Glass cockpit - All instruments in a screen

Avionics- Glass cockpit

Glass cockpit avionics are a class of avionics, which uses light indications and/or screens to indicate all the parameters and indications needed for the operation of the aircraft. There are numerous aircraft types today flying with glass cockpit configurations, due to the simplicity and user friendlier interfaces.

In early days, glass cockpit use was limited to PFD (Primary Functions Displays), MFD (Multi Function Displays) or a PFD that incorporated MFD functionality. Those early glass cockpits paved the way for ever more complex and advanced avionics driving us now to an almost paperless cockpit. The main reason that such avionics were invented was that the limited space in the cockpit of an aircraft, could not fit all the needed avionics that the pilots needed to have direct access. The typical avionics of the pre-glass cockpit era were bulky heavy and made a total mess with their wires and tubes, practically making the back of the panel/firewall a total jungle of tangled wiry things and labels

Commercial aviation

In commercial aviation simple glass cockpits, were firstly introduced in medium Jets(B734,MD-80,A310,), then fund implications in heavier jets(A300,B744,B672) and business jets. These early glass cockpits were mostly limited in indicating the flight crew with all the vital indications that conventional instruments would do, but in a more suitable way. For example in the case of the air speed indicator in glass cockpits there were now automated needles that moves, let’s say when the pilot retracted the flaps or extended the landing gear to clearly indicate the new operation speed limits of the aircraft in that configuration. Also all autopilot indications and bags were incorporated in the glass cockpit for greater easiness. But the most crucial change was the HSI (The main navigation instrument up to that day), had a meeting with the garbage can. It was totally replaced with an all new design that gave the pilot all the indications that he wanted. Incorporated moving maps with live route-distance-time indications, weather radars, combined HIS and RMI functionality it was the Christmas present that any pilot of that era could have wished.

Hello EICAS, Goodbye flight engineer.

Later came the EICAS system(Engine Indicating and Crew Alerting System), which was very bad news for one particular airman in the cockpit. The flight engineer now could retire or get his hands dirty again in the hangar, since he had no job in the cockpit. EICAS is an integrated system used to provide aircraft crew with aircraft engines and other systems instrumentation and crew annunciations. This system incorporated also annunciator panel with prioritized colored indications and advised solutions, some came with even intergraded checklists. This system clearly offered the aircrew with a powerful toll to cope with any improper indications, simply scanning 1 or 2 screens instead of 1 great and complex flight engineer panel, which needed an independent controller to supervise. The difference can be clearly seen in the case of the Douglas DC10 and the Douglas MD11, which was the first jumbo jet to do without flight engineer.

Everyday pilot get a new file saving tool.

The next step was to find their way to a wider market, and in the crammed cockpits of GA(General Aviation) aircraft. These implications came with many challenges, first and foremost how to fit the computer banks needed in bigger commercial aircraft (We are talking for a whole room) in a very very small panel. Garmin took the challenge and came up with the striking G1000, which is an all round full panel substitute. If you want to retrofit your Cessna 172 to Garmin G1000 you will have to wave goodbye to all your existing instruments, radios, receivers, indicators and the stupid vacuum pump ware. The G1000 has almost no moving parts to have mechanical wear, so no more inop labels on the panelJ. After Garmin came many other companies like Dynon and MGL avionics that are mainly targeting experimental and ULM markets. These days you can buy and have a full glass cockpit panel for your ULM ultralight aircraft with full autopilot and altitude hold, moving maps and synthetic vision for as much as 6000$.

Bad Girl Ch 17: Slice Of Heaven

I try my best to be as silent as possible as I sneak out of the room with basically six sleeping bears scattered on the floor and bed. After Xiumin has woken up half the house he couldn’t convince the others to leave, which is why Luhan is sleeping on the edge of the bed. The three youngest are on the floor curled up in blankets, I can’t help but smile at the cute sight. But I continue my silent escape  into the hallway. It’s surreal being here again, I take my time wandering through the halls and down the stairs. In Xiumin’s oversized socks I slide across the marble like something out of the movies.

