Where Did Stone Age Farming Come From?

For a long time, scientists believed that one group of farmers – the first group of farmers – came up with this great new way of getting enough food, then slowly spread out and out-competed all the hunter gatherers they came across. But new genetic research says this is probably wrong. A genetic study looked at some of the world’s first farmers, in the Zagros region of Iran. And to the researcher’s surprise, they discovered that these first farmers were not related to the genomes of early farmers from the Aegean and Europe. In other words, these first farmers were not from a single, genetically homogeneous population, as had previously been believed. So what likely happened?

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:D more character doodles! This lovely young lady needs a name! She is a nonbender bodyguard / Dai Li agent. Post your ideas!

It was important for me to include Black / African-American / African characters in my version of the Avatar universe. My headcanon: when the water tribe split, some groups went south along the western coast of the Earth Kingdom, but another group went east and landed on the eastern-most peninsula/islands. They were welcomed by the indigenous population (a people with a black/African phenotype and a culture based very loosely on the Xhosa, the Maasai, and the seafaring Moken & Bajau peoples). Eventually, the waterbenders intermarried with the peninsula’s population. This has resulted in a unique mix of tribal customs, as well as a population that has earthbenders and waterbenders naturally born in the same communities. They are a minority in the Earth Kingdom though, and their relative isolation from the rest of Earth Kingdom society has allowed them to retain and preserve their unique culture.

…so, planes and cars fuck me up bc of the conflicting ways they talk about things

For one, ‘that’s just how they were made’ and ‘they were separated at birth’ are said in the same movie

>Some planes and cars are made BAD ‘lemons’ deliberately?

>Even though certain cars and planes are still existing in the world, they discontinue making parts for them? Like… their vital organs can fail and they just have to die?

>Some of them seem to age/be elderly, some young, but how the fuck

>There’s a Pope?

>What degree to which do they feel? Like, they literally spend all night pulling bits off the plane (dusty), and he seems to not notice at all, but being knocked aout by wind or burned (like the helicopter) elicits pain responses

>they can be knocked out?

>fuel is everything, food and drink and blood?

>they have love in the universe, marriage (there was a hint of a new couple getting a bridal suite) which implies… more than i care to eaborate on… so where do little cars come from?

>why do they have mouths if they can put petrol pumps in their petrol tanks directly?

>how do they digest anything? i mean, they plainly state they eat other stuff, mater tries wassabi, the gas truck talks about deep-fried corn…

>where did the first cars come from… 

>how the fuck do half of them do anything?

>what if they dn’t want to be what they are?
Like, trains, big trucks and big planes are born to be servants, whether they want it or not???? what the fuck???

>some cars are made to be more effective, better, higher class, and others deliberately the opposite???

>there are diseases in this universe including rust? Or is that a metaphor for acne/hemorrhoids?

>cars pee… but only in one of the movies… everyone else apparently doesn’t?
cars can be incontinent, too? cars have bidets that shoot under the boot

>do you know we never actually see any f the characters’ homes?
Like, the most ‘indoors’ we see any of them, is in motels and hotels… we have NO IDEA how their houses work, what amenities exist, etc. did you ever notice? bc i just did and it’s fucking me up?

>where do cars learn? are there schools? they have doctors and mechanics and shit, but where did they get the degree?

>mater sleeps in, what is basically, a medical waste pit? he’s surrounded on all sides by pieces f rusty old cars? is he a serial killer and no ones addressing it?

>Tractors are cows in this world? do they get eaten or…?

>cars have body issues? like, they’re legit built a certain way… but the best they can change is their colour and tires?

>what’s… inside… the cars…
I mean, they have all the right windows and shit but like… they wouldn’t need seats or any of the normal stuff you’d expect

>the winnebagos…? are they… like, what is in there? are they considered fat?

>what about the little forklifts? are they considered a servant class? like, you see them doing a lot of manual shit, compared to the others, who swan about…

>what else exists in this world? fast food places, libraries? are the cars even literate to the same extent as humans? we see a few newspapers but that means fuck-all… 

>boats exist, like… we need more info on that…
there was that fuck-ass huge military base on the ocean, how does that dude feel about people using him as a landing pad? 

>if a boat capsizes, how the FUCK do they help them? 
none of the other boats have arms?
Are they ‘missing, presumed drowned’?

>are boats beholden to their land car counterparts? like in cars 2 we see that they need someone to get them out of the water (and then they just hang there waiting for deployment)?
and in planes 2, that boat in a trailer (friend, family, partner), who was almost left to die in a fire by their panicking car buddy

is everyone the same kind of car or can you be related to a train, two aircraft carriers and a plane? 

>are hybrids the result of two different car types intermarrying?


>are there prejudices? like ‘oh, you’re marrying a HONDA?’ or ‘oh, how generous, they adopted a BOAT’??? or ‘no, no, we’re not hiring a Ford… can’t trust them’???

>why do neither of the cars movies or indeed the planes movies, pass the bechdel test?

>do cars even have the same concept of gender as humans, or is it like… whatevs be what you want?


The logistics of this whole universe are just????

