There had been by Jacobs’ time many generations of blacks in England, the descendants of slaves (and often of whites too) who were never slaves themselves. They ‘no longer thought of themselves as constituting a distinct black community. They were part of the British poor’, Fryer writes. Perhaps because the importation of black slaves slowed and finally ceased, and because the existing black English population commonly intermarried with whites, black people themselves once again acquired a kind of exoticism and sympathy when they were enslaved elsewhere.

American blacks like Frederick Douglass and William Wells Brown, who visited England to gain support for American emancipation, found themselves embraced. Even as late as 1852 Brown noticed that one could encounter a dozen black college students in an hour’s walk in central London. Beethoven wrote his ‘Kreutzer’ sonata for a black pianist named George Bridgtower, who performed it with Beethoven by his side.

Black performers frequently toured England in the nineteenth century, as did prize fighters and orators. When Harriet Beecher Stowe (whom Abraham Lincoln is rumoured to have called ‘the little lady who started this great [civil] war’) published her novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin in 1852, Victorian England went as mad for its memorabilia as their ancestors had done for the Wedgwood medallion.

—  Black London: Life before Emancipation, Gretchen Holbrook Gerzina. Rutgers University Press, 1995.

Roughly half of Jewish families in America are intermarried. Without counting unmarried couples, this means roughly a quarter of the American Jewish community is gentile. Gentile spouses and partners often take an active role in encouraging, providing for, and participating in their Jewish spouse or partner’s Jewish life. More importantly, they do this for their children, who today maintain a connection to their Jewishness in unprecedented numbers. According to Pew, 60% of children from such families born in recent decades continue to identify as Jews into adulthood, whereas this number drops to about 25% among such individuals born mid-century. In a world that puts enormous pressure on us to shed our Jewishness, this change could not have taken place without the enormous support of gentiles in securing Jewish education, ritual and communal life for their Jewish children. We need to recognize that this change in the composition of the Jewish community has occurred and validate it so that Jews of all backgrounds have a place and stake in the community, and so that the future of our community in modern society is secured.

The way history is taught in American schools is flawed. Very flawed. The worst part is, everything is always taught in America’s favor. Let me show you what I mean.

For example, Abraham Lincoln. He seemed like a pretty good guy, right? I mean, he did issue the Emancipation Proclamation. Well…

“I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in anyway the social and political equality of the white and black races - that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality. And inasmuch as they cannot so live, while they do remain together there must be the position of superior and inferior, and I as much as any other man am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the white race. I say upon this occasion I do not perceive that because the white man is to have the superior position the negro should be denied everything.”

Read that, read that carefully.

Thing is, up until recently, I had gone through my life thinking that Lincoln was unique at the time because he cared about blacks. Why didn’t I learn about this when I was younger? Were we so embarrassed about the whole slavery thing (the U.S. was the only Western country that used slaves in the mid-1800s.) that we wanted to show that was someone who “cared?” True, Lincoln says that “negro[es] should [not] be denied everything,” but that doesn’t really make me feel better about everything else he said in the same speech.

Oh, and Lincoln isn’t the only one exempt from this. Winston Churchill (I know he’s more “popular” with the British, but hear me out) said wonderful things like

“I do not admit for instance, that a great wrong has been done to the Red Indians of America or the black people of Australia. I do not admit that a wrong has been done to these people by the fact that a stronger race, a higher-grade race, a more worldly wise race to put it that way, has come in and taken their place.”


“I do not understand the squeamishness about the use of gas. I am strongly in favour of using poisonous gas against uncivilised tribes.”

And he did just that to the Kurds, and he planned to do it to the Indians (from India, not Native Americans) as well. Oh, and he also encouraged the fights between Indians Muslims and Hindus so that he could take control of India more easily.

And don’t get me started on how our government is viewed as the best kind. My teachers act as if democracies and republics are the best things ever. Not once did I hear a teacher mention any pros to fascism or communism. True, both have flaws, but they both have pros too. Communist countries have universal health care, high growth rates, and low unemployment rates. Fascist states often have enhanced security and economic growth. Why wasn’t I taught about this? I’m not going to become a supporter of either of these if I learn the pros.

