“It was in Prescot, a small hilltop town near Liverpool, that scholars believe William Shakespeare may have debuted several of his most famous plays. Now plans are afoot to recreate a period theatre in Merseyside to celebrate its often neglected place in the history of the Bard.”
“In Elizabethan times, the Prescot Playhouse was the only purpose-built indoor theatre outside of London. …Richard III and Love’s Labour’s Lost both have tributes to the Stanley family, and may have been first performed at the Prescot Playhouse or nearby Knowsley Hall.”
BUT, “the exact appearance of this original Shakespearean theatre remains unknown because no plans have survived…the designs of Inigo Jones’s Whitehall theatre the Cockpit-in-Court, dating back to 1629, will be replicated instead.”
The most lavish 17th-century productions were not open to the public. King James I and later his son Charles I commissioned spectacular private performances called ‘masques’ which involved music, dance, opulent costumes and extraordinary scenery and special effects. They were performed once or twice at one of the royal palaces and were only seen by members of the court. Such lavish court entertainments were fashionable throughout Europe as an expression of princely power.
Masques were often used to celebrate royal occasions such as a wedding or birth. Design and visual symbols played an important role in masques which called for lavish costumes and sets. Nobles and royalty would take part, often playing gods or heroes while the other roles were played by professional actors.
Court entertainments were far more opulent than those of the public playhouses, but professional actors and writers crossed over between both. Masque-like elements began to be included in popular plays. There are masque scenes in Thomas Kyd’s 'The Spanish Tragedy’ and Shakespeare’s 'Cymbeline’ and 'The Tempest’. Ben Jonson wrote masques for the court as well as drama for the public playhouses.
Inigo Jones (1573–1652)
Inigo Jones introduced the proscenium arch and moveable scenery arranged in perspective into British theatre.
While travelling in France and Italy he had been impressed and inspired by the use of stage machinery and scenic invention. Under James I and Charles I he collaborated with the writer Ben Jonson on a series of masques and elaborate court productions that cost a fortune.
Inigo Jones’s scenery used a series of shutters that slid in and out using grooves in the floor. He even flew in scenery from above and introduced coloured lighting by placing candles behind tinted glass.
After a series of successful collaborations Ben Jonson and Inigo Jones quarrelled. Jonson accused Jones of ensuring that the scenic changes and transformations had more predominance in the masque than his poetry. Indeed 'The Masque of Oberon’ in 1611 cost over £2000 and the costumes alone cost over £1000. Jonson received £40 for writing the script.
Inigo Jones went on to design theatre buildings. In 1619 he transformed the Banqueting House at Whitehall into a theatre and in 1629 built the Cockpit at Court.
“Shakespeare includes a masque,” says [Greg] Doran. “They were the multimedia events of their day, using innovative technology from the Continent to produce astonishing effects, with moving lights, and stage machinery that could make people fly, and descend from the clouds. In one such masque, apparently, Oberon arrived in a chariot drawn by a live polar bear. So I wanted to see what would happen if the very latest technology could be applied to Shakespeare’s play today.”
Gold on the Ceiling: The Sparkling New Queen’s House in Greenwich
This year marks 400 years since building began on the Queen’s House in Greenwich, a former royal residence now located on the same site as the National Maritime Museum. This classically inspired masterpiece was initially designed by the architect Inigo Jones for Anne of Denmark, the wife of King James I. The Queen’s House reopened this summer after an extensive restoration, and I decided to stroll along yesterday afternoon to see what changes had been made to one of my favourite London locations.
Today is the birthday of prolific British architect Inigo Jones, born on this day in British history, 15 July 1573. Jones is known for his design of the Banqueting House, Whitehall, as well as the Queen’s House at Greenwich and Covent Garden square.
The Tulip Staircase inside Queen’s House in Greenwich, London
The Queen’s House, Greenwich, is a former royal residence built between 1616–1619 in Greenwich, then a few miles downriver from London, and now a district of the city. Its architect was Inigo Jones, for whom it was a crucial early commission, for Anne of Denmark, the queen of King James I of England. It was altered and completed by Jones, in a second campaign about 1635 for Henrietta Maria, queen of King Charles I. The Queen’s House is one of the most important buildings in British architectural history, being the first consciously classical building to have been constructed in Britain. It was Jones’s first major commission after returning from his 1613–1615 grand tour of Roman, Renaissance and Palladian architecture in Italy.