I have so???? many??? questions??????

isn’t it interesting how dornish characters always get their ethnicity commented on and how wanton or aggressive or whatever they are

but no one ever comments on arthur dayne’s, or the daynes’ in general for that matter

isn’t it interesting how the guy revered as the greatest knight ever was a moc but no one ever mentions it, not once

isn’t it interesting that hbo cast a white man with an english accent for arthur where they cast poc for every other dornish character and gave them spanish accents

isn’t it interesting how ashara gets sexualized by everyone like other dornish characters but her ethnicity is never remarked upon, only her beauty, because how could white characters lust after and respect a woc? in a world with ice zombies, that’s just going too far

isn’t it interesting that joncon, who despises and disparages and insults elia for being dornish and having rhaegar’s ear, thinks neutrally of arthur despite arthur also being dornish and on top of that having known rhaegar longer and better than anyone else

isn’t it interesting how arthur, ashara, allyria, and edric are never said to have the infamous dornish tempers or outspokenness when clearly their fellow mountain houses possess those traits, since the lord of kingsgrave, his brother, and both his heirs went with oberyn on his revenge mission, along with larra blackmont, lady of her house, and her heirs

isn’t it interesting how grrm and fandom never talk about how the daynes are not white and that they would have had accents and wouldn’t “freckle or burn” every time they stepped outside because fucking dorne and that their skin wouldn’t be lily-white especially given that their house most certainly has intermarried with other, darker, dornish houses

isn’t it interesting that it’s never mentioned how arthur would have hated having to go help rhaegar take off with lyanna and later being commanded to stay at the toj instead of fighting alongside his countrymen, considering his house was a vassal of elia’s and his actions would be a slap in the face to his entire homeland