The house is dead silent so I take my time moving around the kitchen to find a large mug and some expensive looking coffee. Their coffee maker is of course top of the line and looks like something from the future. It only takes me a few minutes to figure it out and brew myself a cup of coffee. I find some crème and sugar and just stand there for a minute to appreciate the view out the window. I look at the clock seeing that it is eight in the morning I decide to head back so they don’t freak out when they wake up and I’m nowhere in sight. Sneaking back in is just as easy as leaving was, I tip toe over the bodies on the floor to Xiumin’s desk and make myself comfortable in his oversized office chair. I tuck my legs into the shirt Xiumin gave me last night to keep myself warm and sip my hot coffee slowly.

“Baby?” Whispers Luhan from the edge of the bed.

“Jooyoung!” Xiumin fallows suit with his panic calls. The eldest thrashes in bed, waking the younger two. “Jooyoung!”

“I’m over here!” I raise my hand.

The three sit up with narrow eyes. Xiumin is quick to scold me, “Baby, what are you doing all the way over there?”

“I wanted coffee,” I explain simply.

“You drink coffee?”

I nod, “With plenty of cream and sugar.”

“Come back to bed,” Kris whines.

“I’m coming, no need to whine,” I set my cup down and shuffle over to the bed. With a grin I jump on to the bed and bounce around ignore the complaints from the men around me.

“I want to sleep more, who is being loud?” Tao croaks from the floor.

“It’s time to get up! Lets go get breakfast!”

Luhan’s eyes narrow on me, “You were cooking? I know we agreed to your rules but I’m pretty sure Kyungsoo would have a conniption if he find out you cooked unsupervised.”

“I don’t have a death wish, don’t worry. I’ll go wake him up in a second.”

“But we haven’t been able to have some time with you yet.”

“Well you better get up then, daddy Lulu, you should also get dressed and pick two other daddies to come with.”

“Where are we going?”

“We are going out for some fun!”

“Hyung!” The three youngest jump up eagerly.

“Anyone except Xiuxiu and daddy Kris,” I pipe in.

Kris frowns, “Why not me?”

“Because we have a date tonight.”

He stares at me dumbstruck for a minute, “Date?”

“Didn’t you tell me you wanted to go on a date?”

Before he can respond the older man jumps in, “Why does he get you to himself?”

“You get me the rest of the day, so I would say that is fair.”

“Hyung, pick me!” Sehun climbs up on the bed to get the older man’s attention.

“No me!” Kai joins in.

“I’m going to need time to think, let’s get breakfast well I try to pick,” The older blows them off. He takes my hand and leads me toward the door. “Lets go get Kyungsoo, okay? You guys can wake up the others.”

I let the elder drag me around the floor to Kyungsoo’s room where he busts the door open, not even bothering to knock. The sweet man is just sitting in bed reading a book, or at least he was until we surprised him and made him throw his book. I beam at him, hopping to take the edge off our entrance, “Daddy Soo!”

His face lights up, “My baby!” Luhan lets me go so I jump on to his bed and right into the wide eyed man’s arms. “What are you doing up so early? I figured you wouldn’t be up yet after the night you had.”

“Well I’m up and I’m hungry and if you aren’t cooking in the next five minutes I’m going to do it myself,” I tease with a cheeky grin.

“Like hell you are,” He scoops me up and carries me out of the room with Luhan tailing us. When we reach the kitchen I’m surprised to find everyone already there waiting.

“Hyung! I want to go!” Baekhyun jumps the doe eyed man behind us.

“Go where?” Kyungsoo question as he sets me down on the floor so I can greet everyone crowding around.

Sehun is quick to answer, “Joo is letting Luhan pick two people to go on a date with her today!”

“I already know who I’m bringing,” Luhan quickly kills all hope in the room.


