nicks in the DNA to help relax it, and then when the DNA is unwound, it seals back the nick again. That last step is pretty crucial; without that action, DNA will just be floating around in fragments and the cell can’t function and will undergo apoptosis. so by inhibiting topoisomerase, etoposide is able to kill the cell. like most chemos tho, it can’t distinguish between cancer cells and non-cancer cells, but because cancer cells replicate so much faster than normal cells, and thus rely on topoisomerase so much more frequently, etoposide should be more effective in killing the cancer cells. 

Prednisolone: i don’t think the exact mechanism of how prednisolone kills cancer cells is well known. it’s used generally in low doses to dampen the immune system during allergic reactions, but with a high dose during chemo, it specifically causes immune cells (like NHL cells) to undergo apoptosis. 

Oncovin: aka vincristine (which imo is a much prettier name). this drug binds to a protein called tubulin. tubulin is required during mitosis, or cell division, to form microtubules–think of tubulin as like the fibers of a rope. microtubules form the mitotic spindles which separates the two daughter cells during cell division, so without tubulin, the cells can’t separate, things go haywire, and the cells undergo apoptosis. again, this drug isn’t specific to cancer cells, but relies on the faster rate of cell division in cancer cells to “spare” as many normal cells as possible. 

Cyclophosphamide: this drug has a metabolite that’s formed in NHL cells that’s able to form crosslinks in the DNA, rendering it almost impossible for the cell to create RNA (and protein), or to replicate. without these functions, the cell undergoes apoptosis. 

Hydroxydaunorubicin: aka doxorubicin. this drug is able to interacalate DNA, which means it’s able to get all nice and snug inside the DNA strand, and now the cell can’t synthesize RNA or proteins, or replicate (much like the effect of crosslinking of DNA). it’s akin to getting a rock in your shoe, and the presence of the rock causes you to cease all normal function and undergo apoptosis. that’s one deadly rock. it can also prevent topoisomerase from sealing DNA nicks (much like etoposide).

I hope that was a bit helpful! i maaayyy have delved into more detail than what you were looking for, but it’s all just really fascinating stuff…and i hope it gives you something to launch off of if you’re curious to learn more (and also feel free to ask me any questions you may have!)

good luck to your mom! i’m still rooting for her <3

ELI5: In nature, why is there no opposite to “disease”, for example, a kind of virus or pathogen (but the opposite) that mentally or physically enhances our abilities?

There is, it is called mutualism. Our intestines are lined with millions of bacteria, they help us break down our food and make it easier to digest. Oral flora can, for some people, prevent cavities or plaque buildup. There are many other bacterium and parasites that can benefit us. If you’re at the store, take a look at the “probiotics” section.

Explain Like I`m Five: good questions, best answers.

Could stem cells heal IBD?

Surface of the mouse colon repaired by stem cells after a flare of ulcerative colitis. The different colors show the contributions of individual stem cells as they have multiplied to patch the breaks, or ulcers, in the colonic surface. These ulcers were originally caused by the rampant inflammation that happens repeatedly in patients that suffer from inflammatory bowel disease.

Inflammatory bowel disease, which includes Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis, affects more than 1.4 million Americans and is globally becoming more common.

Current medication targets the chronic inflammation that causes destruction of the intestinal lining, but a new approach for therapy is to heal the intestine directly.

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The issue I have with discourse like “food sensitivities can cause ADHD symptoms but it’s not REAL ADHD” is that ADHD is diagnosed by assessing symptoms. When you go to a psych or doctor they very rarely (I’ve really only heard of integrative medicine doctors doing this) order tests to determine if you’re symptoms are caused by food sensitivities

You & your psych have no way of knowing if your ADHD is purely biological. For all you know you could have a gluten sensitivity that’s been damaging your intestinal lining causing malnutrition, inflammation, & brain dysfunction.


My point is if we had a functional medical industry, time would be spent figuring out if there are any root causes to our ADHD & more of us would realize that we have “fake” ADHD. So that’s sorta why I don’t understand people who try to make this really big distinction between real ADHD & fake ADHD.

Colon Daisies

Be warned however, this is one posy that you really don’t want to sniff.

Microscopically, the mucosal lining of the colon exhibits many crypts of Lieberkuhn (intestinal glands) that are lined with mucus secreting goblet cells.
Mucus is useful in this region because it assists in lubricating the tube to allow dry feces to be passed along easily (decreases friction).
When the a slice is made through the mucosa parallel with its orientation and stained specifically for mucin, these crypts glands look remarkably like a field full of daisies. The goblet cells forming the petals.

i❤️histo

Prairie’s Plants: Yellow Wood Sorrel

Shoutout to the nonny who suggested this–I’d been reading a lot about it already earlier in the week, so it’s an interesting bit of synchronicity. 