Mythical Sea Creatures and Beings
  • Adaro- Solomon Islands. A warlike type of merman with gills and webbed feet.
  • Aegeon- Greece.  A monster with fifty heads and a hundred arms, personifying hurricanes and violent seas.  He was also known as Briareus and could have been as aspect of Poseidon.
  • Ahi Budhnya- India (Hindu).  A serpent of the deep primeval waters.
  • Alcina/Fata Alcina- Italy.  A monster who lived in the Straits of Mesina.  Sailors who saw her drowned.
  • Ao-Jun- China.  A dragon of the western sea that brought good fortune.
  • Ao-K’in- China.  A dragon of the southern sea that brought goodness.
  • Ao-Kuang- China.  A dragon of the eastern sea that brought virtue.
  • Ao-Shun- China.  A dragon of the northern sea that brought generosity.
  • Aonbarr- Isle of Man.  The magical horse of sea god Manannan that could travel through the ocean or over land.
  • Ben Varrey- Isle of Man.  A mermaid who, depending on her mood, lured sailors to their death or warned them of approaching bad weather.
  • Blue Men of the Minch- Scotland.  Water fairies who roiled the waters of the Minch Channel near the Outer Hebrides.  Their leader was called Shony.  The Blue Men were described as having wings and a fondness for singing.  They were said to board ships and demand tribute.  If they were appeased, they would cause storms.  On the Isle of Skye, the Blue Men were believed to be remnants of the Picts, who painted their bodies with blue woad.
  • Bonito Maidens- Solomon Islands.  Mermaids.
  • Brounger- Scotland.  A type of water fairy who inhabited the sea along the east coast of Scotland and warned of approaching storms.
  • Bucca Gwidden- Cornwall, England.  Offerings of food and drink were made to this water fairy to bring good luck.  Originally a sea god, his name means “white spirit”.
  • Cabbyl Ushty- Isle of Man.  A type of fairy horse of the sea, distinguishable by its backward hooves.  Humans who tried to ride these creatures were usually drowned.
  • Charybdis- Greece.  A whirlpool in the Straits of Messina that could consume entire ships.  Along with her companion Scylla, Charybdis attacked Odysseus and his crew on their legendary voyage.  She was also known as the Witch of the Shoals.
  •  Coirebhreacain- Scotland.  Also known as Cailleach the Hag.  Located between Jura and Scarba, the Cailleach made it a gamble to use the shortcut through the Crinan Canal (an alternative to passing around the Mull of Kintyre).  It has been said that “the roar of the whirlpool can be heard a distance of twenty miles and the confused seas attain a height of twenty feet”.
  • Daoine Mara- Scotland.  The Gaelic name for a type of mer-people, which literally translates as “sea people”.  In oral tradition, some Scottish clans were known as the People of the Sea.
  • Davy Jones- England.  An ocean spirit or ghost.  Sailors lost at sea were said to have gone to Day Jones’ Locker at the bottom of the deep.
  • Dopkalfar- Norway.  Dark elves that lived in either the woods or the sea.
  • Each- Uisge- Scotland.  A fairy water horse that lived in the sea as well as the lochs.
  • Fee des Houles- Brittany, France.  Sea fairies that made their homes in caves.
  • Fiachra- Ireland.  The king of the western sea fairies.
  • Fin-Folk- Scotland.  There are extensive legends about the Fin-Folk who were variously known as Finn-Men. Muckle Men, Fion, and Fin-Finn, which meant small.  As little boat people they were later associated with Finland.  Through the name Fion, they were linked with Ireland’s legendary hero Fion the Fair and associated with the Otherworld.  In some areas of Scotland they were believed to be sea fairies with beautiful gardens around their underwater homes.  In Cornwall and Wales, they were also called sea gardeners.  Elsewhere in Scotland they were seen as the remnants of the ancient Pict people.  Sightings were recorded from 1682 to 1864.  They were also called Finn Wizards in Shetland, where they were believed to don seal skin and masquerade as seals.  They had power over the winds through magic worked with leather bags and black strings.  By unknotting the strings or unstopping the bags, they could bring up a wind and cause a storm.  Belief in the Fin-Folk also stretched to Norway, where they were said to keep crows as familiars who would let them know what was going on in the world.  Only the Fin-Folk could ride a water horse.
  • Gioga- Scotland.  The queen of the sea trows (trolls) who were mainly found around the islands.
  • Grendel- Norway.  A giant monster that frequently devastated the North Sea coast.  He personified the powers of the deep sea and storm floods.  Grendel was killed by Beowulf.
  • Groach Vor- Brittany, France and Cornwall, England. A type of mermaid.
  • Haaf-fish- Orkney Islands, Scotland.  A type of selkie.
  • Hakenmann- Germany.  A monster of coastal Northern Germany that had the head of a man and a body of a fish.
  • Halfway People- Canada.  The Micmac name for mer-people.  In their legends, the mermaids sang to warn fishermen of storms.
  • Havfine- Norway.  Mermaids that were bad omens.
  • Havfrue- Denmark.  A mermaid who could be a friend or a foe to fishermen, as her presence foretold of coming storms.  She gathered the bones of those who had drowned.
  • Havmand- Denmark.  A handsome type of merman who was friendly to humans.
  • Jormungandr- Norway.  A great serpent that circled the human world with his tail in his mouth.  He personified the ocean that was believed to circle Middle Earth.  It was also known as the Midgard serpent.
  • Juruta/Jurute- Lithuania.  A mermaid or sea fairy that originated as a sea goddess and consort of Perun, the god of thunder.  She is associated with the gemstone amber.
  • Kakamora- Solomon Islands.  Cave-dwelling ocean fairies known for their long, sharp fingernails.  They were said to have an aversion to the color white.
  • Kami- Japan (Shinto).  Elementals living under the ocean.
  • Karawatongia- Malaysia.  Seashore fairies known for their beautiful hair.
  • Kelpie- Scotland.  Also known as Nix, Nuggle, water horse, water bull, and Each Uisage (Greece), this creature was considered the “most ancient and primitive type of mermaid’s northern ancestors”.  The most common form of the Kelpie was a gray water horse that offered rides and then threw its passenger into the water, sometimes to drown.  Kelpies could appear as human men, but had hair of seaweed.  When not throwing riders, they liked to stand atop water wheels, bringing them to a halt.
  • Kraken- Scandinavia.  A round, flat sea creature that created whirlpools to ensnare passing ships.  In other legends it was variously portrayed as a giant fish, whale, or squid.