“Yixing and Tao, my Chinese brothers and I have her today,” He wraps his arm around my shoulders and kiss the top of my head.

“Yes!” Yixing scoops me up and spins me around, “I finally get to see you.”

“That means you don’t get her until then, we need to get our daily dose of her now than,” Suho is the next to steal me away. “I hear there was a bit of commotion last night.”

I chuckle, “Yea Xiu and I got some company last night.”

“I didn’t know we could join in,” Chen muses.

“You can’t,” Xiumin snaps, “I swear to god if any of you try that again I will slaughter you.”

“Oh so scary,” I coo pinching his cheeks.


“You’ve got to be kidding me,” Luhan scoffs.

“Daddy!” I whine, “We need to get going, now stop being dramatic and give me the keys. I want this to be a surprise!”

“Hyung just give her the keys,” Yixing sighs. “Remember we need to let her be big sometimes.”

The oldest groans but hands me the keys, I kiss his cheek, giving Yixing a grateful smile, “Thank you for trusting me.”

He chuckles, “You crash my car baby, I will spank you so hard you will not be able to walk for a month, got it?”

I gulp but nod.

“Good girl,” He opens the driver’s door for me before climbing in the backseat with Tao.

“So any hints on where we are going?” Tao muses when we start going.

“I told you it would be a surprise.”

They all share a look before Tao speaks again, this time in Mandarin, “Do you guys have a guess?”

“I’m as clueless as you kid,” Yixing responds.

I hold in my smirk, they have no idea I can understand, who am I to ruin their fun.

“Zitao,” Luhan scolds, “You shouldn’t talk like this behind her back.”

“You didn’t have to respond in our language.”

“You guys,” Yixing takes control of the conversation.

“What are you guys talking about?” I ask innocently.

“Nothing Baby,” Luhan smiles wide at me.

We are all pretty talkative on the way there, though Tao continues to pester the other in Mandarin about where we could be going. Probably worried it could be scary which makes me smile. When we finally pull up to our final destination I can see the relief on his face.

“A hot spring?” Yixing grins big at the sight of the sign across the top of the entrance.

“Coed?” Luhan raises his brows at me.

“Of course! We have the whole big spring to ourselves so lets go!” I rush inside. A familiar man greets me, he bows deeply at my entrance.

“Hello Madame Jooyoung,” He greets.

“Hello to you too. Did you get everything ready?”

“Of course everything is as you requested.”

I beam at him, “Thank you so much for your hard work. My guests and I will go use the springs now.”

He bows once more before leaving.

Tao wraps his arm around my shoulders, “It’s strange to see people treat you like that.”

“Seriously, Madame Jooyoung,” Luhan teases. I roll my eyes at them, I take Tao’s hand and lead them to the changing rooms where we completely ignore the different changing room signs and go in together. We shed our clothes and wrap towels around ourselves. Stepping out into the spring I’m taken back as I always am. The stone floor is cold against my feet, I curl my toes as I rush across to the massive chest deep spring and hop in without hesitation. The boys use the stairs, they stay against the edge sitting automatically on the stone seats.

“This is beautiful!” Luhan wows as his eyes scan the mountain scenery in front of us. The hot water stings my cold skin, warming me up in seconds. I swim around the huge spring, back and forth a few times before floating on my back for a moment. A blue sky stares down at me, contradicting the chilly weather. My chest already feels lighter just floating here, it’s been too long since I’ve felt this at peace.

“How did you find this place?” Yixing wonders, pulling me from the center of the pool, and my trance, to sit in between him and the oldest.

“Jiho took me a here a few times after I got out of the hospital to ease my aching muscles and now I just come whenever I want to relax. I haven’t been able to come a lot lately because of work but now I’m so happy I can be back, this time with you guys.”

“Did you ever bring him?” I know who Luhan is talking about without even thinking about it.


“Hey Baby,” Tao mumbles softly.