I just want an unbiased view of the world, something that I’m aware is a lot to ask for. The United States of America is not perfect, and you can’t convince me otherwise by lying.

  • Arabs:why do Palestinians keep to themselves and don't interact and intermarry with other Arabs??? That's racist!
  • Palestinians:*pulls out receipts of Arab mistreatment towards Palestinians* :)
  • Arabs:Well, technically it's your fault, let's say for example an Arab dish washer would work for $10 per hour in an Arab country, while a Palestinian would work for $9.90 and this will ruin the entire Arab economy because the Arab economy is built on dish washing business and this will cause an economic depression leading Arabs into Middle Ages and world war 3 and ....
  • Palestinians:bye! (:

A jotunn, sometimes anglicized as jotun (pronounced yotun), is a giant in Norse mythology, a member of a race of nature spirits with superhuman strength, described as sometimes standing in opposition to the races of the tribles of the Aesir and Vanir, although they frequently mingle with or intermarry with these. In some legends and myths they are described as having the same height as humans. In later Scandinavian folklore, the nature spirits called trolls (deriving form the term for ‘magic’) take over many of the functions of the more ancient concept of the jotunn. The mountain range of southern Norway is likewise called in Norwegian Jotunheimen or the Jotunheim Mountains.


The first living being formed in the primeval chaos known as Ginnungagap was a giant of monumental size, called Ymir. When he slept a giant son and a giantess daughter grew from his armpits, and his two feet procreated and gave birth to a monster with heads. Supposedly, these three beings gave rise to the race of hrimpursar (rime giants or frost giants), who populated niflheim, the world of mist, chill and ice. The gods instead claim their origin from a certain Buri. When the giant Ymir subsequently was slain by Odin, Vili and Ve (the grandsons of Buri), his blood (i.e. water) deluged Niflheim and killed all of the giants, apart from one known as Bergelmir and his spouse, who then repopulated their kind.


Some of the giants are attributed with hideous appearances– claws, fangs, and deformed features apart from a generally hideous size. Some of them may even have many heads, such as Thrivvaldi who had nine of them, or an overall non-humanoid shape; so were Jormungandr and Fenrir, two of the children of Loki, viewed as giants. yet when giants are named and more closely described, they are often given the opposite characteristics. Very old, they carry wisdom from bygone times. It is the giants Mimir and Vafpruonir Odin seeks out to gain this pro-cosmic knowledge. Many of the gods’ spouses are giants. Njord is married to Skaoi, Geror becomes the consort of Frey, Odin gains the love of Gunnlod, and even Thor, the great slayer of their kind, produces a child with Jarnsaxa; Magni. As such, they appear as minor gods themselves, which can also be said about the sea giant Aegir, far more connected to the gods than to the other giants occupying Jotunheim. None of these fear light, and in comfort their homes do not differ greatly from those of the gods.


Frost Giants: Said to live in the coldest parts of the world and Jotunheimr. There are many Norse tales and legends that speak of frost giants catching unsuspecting travelers by luring them to sleep in the cold by whispering sweet words and lullabies when they become too exhausted to carry on. They mostly populated Niflheimr.

Fire Giants: Said to live in the lower parts of Jotunheimr where it is warm and has a scattering of volcanoes. During Ragnarok it is said that the fire giants will ride on great horses and burn Nidgard killing all the people, some of the gods, and all the fire giants themselves except a man and a woman sent by Odin in a great forest that was not destroyed by the chaos and flames.


Seminole/Black Seminole- The Seminole are a Native American tribe originally from Florida. The Seminole are actually a fairly new tribe, being created from several indigenous tribes fleeing the British in the 18th century. After they began to establish their own cultural identity, the Seminole created trade networks with the British and Spanish colonial governments. Following the US incorporation of Spanish Florida, the Seminole Wars erupted between the US government and the Seminole. By 1842, the majority of Seminole had been forcibly deported to Oklahoma, where the most still live today. 