  • Lakhmu- Babylon.  A sea monster called up by Tiamat to fight against the god Marduk.
  • Lamia- Greece.  Sea fairies whose dancing could create waterspouts.
  • Leviathan- Phoenicia.  A sea serpent/dragon that came into being on the fifth day of creation.  As chaos incarnate, his great tail made the seas roil.  His name means “coiled”.
  • Luchorpain- Ireland.  A type of leprechaun that could live beneath the sea.  They allowed humans to safely journey to their realm by use of a magic cloak over their heads of special herbs placed into their ears.
  • Maighdean Mara- Scotland.  A mermaid whose name means “sea maiden”.
  • Maighdean na Tuinne- Scotland.  A mermaid whose name means “maiden beneath the waves”.
  • Mal-de-Mer- Corwall, England and Brittany, France.  Sea fairies that caused shipwrecks, then took possession of the drowned souls.  Their name means “evil of the sea”.
  • Mama Alo- African and Caribbean.  Also known as Mama Jo, these mermaids liked to capture a person’s shadow-metaphor for soul.  They could transform and come ashore as cats, which is why stray cats in the West indies were not welcome guests.
  • Mara-Halddo- Lapland.  A type of sea fairy.
  • Mara-Warra- Ireland.  Mermaids with rich undersea dwellings.
  • Margygr-  Greenland.  Mer-folk.
  • Marie Morgane- British Isles.  Mermaids related to Celtic fairies.
  • Mari- morgan- Brittany, France.  Sea fairies usually described as sitting on rocks and combing their luxurious hair with golden combs.
  • Marmaeler- Scandinavia.  Children of the Meerweiber.
  • Mary Player- England.  A mermaid who could cause a ship to sink by swimming three times around it.
  • Meerfrauen/Meerjungfern- Germany.  Mermaids.
  • Meermann- Germany.  Merman.
  • Meerweiber- Scandinavia.  Mermaids or sea women.
  • Mer-Folk- Legends abound worldwide about these near-mortal beings who lived mainly under water in a fairylike paradise.  They occasionally came ashore disguised as humans through the use of a magical garment such as a veil, cap, scarf, or sometimes a seal skin.  Capturing such a garment gave control over a mer-person.
  • Mermaids- Classical mythology often depicted mermaids seated on rocks combing their long hair.  They were voluptuously human above the waist with the lower body of a fish.  In worldwide legends their personalities vary from helpful to malevolent.
  • Mermen- The male equivalent of mermaids, also called Tritons.  Unlike mermaids, mermen were said to be very unattractive.
  • Merrow/Morvadh/Murrughach- Gaelic names for the mer-folk.  They were portrayed as peaceful and sometimes intermarried with humans.  The offspring of such a union had webbed toes and fingers.
  • Merrymaids- Cornwall, England.  Mermaids.
  • Mer-woman/Mer-Wife- England.  Mermaids.
  • Muireartach/Muilearteach- Scotland.  A type of sea fairy that appeared as an old woman with blue-gray skin and one eye.  She could also appear as a sea serpent and cause storms.
  • Murdhuachas- Ireland.  Sea fairies with the head of a seal or walrus.  Sometimes they helped sailors; at other times they hindered them.
  • Mweedn- Wales.  A child of the sea.
  • Naga Padoha- Southeastern Asia.  a sea serpent that tried to destroy the first lands created by the god Batara Guru.
  • Neagle/ Nuggle/Nyaggle- Shetland Islands, Scotland.  Alternative names for a water horse.
  • Nickur/Nykur/Ninnir- Iceland.  A gray or black water horse also found in rivers and lakes.
  • Ningyo- Japan.  A mermaid.
  • Nuckelavee- Scotland.  A sea fairy that usually appeared as a grotesque water horse.  While it could go ashore, it had an aversion to fresh water and rain.
  • Orc- Italy (Roman).  A sea monster.
  • Polong- New Zealand.  Sea fairies that fought with the Maori people.
  • Roane- Ireland and Scotland.  Sea fairies that took the form of seals.  On shore they could remove the seal skin, but anyone who took possession of it had power over the roan.
  • Ryu-wo- Japan.  A sea dragon that was also king of rain and storms.
  • Scylla- Greece.  The six-headed rock monster of the Straits of Messina.  According to legends she was a sea nymph who Circe turned into a monster, jealous of her trysts with Zeus and Poseidon.  Along with her companion, Charybdis the whirlpool, Scylla attacked Odysseus and his crew on their legendary voyage.
  • Sea serpents- Legends of great unknown creatures have been reported worldwide through the ages.  One recorded incident in New England occurred off Cape Ann, Massachusetts in June, 1639.
  • Sea spirits- Isle of Man.  Sea fairies who used discarded seashells for boats.  They usually aided people in need.
  • Sea trows- Northern Europe, Scandinavia, British Isles.  A type of troll living a the bottom of the ocean.  While they tended to play tricks on people, they were not malevolent.
  • Selkie- Orkney Islands, Scotland.  Sea fairies that appeared as seals, but shed the disguise on land.  They came to dance for special occasions.  As with roanes, stealing a selkie’s seal skin gave a person power over it.  Various legends portrayed selkies as fallen angels or humans who were guilty of major transgressions.  Male selklies were said to take human lovers.
  • Shoopiltees- Orkney and Shetland Islands, Scotland.  Water ponies.
  • Sirena- Guam.  A mermaid who could only be caught with a net of human hair. 
  • Tangle- Shetland Islands, Scotland.  A mischievous type of water horse.
  • Tarroo-Ushey- Isle of Man.  A dangerous water bull that was capable of going ashore.
  • Uilebheist- Orkney and Shetland Islands, Scotland.  A sea monster/dragon with multiple heads.
  • Undines- Greece.  Sea fairies whose name means “wave”.  They could appear as human or sea horse.  Elementals of any type of water came to be called undines.
  • Usumgal- Sumer.  A sea serpent.
  • Vatea- Polynesia.  A mermaid that was half porpoise.
  • Water bull- Scotland.  Similar to a water horse; however, it protected people from harm rather than playing tricks on them.
  • Water horse- Scotland.  Also called  kelpie.  A horse with a wheel for a tail, linking it to symbols for both the sun and “the edge of the night”.  Before it disappeared below the sea,a tiny blue flame could be seen.  On the east coast of the Shetland Islands the water horse was a light color, and on the west coast it was dark with sand in its mane.  In contrast to the kelpie legends, the Shetland water horse could take riders to a beautiful realm under the sea.  The journey was pleasant but the rider could not return to the world of humans.
  • Waternome- Germany.  Mermaid or sea-woman.
  • Wihwin- Central America.  A water horse that spent its summers in the forested mountains.
  • Zabel- Phoenicia.  A creature known as a lord of the sea, he was summoned to fight against Baal.    