I look over at him, confused by his sudden bashfulness, “Yes Daddy?”

“Could I ask you a few questions about what happened while you were with Jiyong?”

I nod, “Of course! What do you want to know?”

“Um, how did you get involved in our world?”

“Um well Jiyong told me if I wanted to know about it or take part in it all I had to do was ask and he would do whatever he could to help me intergrade. At first I just want to peek in but after awhile I wanted to know more and more and the next thing I know he gave me my own little branch. Jiho helped me figure things out until I could take the reigns myself. Then Haneul came along and helped me deal with the more gruesome side of the world.”

“Haneul? As in Taemin’s girl?” Luhan wonders.

“I forgot to ask you about that,” Yixing says with wide eyes, “You are friends with Haneul!”

“I am, and so are you. She told me about you guys right when you got back but I didn’t realize it was you because she used your real names. She talked about how close you are.”

“You are the mommy daughter date?” Tao questions.

I chuckle, “Yes. Is there anything else you like to know?”

“Did you do much traveling while we were gone?”

“Lots, went to the US twice, China a few times, Japan a few times every other month, a few islands here and there.”

“China!” Tao beams at me, “Did you have fun? I want to take you there! It would be so different going with someone who can actually speak the language, I could teach you a little!”

I smirk, “Whatever makes you happy Daddy. Daddy Xing, can I ask you something about Haneul?”

He nods, “I’ll answer as best I can.”

“How did you meet Unni? She is very cryptic about her past.”

“She has ever reason to be. Noona didn’t have a great life and it isn’t my place to tell it. When she thinks you are ready to know, she will tell you. It isn’t a story for the faint of heart.”

“Is she okay?” I worry.

“She is in a very good place now, you don’t need to worry about her.”

We talk some more for an hour or so until our bodies are like prunes. We climb out, discarding our towels for simple robes. There is a room for people to cool down in, there are games, a TV, and a low table full of delicious looking food. I rush straight for the fruit plate full of watermelon and other brightly colored fruits.

“Kyungsoo would be so insulted that you are already hungry,” The youngest teases.

“It’s not my fault that the food here is delicious, here try it!” Before he has a chance to protest I shove a chunk of watermelon in his mouth. “You guys too!” I feed the other two, a bit less aggressive than I had been with Tao, something the younger whines about. I can’t hold in my giggles at his cuteness. We sit around the table and continue our light conversations, snacking lightly on the food in front of us. I show them around the hot spring, the rock garden, some of the rooms that people can spend the night in and a few more things here and there. But I save the best for last.

The spot at the edge of the traditional style home on the porch that looks over some of the farther springs with the mountains in the background making me feel like I’m in a completely different world.  We grab a few thick blankets and wrap ourselves up before sitting down and just enjoying the view. A smile spreads across my face, I love moments like this, a brief moment of peace where all my problems fade away and I’m left with three men sitting around me. Tao and Yixing are sitting on either side of me with Luhan resting his chin on my shoulder.

“You really like it here don’t you,” Luhan hums in my ear.

I nod leaning back against him, “This place is my happy place. Where the world just seems to fade away and I can be myself.”

He surprises me by hugging me tight, “Thank you for sharing your slice of heaven with us, I am honored that you could show us your true self.”

I’m sorry this is so late, I’ll try to update I’m An Alpha tomorrow! Hope you all have a good night, I’m going to bed!

anonymous asked:

how do you tell the difference between rat snakes an gopher snakes? they look relatively similar are there any distinguishable attributes?

Hooooo-doggy, anon, you really opened a can of worms here because North American rat snake taxonomy is a hot wet Mess.

So gopher snakes are in genus Pituophis. Eastern, Baird’s, corn, and great plains rats are in Pantherophis… as of right now.
Back in 2007 there was a mitochondrial DNA study that suggested that rat snakes and gopher, pine, and bull snakes were all much more closely related than we thought, to the point where there was talk of them being mushed together into the same genus.