Scientific name: Oxalis stricta

Common names: yellow wood sorrel, yellow oxalis, lemon clover

Appearance: Very similar to the common clover you find in any yard: smooth, heart-shaped leaves arranged in threes, medium green sometimes with a slight purple cast to the leaves and/or stems. Yellow flowers blooming all through summer, and somewhat conical, upright seedpods. 

Range: Nearly everywhere in North America, and invasive in much of the rest of the world. Prefers sunlight, so look for it in fields and open areas rather than forests. As likely to crop up in your yard or sidewalk cracks as anywhere else. 

Historical and medicinal uses: Slightly anodyne, slightly febrifuge, slightly diuretic, the leaves and stems of sorrel have been used to treat fevers and stomach issues, as well as in a poultice on small wounds. A tea of it has been used to stimulate salivation in the treatment of dry mouth, either alone or as a symptom of a larger condition. Can stimulate appetite in a sick person

Warning: never consume more than one cup of sorrel tea in a day. The oxalic acid can irritate your stomach and intestinal lining to cause diarrhea or bloody stools. You’ll be okay… but you don’t really want that. Not for use by anyone with pre-existing stomach lining issues, gout, rheumatic problems, etc. 

Associations and Potential Uses: For “souring” love, removing crushes, etc: the heart-shaped leaves are incredibly sour, and I could see it representing unwanted love in a ritual. The flowers are hermaphroditic, too, which holds some poetic value. I’ve seen it associated with faeries and forest spirits, and it could be used in working with those. A worthwhile addition to luck charms too–to call back in thrice the luck you’ve put in. 

Vaccine profits estimates

Distemper, hepatitis, parvovirus mlv vaccine cost per dose: $15
Sells for $33
Titre testing for the above antibodies : $116
Sells for $180

I will quite happily titre test an adult dog instead of vaccinating it, providing that I then vaccinate if the titres are too low. That’s the whole point of testing.

Cost of hospitalising a dog for parvovirus, watching it shit out its own intestinal lining and hoping that the opioids I can give it will be enough pain relief during this next awful week: roughly $2000 and heartbreak.

Treating the disease is certainly more profitable. If I only wanted the money, I wouldn’t tell you to vaccinate.

Vaccinate.

This is also the woman who gripped the seat so hard she left fingernail indentations, and passed half a pound of intestinal lining. AVOID CATHARTICS.

Don't question PMS. We'll cut you.

So my dad and I were at Chipotle.

Dad: Your sister had to go on the pill because she said her cramps were making it hard to go to classes. She wasn’t getting out of bed. I don’t understand what’s so painful about periods.

GB: Imagine, dear father, if you will, that the burrito you’re holding is filled with rotten fish, nails, toe jam, staples, battery acid, and used surgical gauze.

As it makes its journey through your gut, you will have exquisite pain, due to the erosion of your intestinal lining. Only lower.

Some people get diarrhea. 

Credit: thisismoitoday.tumblr.com

Oh, you can also have an insatiable lust for some of the most random foods, as well. And it feels like someone just shat on your soul.

If you’re lucky, this side-splitting (ha.) good time lasts 5 days. If you’re not, it can last 9 or 10.  And you WILL CONTINUE TO EAT THIS GODFORSAKEN BURRITO EVERY MONTH FOR THE CONCEIVABLE (HA!) FUTURE.

So. In conclusion, uterus owners don’t pretend to know what it’s like to get kicked in the nuts, so testicle owners shouldn’t presume how painful periods can be.  

Dad:  O.o   I had no idea.

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Trick Or Treat? Microneedle Pill Delivers Drugs From The Inside

by Michael Keller

This is the latest concept in drug delivery–a device that is said to offer the ease of swallowing a pill with the potency of an injection. Plus no more ouch from a shot in the arm or elsewhere.

But, if it works, will patients be willing to swallow a needle-filled capsule designed to poke you in the intestines?

MIT researchers have unveiled a pill that has hollow stainless steel microneedles studding a central tube. The idea is to get therapeutic agents made of large protein molecules into a patient’s system before they get broken down in the stomach or by other natural defenses. 

The needle array concept features a dissolvable capsule coating that protects drugs until they reach the intended delivery area deep in the body. Each needle is about 0.2 inches long. The scientists envision drug reservoirs at the tips of the capsule that are squeezed by normal smooth muscle contraction in the GI tract. This dispenses the therapeutic through the needles as they make tiny punctures in the intestinal lining.

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Scanning electron micrograph (SEM) of Peyer’s patches in the ilium. These nodules of lymphoid tissue allow for immune surveillance of the intestinal lining as it is exposed to a barrage of microoganisms on a daily basis. Pathogens come into contact with immune cells at these sites and instigate an immune response.

(Source: Wikipedia)