Sea Magic: Connecting With the Ocean’s Energy by Sandra Kynes

If my sims have more than one child, I make those children have one child each for a few generations, and eventually intermarry the descendants so that I don’t have to choose favorites.

senoritacomoestas  asked:

What kinda work have you done within yourself to address the fact that you're a white person practicing a religion or belief system derived from the African Dispora/ as I understood a generally closed religion? Do you have dissonance or qualms around it or have run into issues with it socially?

That’s a good question! I’ve spent a lot of time thinking about this. When I first got into the religion, I started reading a lot of critical race theory - from bell hooks to Angela Davis. I felt like I needed to better understand race and racism if I was going to be part of an Afro-Cuban religion, and I’m so glad that I did all of that self-education. It’s helped me understand my own privilege as a white person and the many issues affecting the largely Afro-Latinx community that practice the religion. It’s led me to a commitment to these issues as an activist, and a practice of constant self-reflection (I am by no means a perfect person and like all white people I mess up). I have made some particular decisions around the public space I take as a result (ie, I don’t write books on the religion, and I generally refuse speaking gigs about it, etc. because I figure a white person does not need to be the public face of a Black religion).

I’ve thought a lot about cultural appropriation, and read a lot of theory about it - the understanding I’ve gained from that is that cultural appropriation is when outsiders enter and steal, co-opt, and attempt to change a cultural practice to suit their needs, often for profit (see, for example, plastic shamans selling fake Native crafts and ceremonies), and separate from the actual community who is being stolen from. My involvement in Lukumi is not that - I am an active part of a ilé (house/community), working with the permission of that ilé under the direction of my elders, and I converted and practice exactly as the religion prescribes. Many people convert to different faiths, and this is what my experience has been: a conversion.

The community is not closed - I’ve never heard anyone in Lukumi communities say that it is. That term “closed” comes from Neopaganism, as far as I can tell. This is an increasingly common misconception about Lukumi, though. A quick look at the history challenges this idea completely (check out the book Santeria Enthroned for a very long take on the history, or Santeria: From Africa to the New World by George Brandon for a shorter take). The religion has always been open to a variety of different people since it coalesced in mid-19th Century Cuba. This originally began when Africans of different (ie non-Yoruba) ethnic groups were intermarrying with Yoruba people in Cuba, then expanded to include white Cubans and Chinese indentured servants, largely through intermarriage. By the end of the 19th Century, many of the cabildos were racially mixed, and Cuban newspapers noted with racist displeasure at the numbers of white Cubans becoming ‘entranced’ by the African religion. This racial integration continued into the 20th Century, and sped up considerably since its arrival in the United States following the Cuban Revolution. Now many houses are racially mixed, and there are people of all races in the religion.

It is not an uncomplicated situation! I’ve seen some bad behaviour from both white and non-white outsiders entering the religion, unfortunately. But the Orisha, through both possession and the oracles (diloggun, Ifa, and Obi), have made it clear that they want to expand. For example, an Oshun came down at a drum I was at once and started talking about how she wants to “speak every language,” meaning she wants to be worshipped around the world. I’ve heard of similar stories of Orisha from coast to coast across the US.

While the religion is not “closed,” it isn’t exactly open either. It’s a religion based on initiatory status - only when a person is initiated as part of an ilé are they really a full part of the religion. The general attitude in the community is that the Orisha know what they are doing, and if the Orisha don’t want someone to be part of it, they have ample opportunity to say so. During the initiation ceremony itself, there are dozens of divinations that are done, at each of which the Orisha can (and occasionally have!) sent people packing. It’s not meant for everyone, but it’s up to the Orisha and, to a lesser extent, the elders to decide who is supposed to be there.

The community has always been welcoming to me, at least racially (there have been some issues with my being trans from time to time but that has been changing dramatically over the past few years). There are lots and lots of white people in the religion. And Asian people. And Middle Eastern people. And Native American people. It’s very mixed these days. The community my ilé works in near LA is largely Mexican.

Outsiders, however, are another story. I get some flack from people who are not part of the religion. Which is maddening because they don’t know the first thing about it, but are purporting to tell an active priest what’s what. The issue here is that outsiders are approaching the religion as a purely political issue, ignoring the voices of the community itself and also the very real input of the Orisha. My elders get so mad about it - to question my initiation is to question their decisions, which in this extremely hierarchical religion is basically A Very Uncouth Thing. As a result, like many other practitioners, I am becoming increasingly selective about where and when I discuss the religion and with whom. Outsiders just don’t understand.

anonymous asked:

I am interested in the Sicilian and Italian traditions! Can you direct me as to where to learn more about this/explain the basics of this practice? Thank you so much- your blog is great:)

Italian Witchcraft and Folklore

Hey! That’s wonderful! They’re surprisingly difficult to find any accurate information on!
My best resources are the article by Sabina Magliocco titled Witchcraft, healing, and vernacular magic in Italy, a less reliable article (that mixes witch-lore and folk magic all together) by J.B. Andrews called Neapolitan Witchcraft, and Carlo Ginzburg’s book The Night Battles about the benandanti in Friuli (Northeastern region of Italy).

If anyone knows any other sources feel free to list them!

Italian witch lore is very old, as there have been legends of witches in this region for a very long, accountable period. The word strega (witch) most likely comes from the Latin strix (screech owl) which witches were thought to take the shape of in the night. The practice of witchcraft is called stregoneria, a male witch is a stregone, and a female witch is a strega.
There are more legends of Italian witches in the south (particularly near Naples). One of the most famous is the story of the witches of Benevento, who convened beneath a walnut tree on a hill therein, and danced and worshiped the Devil. This tree was supposedly cut down.