It’s worth noting that gopher and rat snakes can and do crossbreed in areas where their territories overlap so this lends credence to the thought that they might be more closely related than, say, a snow leopard and an African lion, which coincidentally look and behave very differently and yet are in the same genus: Panthera. Put that in your brain and think on it for a bit.

Despite the similarities in their mtDNA and their naturally occurring intergrades, the allegation that Pantherophis might be a synonym of Pituophis did not gain much traction and by 2008 the issue was dropped and Pantherophis was split into three genera and then those were all smooshed back up. It was like a taxonomic play-dough party up in this science biz.

So what’s the difference?

To be honest, it’s mostly skin deep. Literally. Gophers will usually have smaller, more geometric patterns on their backs and rat snakes will usually have larger blotches or “saddles.” Gopher snakes’ scales are also going to be a little more heavily keeled where most rat snakes will have subtle keels on their dorsal scales.   
Gophers tend to have more narrow, pointed snoots for more efficient digging and the little scale on the tippy-tip of their snout will usually be slightly pronounced. Rat snakes tend to have wider, more rounded snoots. 

That’s, ah, about it!
You are now armed with all of the differences between rat and gopher snakes that I can determine on a non-sub-cellular level.
Go forth and distinguish you some snakes!

animefanchick  asked:

Hello lovely I'm back! Can I please request momo, Mina, and ochako who has a fem s/o (if that's okay) that knows how to belly dance. Like the s/o gets volunteered to perform for intermission at the sports festival including a costume and intergrading their quirks to show off to the pro heroes. Thank you again and you and your blog deserve so much love <3

Homie this is adorable and I love it


Yaoyorozu Momo 

-she would be so proud

-would 1000% want to help her gal pal

-and need to learn how she makes those moves happen

-like genius year of the rooster icon can’t wrap her brain around it 

-if her s/o wants to teach her, Momo would so call her sensei in a serious way

-but after it would be flirty, oh so flirty

-would help her s/o plan the dance and get people to join the show

-honestly Momo if gf goals

-would know the best way to accent the quirks of others

-her strategy abilities are off the charts, so I’m sure with her s/o’s help, choreography would be amaze

-i need this to be a thing

Uraraka Ochako 

-would be amazed at her girlfriends skill

-most likely would want to feel her stomach as she does it

-giggles like a noob

-when she hears that her gf was selected to organize the intermission show she gets so excited for her

-and then nervous because of the stress it’d cause her gal pal

-immediately volunteers as tribute

-she helps with costumes and getting other volunteers

-helps her s/o come up with plans for the best ways to showcase quirks

-struggles to learn the dance


-still is in the dance with her s/o, just in a different part

-is such a proud gal pal

Ashido Mina

-this girl hits an octave that President Mic would be proud of when she sees her s/o belly dance

-like a squeal that could stop a war

-she loves it and needs it in her life

-demands that her gf teaches her right this second

-is so cute while trying to learn the dance

-is such a proud little marshmallow when she finally does it

-gives all of the credit to her s/o

-practices all the time and shows off to anyone with eyes

-”my girlfriend taught me this! Isn’t she so cool?”

-when she hears about the intermission performance, she is so excited

-literally runs to her s/o at max speed

-needs to be in the dance with her

-so everyone can see her super cool s/o who is an amazing dancer

-and also her girlfriend

-also a proud gal pal

-would probably incorporate glitter into the routine because why not


Let me know what you think ♥

He is not weak: Disposing insults regarding Peeta Mellark

Peeta Mellark is weak

Survived years of emotional abuse from his mother and still came out of it a loving, compassionate person.

Endured a beating-and probably much torment after-just to give bread to a starving girl.

Received a punch from Haymitch and barely batted an eyelash.

Endured being shunned and treated like dirt by Katniss before the Games yet held no hate towards her whatsoever.