A notable sub-group of the Seminole are the Black Seminole, who are of both Seminole and African descent. Although there are many “Black Indian” groups, the Black Seminole are arguably the most famous. The original Black Seminole where escaped slaves or free Blacks, who fled oppression in British or American society to live in the swamps of Florida. These people joined and intermarried into the Seminole tribes, with some such as Billy Bowlegs/Cofehapkee, becoming important tribal leaders.

Please people: Cleopatra being black is not the hill you want to die on. There is enough strength and hidden stories in black history without upholding a white woman who exploited POC culture as a part of it.

Cleopatra was a Macedonian Greek inheritor of an exploitative dynasty, and the first of her line to learn the native Egyptian language. She portrayed herself as Isis, using the local religion to strengthen her power base. We do not know her exact heritage, but we know her father was Greek and we know that her dynasty intermarried in order to preserve their whiteness.

All the information in the various tumblr posts going around about her statues or her corpse is incorrect. It’s either Caesarion’s (her son with Caesar) statue or Arsinoe (her half-sister of a different mother)’s corpse. We have a bust of Cleopatra, and coins from her reign, and she looks like a fairly plain Greek woman.

If she was partly Persian or half-black, she took great care not to claim that part of her identity in her propaganda. And strangely enough, even though much of what information survives about Cleopatra is from Augustus’s smear campaigns, never is it suggested that her lineage is with the Egyptian people, something that would have fit perfectly in the “Cleopatra is representative of the decadent, culturally distinct, wasteful East that Mark Antony is wasting himself in” narrative.

Nothing is impossible, and history is pieced together from the truth after what remains, but there is just no good evidence or even reason for conjecture to think of Cleopatra being non-white. Look beyond what you want, what seems to make sense as something that was erased, and actually read about her and her life.

There are wonderful, female, Egyptian pharaohs to write about. There are many more stories of less recognizable individuals in black history that need to be told. Lying about history books lying to you will accomplish nothing.

Daily Monster 266: Merrow

Region of origin: Ireland

Water faeries of the Irish seas, the merrow had a conflicted relationship with humanity. Believed by many to be dangerous, stories warned the females, who appeared as beautiful women with the lower body of a fish, sang beautiful, hypnotic songs that lured people into the water where they drowned or were viciously torn apart by the merrow while the males, more monstrous and porcine in appearance, captured souls of drowned sailors and kept them in cages under the sea. Contrary to these negative depictions there were tales of merrow coexisting with people, shedding their skin like a selkie to take on a more human form when they came on land. Some even formed relationships and intermarried with the humans, although it was said any merrow living away from the sea would eventually languish and desire to return. The merrow wore a hat, known as a cohuleen druith, that if stolen would prevent them from being able to return to the sea.


Royal Meme | ROYAL FACTS | [1/5]→ Isabel and Fernando, royal Europe’s great-grandparents

Europe’s Royal Families have historically intermarried among allies, but there is a family link that all of the current sovereigns share, from the Prince of Liechtenstein to the Queen of Denmark, all ten heads of Europe’s hereditary monarchies are descendants of Isabel I of Castile and Fernando II of Aragón, the powerful Catholic Monarchs.

545 years after their wedding, their major dynastic heir, King Juan Carlos I of Spain, reigns in their native territories, and with Prince Hans-Adams of Liechtenstein, Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom, Queen Margrethe II of Denmark, King Carl XVI Gustav of Sweden, King Harald V of Norway, Prince Albert II of Monaco, King Willem-Alexander of the Netherlands, Grand Duke Henri of Luxembourg and King Philippe of Belgium, the King is the most famous living descendant of the couple.

Isabel and Fernando married their five adult children to powerful monarchs and well-connected women, resulting in fifteen grandchildren who became Kings, Queens, Emperors and Empresses, and whose living descendants include Europe’s current Sovereigns.
Black American Indians seek to honor their mixed ancestry | Al Jazeera America

WASHINGTON — The soaring sound of “Wade in the Water,” a Negro spiritual once said to be used on the Underground Railroad, filled Plymouth Congressional United Church of Christ Saturday morning.  

But on this particular Saturday, church-goers offered their respects to the Great Spirit, in addition to the Holy Spirit, looked on as a Native American drum processional wound its way through the aisle, and took part in a ceremonial tobacco offering.  

At the first gathering of the newly created National Congress of Black American Indians, organizers and attendees came to unite and celebrate individuals of both African and Native American ancestry — a subject often fraught with complicated questions of race, identity and citizenship.

Although Native Americans and African-Americans have crossed paths, intermarried and formed alliances since pre-colonial times, often uniting in their common fight against slavery and dispossession, their shared history has been slow to be unearthed and brought into the light.

The formation and the first meeting of the NCBAI sought to remove the taboo of mixed ancestry and bring together those who could trace their ancestry to both communities. The gathering received endorsement and letters of support from Maryland Gov. Martin O’Malley, D.C. mayor Vincent Gray and Prince George County Executive Rushern L. Baker III.

“This has been a conversation that has been avoided and pushed aside, and folks who have wanted to have this conversation have been marginalized, subjugated, separated, downtrodden, stepped on,” said Jay Gola Waya Sunoyi, one of the founders of the National Congress. “But still we’re here.”

Sunoyi, a member of Echota Cherokee Tribe of Alabama, said that black Native Americans historically concealed one part of their ancestry to avoid the trouble that would inevitably come along with being a part of both marginalized groups. Sunoyi said he himself did not know that he was descended from enslaved black Americans until after his grandmother, a Taino Indian from Puerto Rico, passed away and old family letters were recovered. For others, it was easier to integrate into black communities and avoid claiming their Native American identity.  

“In the history of this Western Hemisphere, because of the price on Native American people’s heads, our people hid in other folk’s identities just to survive,” he said. “But if you don’t accept all of you, you are lying to yourselves.”

Some attendees had done extensive research into their genealogy to find their Native roots, while others were more reliant on oral histories and anecdotal evidence. The lore of Native American ancestors runs deep in many African-American families, although geneticists have found the numbers of black Native Americans to be relatively small. When activist and scholar Henry Louis Gates looked into the subject, he found that only 5 percent of African-American people carry more than 2 percent Native American ancestry.

Still, David Rich, 62, said he thought “more people had claim to it than they know.”

Rich, who was not a member of any tribe himself, said he was drawn to the gathering to pay respects to his grandmother, who he said was a Cherokee Indian.

Marlene Parker, 47, who recently discovered through family records that she had ancestors who were part of the Meherrin tribe of North Carolina, said she felt liberated to be in an environment where her heritage was celebrated. Although she had grown up identifying as an African-American in the black community, Parker said she wanted to know more about her Native roots.

“For such a long time, it was outsiders who defined who we were, depending on what we looked like,” she said. “This is about finding the truth.”

The common linkages between blacks and Native Americans have not always been celebrated. In 2011, the Cherokee Nation revoked the tribal citizenship of 3,000 black Freedmen — descendants of slaves that Cherokees once owned, with ugly accusations being hurled about race, politics and who could rightfully claim millions of dollars in casino revenue.

Although its charter says the organization seeks to “uphold the rights of all Native people with African ancestry,” Sunoyi said that the National Congress had no overt political goals and did not seek to get involved in disputes over government or tribal benefits.

“It’s about fulfillment of self,” he said. “It’s about knowing who you are. If you know who you are, you know where you stand in the universe.”

Penny Gamble-Williams, a black Native American activist and a member of the Wampanoag tribe, similarly said at least culturally, it was time bury old stigmas and stop subjecting people to arbitrary tests to prove themselves “Native enough.”

“It is time to move past these conversations about ‘Who is more Indian? Who looks more Indian? Who can speak the language?’ These things are only somewhat important,” she said. “This is all about healing.”

Maimouna Youssef, a musician of Choctaw, Cherokee and Creek as well as African ancestry, recounted the poking and prodding she endured being “the brownest child” taking part in powwows and other Native American dance ceremonies as she was growing up.

Youssef remembers asking her mother, “Why can’t I just be black?”

“And she told me 'It’s not enough. You have to be all of who you are.’

"People would say to me, 'What, you’re trying to go to college for free?’” Youssef added. “It’s got nothing to do with that.”

Powerful Women Rulers of the 19th Century (1 of 12)

Queen Victoria of Great Britain

Lived: May 24, 1819 - January 22, 1901
Reign: June 20, 1837 - January 22, 1901
Coronation: June 28, 1838

Queen of Great Britain, Victoria gave her name to an era in western history. She ruled as monarch of Great Britain during a time of both empire and democratization.  After 1876, she also took the title Empress of India. She was married to her cousin, Prince Albert of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, for 21 years before his early death, and their children intermarried with other royalty of Europe and played major roles in 19th and 20th century history.


Ancient DNA Tells a New Human Story

  • by Matt Ridley

“Imagine what it must have been like to look through the first telescopes or the first microscopes, or to see the bottom of the sea as clearly as if the water were gin. This is how students of human prehistory are starting to feel, thanks to a new ability to study ancient DNA extracted from bodies and bones in archaeological sites.

Low-cost, high-throughput DNA sequencing—a technique in which millions of DNA base-pairs are automatically read in parallel—appeared on the scene less than a decade ago. It has already transformed our ability to see just how the genes of human beings, their domestic animals and their diseases have changed over thousands or tens of thousands of years.

The result is a crop of new insights into precisely what happened to our ancestors: when and where they migrated, how much they intermarried with those they met along the way and how their natures changed as a result of evolutionary pressures. DNA from living people has already shed some light on these questions. Ancient DNA has now dramatically deepened—and sometimes contradicted—those answers, providing a much more dynamic view of the past.

It turns out that, in the prehistory of our species, almost all of us were invaders and usurpers and miscegenators. This scientific revelation is interesting in its own right, but it may have the added benefit of encouraging people today to worry a bit less about cultural change, racial mixing and immigration.

Consider two startling examples of how ancient DNA has solved long-standing scientific enigmas. Tuberculosis in the Americas today is derived from a genetic strain of the disease brought by European settlers. That is no great surprise. But there’s a twist: 1,000-year-old mummies found in Peru show symptoms of TB as well. How can this be—500 years before any Europeans set foot in the Americas?” (read more).

***Click through for OA article, Simčič et al. 2015. “Recovery of Native Genetic Background in Admixed Populations Using Haplotypes, Phenotypes, and Pedigree Information – Using Cika Cattle as a Case Breed,” PLoS ONE 0(4): e0123253.

(Source: Wall Street Journal)

So I was dozing off during my Social Science class thinking bout ass when all of a sudden my professor said some deep ass shit that knocked me off my seat here’s a quick summary:

“As far as we know, Puerto Rico has no indigenous nations. Perhaps they’re here, but they’re not open about it. Indigineity is not biological, it is cultural. You are not racially Taino. Its a cultural identity. There are communities in regions like Utuado and Adjuntas who, when they trace their lineage back, their ancestors never intermarried with folks who weren’t amerindian. Taino kept marrying taino, but at some point, a very vital point, this taino person assimilated to another culture and began saying I am jíbaro, I am Puerto Rican, and he is no longer indigenous. There are countries who have lost their indigenous peoples entirely. Let’s pray to God that this is not the case for Puerto Rico.”

This is coming from a middle aged black Puerto Rican sociologist/professor at the University of Puerto Rico in Río Piedras and I’m just affected by this @this-is-not-taino @indigenous-caribbean

I will say then that I am not, nor ever have been in favor of bringing about in anyway the social and political equality of the white and black races – that I am not nor ever have been in favor of making voters or jurors of negroes, nor of qualifying them to hold office, nor to intermarry with white people; and I will say in addition to this that there is a physical difference between the white and black races which I believe will forever forbid the two races living together on terms of social and political equality. And inasmuch as they cannot so live, while they do remain together there must be the position of superior and inferior, and I as much as any other man am in favor of having the superior position assigned to the white race. I say upon this occasion I do not perceive that because the white man is to have the superior position the negro should be denied everything.
—  Abraham Lincoln, 4th Debate with Stephen Douglas, September 18th, 1858.


I feel that Bioware has done a great thing with Mass Effect romances. First of all throughout the series you get more and more gay/bi options, and they listened to the fans who lamented that Kaiden was a het only romance. Secondly they allowed the aliens to be romances. The fact that so many fans find the characters of Garrus, Tali, Liara, Thane and the other non-human romances attractive give me hope that if/when we find intelligent alien life we won’t be so xenophobic and might intermarry.

The Turkish nation took shape in the centuries of Seljuk and Ottoman power. The nomadic Turkish conquerors did not displace the original local inhabitants: Hellenized Anatolians (or simply Greeks), Armenians, people of Caucasian origins, Kurds, Assyrians and – in the Balkans – Slavs, Albanians and others. They intermarried with them, while many local people converted to Islam and ‘turned Turk’. They were joined by Muslims from the lands north of the Black Sea and the Caucasus, by Persian craftsmen and Arab scholars, and by European adventurers and converts, known in the West as renegades. As a result, the Turks today exhibit a wide variety of ethnic types. Some have delicate Far Eastern, others heavy local Anatolian features, some, who are descended from Slavs, Albanians or Circassians, have light complexions, others are dark-skinned, many look Mediterranean, others Central Asian, many appear Persian. A numerically small, but commercially and intellectually important, group is descended from converts from Judaism.
—  Andrew Mago, The Turks Today
Wiccan Traditions

Alexandrian Wicca

Founded by Alex Sanders and his wife Maxine, Alexandrian Wicca became a popular tradition during the resurgence of modern Paganism. Heavily influenced by Gardner and his tradition, Alexandrian Wicca uses a degree system and has ties to ceremonial magic systems.

Blue Star Witchcraft

The Blue Star tradition is one that is modeled on Gardnerian Wicca, but still manages to be different. Learn more about the Blue Star tradition of Witchcraft.

British Traditional Wicca

British Traditional Wicca is a term often used by Pagans in the U.S. to describe a specific set of covens in Britain.

Circle Sanctuary

A legally recognized Wiccan church based in Wisconsin, and is incorporated as a non-profit religious organization. Founded in 1974 by Selena Fox, Circle Sanctuary has actively worked to promote public awareness of modern Pagan religions, including Wicca.

Correllian Nativist Tradition

According to the group’s website, the tradition is based upon the teachings of members of the High-Correll family, who “were descended from a line of Cherokee Didanvwisgi who intermarried with a line of Scottish Traditional Witches, whose descendants were further influenced by Aradian Witchcraft and by the Spiritualist Church.”

Covenant of the Goddess

Covenant of the Goddess, or COG, is a Wiccan tradition that formed in the mid-1970s as a response to the rise in public interest in witchcraft, as well as the increasing awareness of feminist spirituality.

Dianic Wicca

Born of the feminist movement and founded by hereditary witch Zsuzsanna Budapest, Dianic Wicca embraces the Goddess but spends little time on her male counterpart.


Eclectic Wicca is an all-purpose term applied to NeoWiccan traditions that don’t fit into any specific definitive category.

Gardnerian Wicca

Best you just read up on this one.

Seax Wica

Seax Wica was founded by author Raymond Buckland in 1973. Loosely based upon Saxon Paganism, Seax Wica is not a reconstructionist religion. The original guidebook for the tradition, The Tree, was published in 1974, and was later repackaged as Buckland’s Book of Saxon Witchcraft. Seax Wica does not require initiation or membership into a coven or lineaged group. Members may self-dedicate themselves to the path.


So I’m really interested in how the Ackerman clan figures into what we know now about the wider world of snk now, like from what we’ve heard before they were protectors to the royal family, which would place them on the Fritz/Erdian side of the conflict? That seems odd in that the Erdians attempted some sort of forced integration of other clans and cultures through intermarrying/breeding, so were they spared due to the benifits of having them as protectors? I guess it’s all dependant on the timeline and when things happened…

It’s just an interesting situation, when as a lot of people have pointed out the Ackerman clan is heavily Jewish-coded and we now have this very WWII toned backstory. I hope Yams handles this carefully.