There is a popular image of a witch who arises among Christian tradition in Italy, even still today. This witch is called Old Befana or Bella Befana(Bruta BefanaBella Befana or Vecchia Befana) who is a good witch who lived alone in a small cottage. One day, three wise men knocked on her door. “Behold! The child of God is born, (yada yada) we’re going to find him and bring him gifts! Will you join us Old Befana?” Now, Old Befana was glad to hear the news and excited to meet the new babe and give it what gifts she could. However, she was not one to shuck her responsibilities so she said she would have to wait until her chores were completed. They agreed and she saw them off, before finishing her cleaning. Once her duties were completed, she packed up her presents for the babe, hopped promptly onto the broom she had just finished sweeping with, and flew out the chimney into the cold night. However, they had not told her how to find them again! Not wanting to deny the boy his gifts, she decided to give some to all the little children she passed on her way, as any might be the new born child of God. Every year on that same night, Old Befana rides out on her broom and deposits gifts for little children, in hopes that one day she will finally find the baby Jesus and give him the presents she has been holding all this time.

In southern Italy, many of the tales of witches (streghe) and folk healers (fattucchiere, or ‘fixers’) tell of the songs they sing to work their magic. Unfortunately, this seems to be all anyone knows on the subject, and I can’t find any references or information on these songs!
In lore, the witches of both benevolent and malefic natures are closely related or interchangeable with more faerie-like spirits. The Janare of Naples/Janas of Sardinia (lit. followers of Diana) are magical women said to live in Neolithic shaft tombs and are expert weavers and spinners. They sometimes intermarry with humans, but are very different from the cogas  (or little cooks) of Sardinia, who are malefic witches that cook and eat their victims.

Most folk magic in Italy has died out, even in many of the rural areas. What is documented and what remains is all, unsurprisingly, Catholic magic. Much of it draws to saints, prayers, and Catholic holy tools. One name for this form of magic is benedicaria. However, much of it seems more agricultural or magical and less religious in nature. There is no point assuming this other source is pagan, because we could never prove where almost of any of it originated.

Most witchcraft you will find today in Italy, especially in urbanized areas, is of a New Age or Neo-pagan persuasion. Neo-Wicca is about the best you can hope to find, and even that is comparatively rare to that found in Great Britain, Australia, and the U.S.

In conversations about Italian magic and witchcraft, Raven Grimassi’s book Italian Witchcraft tends to come up. THIS BOOK IS UTTER BULLSHIT. HOGWASH. STUFF AND NONSENSE. It’s almost literally just Neo-Wicca with different names and some made up information. I’m not exaggerating. If you have this book, it’s better off as kindling than on your bookshelf. Just saying.
Charles Leland’s book Aradia: The Gospel of the Witches is a pretty piece of poetry, and perhaps has some truths in it, but it can never be relied upon. His source is not credible, and the information doesn’t add up well. It is a beautiful book, but not an accurate account of Italian magic or witchcraft.

Here are a few blog posts I have made relating to Italian witchcraft and folk magic:

The Curse of the Lemon and Pins

Neapolitan Flying Ointment

The Use of Stones in Italian Folk Magic

Charm Against the Evil Eye

To Cure Jaundice

To Cure Worms

To Bind an Eagle from your Flock

To Keep Birds from the Crops

anonymous asked:

Shunsui would be an awesome replacement dad. Isshin and Shunsui look kind of similar so I headcanon them as (distant) cousins, so I see Ichigo coming to Shunsui for advice since he's the nearest male relation he feels he can talk to. Then the twins pick up on it and follow their ichi-nii's lead. And the Shunsui doesn't notice until: 'Congrats on the adoption!' 'Than- wait what?!?' (And Isshin doesn't notice until it's pointed out to him specifically.)


Yes to all of this! I’ve always thought Isshin and Shunsui were related somehow, because the noble families probably intermarried fairly often, and the idea of him as surrogate dad is awesome. 



Prior to the events of Yatan’s dark magic at the Arcanopolis the Dwarves called 4 cities home. They often warred between each other for the land between the mountains and the great families of the Dwarven mountains would intermarry and create trade deals in order to ensure peace or more land for their families. After the Elves formed their Republic the Dwarven families met at Mount Rhulian where the city Khazad Rhul the first Dwarven city was founded. The heads of these great families chose to end the Dwarven civil war and founded the Five Fist Alliance and found a new city Khazad Grim on the mountain nearest to the Arcanopolis, Mount Monue. This new city would be used as a place to house all Dwarven Criminals and a small army of Dwarven warriors who would attempt to keep the dark beasts of Arcanopolis from bay and stop them moving outward into the wider world of Rúmerion. The Dwarves have strongly held up this alliance now and now openly share trade resources, information and warriors to ensure that the Dwarven people thrive. 


royal meme | facts [1/5]

An oft unknown fact is that Cleopatra VII ( she would have spelled it as ‘Kleopatra VII’, being a Greek name) was indeed a mostly Macedonian Greek woman with a pinch of Persian. Her dynasty, the Ptolemies, were descended from Ptolemy, right hand of Alexander the Great, and refused to intermingle with the Egyptian population, instead inter breeding and occasionally marrying Persian nobility; they set themselves up above the Egyptians and created Alexandria, a Greek center of learning. Indeed, none of the Ptolemies spoke Egyptian, until Cleopatra herself decided learn the language to further appeal to the people.