Got a training score of 8, well beyond expectations for tributes from District 12.

Survived days after being fatally wounded without any help from anyone else, using willpower to keep himself alive.

Battled Cato on top of the cornucopia, saving Katniss’ life. 

Adjusted himself to having a fake leg within weeks of losing his leg.

Lived alone because his family refused to live with him but didn’t once complain.

Stood with Katniss and Haymitch to protect Gale at the whipping post, even though there was a possibility that Katniss loved Gale instead of him.

Got back up after DYING in the arena and not complaining at all about being tired or worn out afterward.

Tried to fight-on numerous occasions-but kept getting stopped by Finnick, Johanna or anyone else from the alliance.

Killed Brutus-a hulking brute from District 2-to a desperate attempt to save Katniss.

When supposedly incurable, he made an effort to intergrade into District 13 life and did his best to be nice to Katniss (even if sometimes it didn’t work).

Was willing to sacrifice himself so he wouldn’t hold back the Star Squad any further and there would no longer be the risk of Katniss being killed.

Conquered his hijacking.

Was able to have a family and become a loving father/husband.

Peeta Mellark is a coward

Braved home abuse for many years. So much so that nobody was even aware that it went on because he didn’t complain once.

Approached the career pack even though there was the risk of them discovering what his true intentions were.

Ran back to Katniss after the tracker jacker attack with Cato right on his tail, even though it would mean having to fight Cato to protect her.

Survived many days in the arena on his own with a fatal wound but was still capable of smiling and making jokes.

Fights Cato for a second time on top of the cornucopia, again to protect Katniss.

Apologises to Katniss for acting so horribly after the discovery that she didn’t know how she felt about him even though he was probably still hurting.

Doesn’t hate Gale for also holding Katniss’ affections.

Confronts Romulus with Haymitch and Katniss at the whipping post.

When the Quarter Quell is announced, he doesn’t weep, he instead insists they train to prepare for it.

Volunteers in Haymitch’s place.

Rebelliously paints Rue’s portrait on the training center floor.

Dies in the arena but doesn’t let it hold him back when he is brought back to life.

Battles the Monkeys with a weapon he is inexperienced with (compared to Finnick’s trident and Katniss’ bow and arrows).

Immediately runs for Katniss when the wire snaps.

Takes on the careers (killing one).

Is tortured brutally but doesn’t give up any information (judging by the lack of knowledge the Capitol get about Katniss).

Fights the hijacking.

Beats the hijacking.

Peeta Mellark is useless

Times Katniss would have died if it hadn’t been for Peeta

Starved to death without the bread

Killed by Cato beside Glimmer’s corpse after the tracker jacker attack

Killed by Cato on top of the cornucopia while surrounded by mutts.

Stopped her from committing suicide after killing Coin.

Times Peeta saved Katniss

Held her during her nightmares.

Stopped her from losing her mind after the Jabberjay attack.

Helped her rebuild after the rebellion ended.

Married and had a family with her.

Peeta Mellark is not a man

This one fucks me off the most. Peeta shows his emotions, so what? That doesn’t make him any less of a man than Gale or Finnick. In fact, the fact that he is so secure in who he is that he can lay his emotions out in front of people makes him more of a man. People need to realize that men can cry and it doesn’t make them any less because of it. Peeta’s ability to be emotional makes him strong.  He’s comfortable with who he is. He isn’t afraid to share things with people, especially Katniss, because he trusts them. That isn’t a weakness. It isn’t an insult.

Peeta Mellark is not a hero

It almost amuses me how people claim they are happy to see strong female protagonists but once there’s a male character who sometimes need to be saved by said strong female protagonist they’re ‘weak' and 'not a hero’. Just because Peeta doesn’t save the day every five minutes doesn’t mean he’s not a hero. This post has made that pretty clear.

Peeta Mellark is a beautiful character and your arguments are invalid.

Have I left anything out? Reblog and add on!