“Well she descends from one of the generals of Alexander the Great who are Greek Macedonians. So there is no question there that she comes from a line of Greeks. It gets a little bit more certain because they tend to…they intermarried. The 13 or 14 marriages in her dynasty, ten of them were brother-sister marriages. So there’s really no foreign blood whatsoever in this dynasty, they are truly Greek Macedonian to the hilt. There may have been a Persian princess who slipped in there somewhere, but otherwise you’re really talking about a woman who was as Greek in terms of ethnicity, in terms of culture, in terms of education, as you could be in that world.”

Historian Stacy Schiff

“Cleopatra VII was born to Ptolemy XII Auletes (80–57 BC, ruled 55–51 BC) and Cleopatra, both parents being Macedonian Greeks.”

The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt

“For ten generations her family had styled themselves pharaohs. The Ptolemies were in fact Macedonian Greek, which makes Cleopatra approximately as Egyptian as Elizabeth Taylor. The word “honey skinned” recurs in descriptions of her relatives and would presumably applied to hers as well, despite the inexactitudes surrounding her mother and paternal grandmother. There was certainly Persian blood in the family, but even an Egyptian mistress is a rarity among the Ptolemies. She was not dark skinned.”

Cleopatra, A Life - Stacy Schiff

“Cleopatra (69- 30 BC), the Greek queen of Egypt, belonged to the Ptolemaic family, the Macedonian Greeks who ruled Egypt during the Hellenistic Age.”

Western civilization: ideas, Politics, and society by Marvin Perry, Margaret C Jacob, Myrna Chase, James R Jacob

(sourced compiled by @tiny-librarian here )

( pictured: fancast of the Greek actress Tonia Sotiropoulou as Cleopatra VII;  coin of Cleopatra; portraiture bust of Cleopatra; & a famous painting).


Seminole/Black Seminole- The Seminole are a Native American tribe originally from Florida. The Seminole are actually a fairly new tribe, being created from several indigenous tribes fleeing the British in the 18th century. After they began to establish their own cultural identity, the Seminole created trade networks with the British and Spanish colonial governments. Following the US incorporation of Spanish Florida, the Seminole Wars erupted between the US government and the Seminole. By 1842, the majority of Seminole had been forcibly deported to Oklahoma, where the most still live today. 

A notable sub-group of the Seminole are the Black Seminole, who are of both Seminole and African descent. Although there are many “Black Indian” groups, the Black Seminole are arguably the most famous. The original Black Seminole where escaped slaves or free Blacks, who fled oppression in British or American society to live in the swamps of Florida. These people joined and intermarried into the Seminole tribes, with some such as Billy Bowlegs/Cofehapkee, becoming important tribal leaders.

anonymous asked:

What are the Races of the Silver Families mentioned in RQ. I don't want to misrepresent them while making edits.

Hmm, I don’t have them all mapped out - and most of the houses vary from person to person. It’s not like House Provos is all Asian or House Haven is all Black b/c obviously they intermarry so it’s a bit of a Silver-toned rainbow. 

House Iral does have a very distinct look that runs pretty dominant in their family - they are brown with black hair, probably of Persian and South Asian descent.

The Kings of the Lakelands (House Cygnet) along with a lot of the Lakeland royalty are majority First Nations/French Canadian descent.

babeshrimp  asked:

Please continue. I thought those were really good.

Eeee thanks!!! I just posted the Paladins’ backstories, but here’s a few things I’ve thought up

  • Balmerans can’t spend too long away from a Balmera or they start dying so Hunk has to go find a Balmera every few months and spend at least a few days there
  • Alteans have a funerary ritual that involves dancing. Since the destruction of Altea, Lance dances for the dead almost every day.
  • Because he was woken up years before he found her, Lance is now older than Allura
  • The rebels Lance is with and the Blade of Marmora work together on and off; they have wildly different methods. Keith and Lance worked a few missions together as part of a larger group years before either of them became Paladins, but Keith normally prefers to run solo missions so they don’t cross paths too often
  • At least a few ships of Alteans did survive the destruction of Altea, but most of them have scattered and intermarried across the universe by this point, and of course Lance, Allura, and Coran are the only ones left alive who actually remember Altea now
At the 2012 Colloquium, Paul Golin […] described eloquently what he calls “intermarriage math.” If you begin with four Jews and 50% of them intermarry, then two of the four Jews will marry one another, while the other two Jews will marry someone from a different background. The two Jews who intermarry will create one household each, while the other two create their own household. This results in three households, doubling the number of intermarried families compared to in-married households. The upshot? Intermarriage is increasing the Jewish population. [Assuming one accepts patrilineal descent.] Given the birthrate among most Jews, intermarriage may be the best option for increasing the number of Jewish households today. If the Jewish community is open, welcoming, creative, and willing to consider a different kind of Judaism for the future, it can potentially draw a majority of those families into the Jewish community.
—  Rabbi Miriam Jerris, “Gate Openers: Reaching Out to the Next Generation of Children of Intermarriage,” *Humanistic Judaism* Volume XLVI, 2017, Number 1

anonymous asked:

hey sorry if this is a stupid question, but is asatru racist? i'm norse pagan but i'm kinda new to the religion. i've heard people calling it racist because apparently a lot of white supremacists and nazis believe in norse paganism. i'm just making sure because i like this religion but i don't want to be racist or be seen as one.

Unfortunately, yes, there are a number of white supremacists and neo-Nazis in Asatru. This really dates back to Nazi occultism and usage of Norse pagan imagery and mythos, because they saw it as representing a “white” or “Aryan” religion. For instance, the Sowilo rune used for the SS logo.

But is the path as a whole racist? 

The tales of the different clans of Gods who intermarry – Aesir with Vanir with Jotuns – who value hospitality above all, of mighty Odin who wanders with Loki across all the worlds and talks to all who He meets, who says in the Hávamál:

Scorn or mocking ne’er shalt thou make 
Of a guest or a journey-goer.
None so good is found that faults he has not
Nor so wicked that naught he is worth.

Heathenry is not a racist religion as long as we do not surrender it to the racists and the neo-Nazis.

As long as we as Heathens, as Norse pagans, as Asatruar, keep standing up for our values, for justice, for solidarity, for equality, for acceptance, for the sacred meaning of hospitality. As long as we keep using our words and our actions to show the ways our faith and our Gods move us to make the world a better place, to show we have no sympathy or tolerance for bigotry in our community. As long as we hold the line. 

I love this religion, I love my Gods. There is no way we can let the racists take that from us. 

anonymous asked:

So just how much Native ate you? You identify as Metis, so that makes you about 1/2 Caucasian. Do you even qualify for status? I am also assuming you do not consider our father in this equation of "aboriginality" I often find it amazing how people will go through all these mental gymnastics to try and rid themselves of all whiteness as if being of European (Caucasian) decent is automatically a bad thing!

It takes a lot to make my bypass my default mode of polite-and-assuming-the-best-of-people, anon, so that makes you special. Congratulations. Now sit down while I learn you some things. I’ll keep it point form for you.

  • In Canada, the Métis people are recognized as a distinct aboriginal people group in Canada.
  • Métis does not mean “part native”. Some people do use lowercase-m “metis” or “métis” to indicate being part settler/white/European and part Indigenous. This is particularly common in Ontario and Quebec. See the link at the end of this post to read more about pan-Métisism
  • But note the capital M when I talk about myself? See the bright red sash in my latest video? That’s ‘cause I’m Métis, with a capital M, as in—
  • The Métis people are a distinct people group.

  • We have our own language (Michif) with regional/geographic distinctions. Both historically and today we have our own distinct spiritual beliefs and religious practices. We have distinct traditional music, food, hunting practices, social events, ceremonies, holy days, and community beliefs and values.
  • We are a unique, distinct people group with a strong cultural identity and pride in our historical, traditional, and daily culture, lifestyle, and beliefs.
  • So now don’t you look silly? This is why we should not assume.

  • “You identify as Metis, so that makes you about ½ Caucasian.” Ha, no. That’s not how it works. See the other link at the end of this post to read more about that. In the meantime, let me learn you some more things.
  • Canada wanted to know how to define Métis people too, and to everyone’s surprise they didn’t just assume out of ignorance like yourself. They did the right thing and actually asked the Métis community.
  • What the Canadian government/Métis community came up with a three facet method of identification in 2003 (see R v. Powley)
  • In Canada, to be recognized as the government as Métis and to receive a Métis status card (which is a little different but very similar to the more well-known “indian status” card) you need to fit three criteria:
  • You need to personally identify as Métis (check)
  • You need to be accepted by a Métis community (check)
  • You need to have verifiable ancestral connection to a historic Métis community (check)

  • Oh look, I’m Métis!
  • That last point is the tenacious “blood quantum” thing you mentioned. And isn’t blood quantum a tricky thing? The great Métis leader, revolutionary, and poet Louis Riel said,
  • “It is true that our Native roots are humble, but it is right for us to honour our mothers as well as our fathers. Why should we concern ourselves with the extent of our European blood or our Indian blood? If we have any sense of appreciation or filial devotion to our parents, are we not obliged to say, “We are Métis.”? (translated)
  • Louis Riel argued that identity isn’t boiled down to race, or blood quantum. I agree. It’s about culture and identity, and it’s the same for métis people too.
  • A Métis person who is half native and a Métis person who can’t even be sure of blood quantum because of generations of intermarrying between Métis people are equally as Métis, so long as that is how they identify and live.
Shame on you for trying to invalidate my identity. 

Shame on you for pulling the reverse racism, “it’s okay to be white!!~”, “it’s not bad to be of european descent uwu” nonsense. As if I didn’t know that.

As if being Métis isn’t having as much pride in the parts of our culture that was handed down to us by our first European fathers as the parts of our culture that came from our Indigenous mothers.

And shame on you for thinking you can correct or educate a Métis person about themselves when you don’t even know who the Métis people are.

If you would have asked politely, coming from a place of at least a little humility, I would have been happy to link you some things to read and left it at that. But no. You had to be absolutely ridiculous and now here we are.

I hope you’ve learned something, anon. For me, this kind of ignorance is nothing I haven’t heard before.

For your further consideration:

You’re Métis? So which one of your parents is an Indian?

Pan-Indianism, Pan-Métisism

And, why you shouldn’t say “caucasian” when you mean white: