influenza viruses

anonymous asked:

I have a question about vaccines, well, more about viruses and diseases in general. I have a character that ends up getting trapped back in time (medieval times), and I was wondering how his body would react to being in a whole other time. Would the vaccines he would have gotten in our time as a child and such be of any help when it comes to his body’s immune system dealing with the new time? Or would have the viruses mutated and change so much over all that time that it’d be of no use to him?

Hey there nonny! 

So viruses play the evolutionary game known as “How much can I change each time I copy myself while still being able to copy myself more later?” Basically, they have adapted to a high rate of transcription errors to ensure that when they are copied, they have some form of variability. The cold and influenza viruses are massively good at this. It’s why you keep getting “the cold” over and over: it’s a different strain each time around. 

(There’s actually a drug that works by pushing the transcription error rate to be high enough that the RNA can’t reliably copy itself and the virus literally messes itself up to death. Science is Freaking Neat™ .) 

So viral diseases in general are going to be very different from the things they’ve had in the past, though particularly with bacteria, the “safer” / less murdery strains were around in the past, mostly because we put a lot of evolutionary pressure on bacteria with the (over-)use of antibiotics. 

It’s also… so Bubonic Plague? That thing that wiped out a third of Europe (and lots of other places too)? That’s curable with a good course of antibiotics. 

All of that said, your character has a major advantage over their medieval counterparts. 

They understand germ theory

Look at a medieval person, even a doctor, and tell them that diseases are caused by germs and bacteria and viruses and they will think you have six heads and need to be taken away. They didn’t have the optics power to see the microorganisms, so they didn’t know about them. 

Your character will do better than average simply by washing their hands as frequently as possible and washing their food, and trying to get water from as far up the river (ie before it’s been pooped in) as they can. 

Meanwhile, their neighbors will be convinced that disease is the result of the Evil Eye or of a “miasma” of evil. Doctors might diagnose an imbalance of the humors and bloodlet people. 

This is legitimately what smart people believed and were taught. And some day they’ll say “Holy cow, the 21st century Earthanoids believed and did what?!” in shock and disbelief. 

In any case. Their vaccines may protect them from some of the viruses going around at the time, but they also have the educational advantage that the locals don’t have. 

Best of luck with your story! 

xoxo, Aunt Scripty


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clevergal10  asked:

If someone injects 20 different virus strains into a dog with a weak immune system. What would it take for the dog to survive? If by a lucky chance, the virus strains only infect sea crabs?

If you inject 20 different virus strains that specifically only infect sea crabs, even with a weak immune system, it’s probably only going to have a mild to moderate inflammatory response.

Viruses vary in how virulent and adaptable they are. We encounter lots of them each day and they barely bother us. In part that’s because of functional immune systems, but the other half of the equation is the limited ability of lots of viruses to only be able to infect certain species, or certain tissues of certain species. You also need to be exposed to enough of a viral load to establish an infection.

A dog is very, very different from a crab. They’ve very far apart on the evolutionary tree, and I can’t think of any viruses off the top of my head that infects both invertebrates and vertebrates.

It’s relatively uncommon for a virus to be able to infect very different species. Rabies and influenza are probably the best examples of viruses that infect many, many species, and they’re huge human health problems. Rabies can basically infect any mammal, and influenza viruses can infect a wide range of hosts, including whales.

Pigs and bats are of particular concern because they can be infected by a broader range of viruses than average, and can recombine them, mixing DNA of two viruses to create a new one. Pigs are also referred to as viral amplifiers because they typically excrete far more than it takes to infect them.

Unfortunately, most viruses are treated with supportive care (occasionally specific antibodies) because we don’t have very many anti-viral medications available to us.

sushi-snek-deactivated20170801  asked:

So in a zombie apocalypse would animals be as to get infected it's never shown in shows and I want to stay similar to other media since it would be my first book, would they be able to be infected but not show symptoms? I'm pretty sure it depends on how the disease is spread but I'd like a second opinion from a professional. Also would it be more likely for an ape to contract an illness that mainly effects humans easier than other animals like dogs or cats?

This is a great question, I’m so glad somebody asked it. To answer it well, first I need to divide it into two halves:

  1. Would other species be infected by the zombie pathogen and not show symptoms?
  2. Which species are most likely to be affected by the zombie pathogen, in addition to humans?

And now we need to briefly discuss zoonotic and anthroponotic diseases.

For the quick and simple version, if a disease is zoonotic then it can be transmitted from an infected animal to a human. If a disease is anthroponotic then it can be transmitted from an infected human to an animal. A pathogen can be both zoonotic and anthroponotic.

Now, I don’t have a Zombification Pathogen in the real world, (ZP for short), but there are a few real life diseases that might serve as a potential model that you can build off. This is, of course, fiction. You make the rules, but there’s no reason you can’t look at a few similar things that already exist.

Rabies is the classic ZP model. It’s a virus, it’s spread by saliva in bites and it causes changes n behavior before death. It can infect any mammal, though some species (eg dogs) are more likely and more obvious than others (eg mice). This is partly because the animal must first survive the initial bite (let’s be honest, if pretty much anything chomps on a mouse, that squeaker is probably dead) and because rabies has variable symptoms.

For example, carnivores often present with ‘furious’ rabies, which shows increased aggression. Herbivores are more likely to present with ‘dumb’ rabies, which may present with fearlessness, but they’re less likely to be aggressive. It’s theorized that because the virus is spread by saliva, inducing its host to bite things is an advantage, but herbivores like deer are just not as inclined to be bitey as the classic dog. Interestingly, humans can present in either way.

Also interesting about rabies, is that birds and reptiles are not affected by it. Something in their physiology is too different to succumb to the virus. There is a similar virus, Bat Lyssavirus, in Australia. It looks just like rabies, except it rarely gets out of the bats.

Simian Herpes B Virus is an interesting zoonosis of monkeys, mostly macaques. It may cause absolutely no symptoms in the natural host at all, but it kills humans. Being a herpes virus, once a macaque has it, it has it forever, even if it looks perfected healthy.

Toxoplasma is another potential model for a ZP. It’s a protozoan parasite that matures in the intestines of cats, and does very little damage there. Its danger is that to get to the intestine of cats, it does damage in prey species to get there. Toxoplasma will cause cysts in muscle, eyes, brain and almost any other tissue. It will cause abortion in pregnant animals infected for the first time (including humans). In a relatively resistant species they may just seem vaguely unwell for a week or two (easier for a cat to catch and eat) but in a more sensitive species Toxoplasma can make the host very sick. Toxoplasma can also be a latent infection, just sitting there and not doing much in muscles, until the host becomes immunosuppressed and allows it to become a significant illness. It can also be transmitted from a mother cat to kittens in utero without apparent damage. Host species that have not co-evolved with cats (eg Australian Marsupials) often are worse affected than other species.

Interestingly, some studies suggest that mice and humans with Toxoplasma are less fearful of cats. This means you have a parasite that doesn’t always cause obvious symptoms, can have shedding hosts with no symptoms at a, capable of causing sporadic disease AND behavior changes in its host. There’s a lot of sci-fi potential there.

It’s also difficult to eradicate an infection from a patient, and humans usually get it from undercooked meat or unwashed vegetables.

Ophiocordyceps fungus of ant brains is another potential ZP with a little modification. Fungus gets into ant, causes changed in behavior resulting in death of ant in such a way that is convenient for the fungus. Wikipedia has a good write up on it, so follow the link if interested.

And if you want a potential ZP model that’s got an unusual transmission cycle that is difficult to figure out, take a peek at Histomonas meleagridis. That’s a protozoan parasite that does very little in most birds, but it’s transmitted within the egg of a second parasitic species, a type of worm, and if it happens to get into turkeys manifests as devastation and death. That’s two parasites teaming up on those poor birds.

So if we look at those few examples, you can see real diseases where some species show very subtle, mild symptoms, or no symptom at all, and others are devastated. It’s entirely plausible that your ZP infects multiple species, but affects some more than others.

Onto the second part of the question, which species in addition to humans are likely to be affected, there are three factors to consider:

  1. Biological SImilarity
  2. Environmental proximity
  3. Luck (I’m looking at you, pigs!)

Closely related species are more likely to share pathogens. It’s an evolution thing. Some pathogens are extremely host specific and can only survive on one species (eg lice), while others will affect whole groups of species (eg fleas).

So in a outbreak of a ZP, apes and monkeys are likely to also be affected. The closer the other species is on the evolutionary tree, the more likely they are to also catch the disease, but their symptoms may be different.

Environmental proximity is most cases will be the more important factor in determining whether your ZP affects species other than humans. If there’s no monkeys around, they’re simply not there to get infected. It’s simple probability. The more times infected humans encounter another species, the more likely they are to be infected.

Species that live in proximity with us in greater numbers (dogs, cats, rats, poultry) are more at risk. Particularly dogs and cats, which lick us and often sleep in our beds. We often share their fleas. Depending on how your ZP works, that might be a significant problem.

Luck is the unpredictable factor, and it often comes down to pigs and bats. For some reason, pigs and bats are vulnerable to a whole host of viruses that you wouldn’t normally expect them to be, and they can transmit them. Bats are a big problem because they fly everywhere and poop all over the place. Pigs are interesting because they often excrete vastly larger numbers of viral particles than it took to infect them in the first place. They are sometimes referred to as ‘viral replicators’ for this reason. They also can be infected with viruses (influenza being a classic) from different species and recombine them, introducing a virus from one species and mixing it to allow infection of another. Pigs are often kept in proximity to the home in developing nations, and eat our food scraps. We then put their dung back onto our food to fertilize it. Plenty of opportunity for an infection cycle there.

But any species may be the just unlucky one that is vulnerable to the ZP.

I hope this has given you enough fuel to inspire your writing

Requested by @pokecrettes

The human body temperatures is, on average, 98.6 degrees Fahrenheit (or 37 degrees Celsius). Many animals have different ranges. Goats, for example, have a normal range about 102 degrees Fahrenheit (40° C) while some lizards are best as low as 75 degrees fahrenheit (24° C). Some lava pokémon, such as Magcargo or today’s Heatran, have a body temperature significantly higher than that.

Heatran, for example, is a fire-steel type. According the the pokédex, it is made of rugged steel, but is partially melted in spots because of its own body heat. Steel is a combination of iron and other metals, usually carbon. By mixing iron with other metals, steel forms a stronger, more resistant, less corrosive material. It depends on the mixture, but steel typically melts around 1370 degrees Celsius (2500° F). However, steel will start to deform or “soften” at 538 degrees Celsius (1,000° F). This means that if Heatran’s steel is deformed because of its heat, its body temperature must be at least 1000°F.

Fresh lava, for comparison, has a temperature between 1,300° F and 2,200° F. So, Heatran’s body temperature is nearly the same as its environment, since it dwells in volcanic caves. Besides needing to survive its environment, why is Heatran so hot?

For humans, it turns out 98.6° F is a perfect balance. It’s hot enough that most fungus can’t live and thrive in our body, but cool enough that it doesn’t take too much energy to upkeep the temperature. Our metabolism, which includes the process of turning food into energy, is more or less efficient depending on an animal’s body temperature. 

Here’s a graph comparing the metabolism of two animals, a mouse and a lizard. Different body temperatures are on the horizontal axis, and energy outputs are on the vertical axis. The mouse, a mammal like us, has a metabolism that works the best at around 38 degrees Celsius. A lizard, on the other hand (a cold-blooded animal), puts out less energy over all, but is efficient at a much wider range of body temperatures. A lizard could be 20° C or 30° C and not suffer much difference in energy output. A mouse on the other hand has a fairly small window.

An animal’s body temperature is all about determining that balance between health and metabolism. The fact that Heatran’s body temperature is so high may tell us a few things. Most bacteria, for example, can’t even survive at temperatures higher than 50° C (122° F). A little higher than that, about 75° C (167° F), is enough to kill most viruses like influenza. Even for the crazy thermophile bacteria that live in hot environments like ocean vents, the “world record” is 113° C (235° F). Heatran’s body temperature is at least 5 times that. Its hot body temperature means that Heatran doesn’t even need an immune system. Its body is way too hot to support most life, including the good bacteria humans have naturally that help us digest food. 

In fact, temperatures as hot as Heatran kill most life of any kind. Heatran must have some weird systems to be most efficient in those temperatures. Not to mention that he is made out of steel.

Heatran’s body temperature is around 1000°F (538° C). Heatran’s metabolism is most efficient at higher temperatures, and it does not need an immune system because the heat kills any fungus, bacteria, or virus that may want to infect Heatran.

Another part of Heatran’s entry tells us that it is capable of climbing on ceilings and walls. Insects, frogs, spiders and geckos are all known to be able to cling to smooth surfaces and walk on walls or upside down like Heatran. The secret is their feet are covered in hundreds of tiny hairs called setae.

These tiny hairs grip to small irregularities on surfaces, such as pores, small holes, or ridges. These hairs are tiny enough that when gripping into regularities like this, their molecules will interact and a small electromagnetic force called the van der Waals force kicks in. Each hair is capable of creating a force of about 6 picoNewtons, and it takes about 20.1 Newtons to keep the gecko from falling off of the wall.

Heatran weighs a bit more than your standard gecko though, at 430.0 kg (948 lbs). The pokédex tells us that Heatran digs into walls with it’s cross-shaped feet. Perhaps its feet have thousands of tiny setae like a gecko’s, or perhaps it uses its heat to its advantage. Heatran is hot enough that it could melt into the walls with its feet, making itself adhesive that way.

7 Powerful Herbs to Get You Through the Flu Season

By Amy Goodrich via The Huffington Post

As we enter the colder season of the year, chances are many of us will get a cold or the flu. Luckily there are many inexpensive herbs that can help prevent or soothe the symptoms. They raise immunity and soothe any discomfort caused by one of the highly contagious influenza viruses out there.

Here are 7 powerful and inexpensive natural flu remedies to start building up your defenses to avoid repeated illness during these colder months.

1.    Thyme

Thyme works as an excellent expectorant to clear out your sinuses and lungs when a common cold or the flu hits. So make sure to keep thyme essential oil or dried thyme at hand in case you fall ill. To loosen mucus in your chest or sinuses, steep 2 teaspoons thyme in a cup of boiling water for 10 minutes. Drink as needed during the day until symptoms disappear. Or make a steam bath with dried thyme or thyme essential oil to help loosen mucus.

2.    Licorice Root

Licorice root has strong antiviral properties that can fight off the flu or common cold. You could opt for licorice tea or supplements, but make sure to buy the real, organic thing. Most commercially available licorice products don’t even contain licorice but anise seed, which has a similar taste. Be careful if you take medicine, licorice can interfere with some of them.

3.    Garlic

Garlic is one of the best immune booster out there. People who often include garlic in their diet are better in warding off viruses that cause the flu or common cold. If you can bear the taste chew on one clove of garlic once a day to keep the flu and cold away. If this is too much for you, mince the garlic and mix it with honey or add it in abundance to your daily dishes.

Keep reading

Conrad Knickerbocker, Interview: William S. Burroughs, 35 The Paris Review (1965)
  • Interviewer: When and why did you start to write?
  • William S. Burroughs: I started to write in about 1950; I was thirty-five at the time; there didn't seem to be any strong motivation. I simply was endeavoring to put down in a more or less straightforward journalistic style something about my experiences with addiction and addicts.
  • Interviewer: Why did you start taking drugs?
  • William S. Burroughs: Well, I was just bored. I didn't seem to have much interest in becoming a successful advertising executive or whatever, or living the kind of life Harvard designs for you. After I became addicted in New York in 1944, things began to happen. I got in some trouble with the law, got married, moved to New Orleans, and then went to Mexico.
  • Interviewer: There seems to be a great deal of middle-class voyeurism in this country concerning addiction, and in the literary world, downright reverence for the addict. You apparently don't share these points of view.
  • William S. Burroughs: No, most of it is nonsense. I think drugs are interesting principally as chemical means of altering metabolism and thereby altering what we call reality, which I would define as a more or less constant scanning pattern.
  • Interviewer: What do you think of the hallucinogens and the new psychedelic drugs—LSD-25?
  • William S. Burroughs: I think they're extremely dangerous, much more dangerous than heroin. They can produce overwhelming anxiety states. I've seen people try to throw themselves out of windows; whereas the heroin addict is mainly interested in staring at his own toe. Other than deprivation of the drug, the main threat to him is an overdose. I've tried most of the hallucinogens without an anxiety reaction, fortunately. LSD-25 produced results for me similar to mescaline. Like all hallucinogens, LSD gave me an increased awareness, more a hallucinated viewpoint than any actual hallucination. You might look at a doorknob and it will appear to revolve, although you are conscious that this is the result of the drug. Also, van Goghish colors, with all those swirls, and the crackle of the universe.
  • Interviewer: Have you read Henri Michaux's book on mescaline?
  • William S. Burroughs: His idea was to go into his room and close the door and hold in the experiences. I had my most interesting experiences with mescaline when I got outdoors and walked around—colors, sunsets, gardens. It produces a terrible hangover, though, nasty stuff. It makes one ill and interferes with coordination. I've had all the interesting effects I need, and I don't want any repetition of those extremely unpleasant physical reactions.
  • Interviewer: The visions of drugs and the visions of art don't mix?
  • William S. Burroughs: Never. The hallucinogens produce visionary states, sort of, but morphine and its derivatives decrease awareness of inner processes, thoughts, and feelings. They are painkillers, pure and simple. They are absolutely contraindicated for creative work, and I include in the lot alcohol, morphine, barbiturates, tranquilizers—the whole spectrum of sedative drugs. As for visions and heroin, I had a hallucinatory period at the very beginning of addiction, for instance, a sense of moving at high speed through space. But as soon as addiction was established, I had no visions—vision—at all and very few dreams.
  • Interviewer: Why did you stop taking drugs?
  • William S. Burroughs: I was living in Tangier in 1957, and I had spent a month in a tiny room in the Casbah staring at the toe of my foot. The room had filled up with empty Eukodol cartons; I suddenly realized I was not doing anything. I was dying. I was just apt to be finished. So I flew to London and turned myself over to Dr. John Yerbury Dent for treatment. I'd heard of his success with the apomorphine treatment. Apomorphine is simply morphine boiled in hydrochloric acid; it's nonaddictive. What the apomorphine did was to regulate my metabolism. It's a metabolic regulator. It cured me physiologically. I'd already taken the cure once at Lexington, and although I was off drugs when I got out, there was a physiological residue. Apomorphine eliminated that. I've been trying to get people in this country interested in it, but without much luck. The vast majority—social workers, doctors—have the cop's mentality toward addiction. A probation officer in California wrote me recently to inquire about the apomorphine treatment. I'll answer him at length. I always answer letters like that.
  • Interviewer: Have you had any relapses?
  • William S. Burroughs: Yes, a couple. Short. Both were straightened out with apomorphine, and now heroin is no temptation for me. I'm just not interested. I've seen a lot of it around. I know people who are addicts. I don't have to use any willpower. Dr. Dent always said there is no such thing as willpower. You've got to reach a state of mind in which you don't want it or need it.
  • Interviewer: You regard addiction as an illness but also a central human fact, a drama?
  • William S. Burroughs: Both, absolutely. It's as simple as the way in which anyone happens to become an alcoholic. They start drinking, that's all. They like it, and they drink, and then they become alcoholic. I was exposed to heroin in New York—that is, I was going around with people who were using it; I took it; the effects were pleasant. I went on using it and became addicted. Remember that if it can be readily obtained, you will have any number of addicts. The idea that addiction is somehow a psychological illness is, I think, totally ridiculous. It's as psychological as malaria. It's a matter of exposure. People, generally speaking, will take any intoxicant or any drug that gives them a pleasant effect if it is available to them. In Iran, for instance, opium was sold in shops until quite recently, and they had three million addicts in a population of twenty million. There are also all forms of spiritual addiction. Anything that can be done chemically can be done in other ways, that is, if we have sufficient knowledge of the processes involved. Many policemen and narcotics agents are precisely addicted to power, to exercising a certain nasty kind of power over people who are helpless. The nasty sort of power-- white junk, I call it—rightness; they're right, right, right—and if they lost that power, they would suffer excruciating withdrawal symptoms. The picture we get of the whole Russian bureaucracy, people who are exclusively preoccupied with power and advantage, this must be an addiction. Suppose they lose it? Well, it's been their whole life.
  • Interviewer: Can you amplify your idea of junk as image?
  • William S. Burroughs: It's only a theory and, I feel, an inadequate one. I don't think anyone really understands what a narcotic is or how it works, how it kills pain. My idea is sort of a stab in the dark. As I see it, what has been damaged in pain is, of course, the image, and morphine must in some sense replace this. We know it blankets the cells and that addicts are practically immune to certain viruses, to influenza and respiratory complaints. This is simple because the influenza virus has to make a hole in the cell receptors. When those are covered, as they are in morphine addiction, the virus can't get in. As soon as morphine is withdrawn, addicts will immediately come down with colds and often with influenza.
  • Interviewer: Certain schizophrenics also resist respiratory disease.
  • William S. Burroughs: A long time ago I suggested there were similarities in terminal addiction and terminal schizophrenia. That was why I made the suggestion that they addict these people to heroin, then withdraw it and see if they could be motivated; in other words, find out whether they'd walk across the room and pick up a syringe. Needless to say, I didn't get very far, but I think it would be interesting.
  • Interviewer: Narcotics, then, disturb normal perception—
  • William S. Burroughs: And set up instead a random craving for images. If drugs weren't forbidden in America, they would be the perfect middle-class vice. Addicts would do their work and come home to consume the huge dose of images awaiting them in the mass media. Junkies love to look at television. Billie Holiday said she knew she was going off drugs when she didn't like to watch TV. Or they'll sit and read a newspaper or magazine, and by God, read it all. I knew this old junkie in New York, and he'd go out and get a lot of newspapers and magazines and some candy bars and several packages of cigarettes and then he'd sit in his room and he'd read those newspapers and magazines right straight through. Indiscriminately. Every word.
  • Interviewer: Marshall McLuhan said that you believed heroin was needed to turn the human body into an environment that includes the universe. But from what you've told me, you're not at all interested in turning the body into an environment.
  • William S. Burroughs: No, junk narrows consciousness. The only benefit to me as a writer (aside from putting me into contact with the whole carny world) came to me after I went off it. What I want to do is to learn to see more of what's out there, to look outside, to achieve as far as possible a complete awareness of surroundings. Beckett wants to go inward. First he was in a bottle and now he is in the mud. I am aimed in the other direction—outward.
  • Interviewer: Mary McCarthy has commented on the carnival origins of your characters in Naked Lunch. What are their other derivations?
  • William S. Burroughs: The carny world was the one I exactly intended to create—a kind of midwestern, small-town, cracker-barrel, pratfall type of folklore, very much my own background. That world was an integral part of America and existed nowhere else, at least not in the same form. My family was southern on my mother's side. My grandfather was a circuit-riding Methodist minister with thirteen children. Most of them went up to New York and became quite successful in advertising and public relations. One of them, an uncle, was a master image maker, Ivy Lee, Rockefeller's publicity manager.
  • Interviewer: Earlier you mentioned that if junk had done nothing else, it at least put you in contact with the carny world.
  • William S. Burroughs: Yes, the underworld, the old-time thieves, pickpockets, and people like that. They're a dying race; very few of those old-timers left. Yeah, well, they were show business.
  • Interviewer: What's the difference between the modern junkie versus the 1944 junkie?
  • William S. Burroughs: For one thing, all these young addicts; that was quite unknown in 1944. Most of the ones I knew were middle-aged men or old. I knew some of the old-time pickpockets and sneak thieves and shortchange artists. They had something called The Bill, a shortchange deal. I've never been able to figure out how it works. One man I knew beat all the cashiers in Grand Central with this thing. It starts with a twenty-dollar bill. You give them a twenty-dollar bill and then when you get the change you say, “Well, wait a minute, I must have been dreaming, I've got the change after all.” First thing you know, the cashier's short ten dollars. One day this shortchange artist went to Grand Central, even though he knew it was burned down, but he wanted to change twenty dollars. Well, a guy got on the buzzer and they arrested him. When they got up in court and tried to explain what had happened, none of them could do it. I keep stories like this in my files.
  • Interviewer: Do you think of the artist at all as being a con man?
  • William S. Burroughs: In a sense. You see, a real con man is a creator. He creates a set. No, a con man is more a movie director than a writer. The Yellow Kid created a whole set, a whole cast of characters, a whole brokerage house, a whole bank. It was just like a movie studio.
  • Interviewer: What about addicts?
  • William S. Burroughs: Well, there will be a lot of morphine addiction. Remember that there were a great many addicts at that time. Jesse James was an addict. He started using morphine for a wound in his lung, and I don't know whether he was permanently addicted, but he tried to kill himself. He took sixteen grains of morphine and it didn't kill him, which indicates a terrific tolerance. So he must have been fairly heavily addicted. A dumb, brutal hick; that's what he was, like Dillinger. And there were so many genteel old ladies who didn't feel right unless they had their Dr. Jones mixture every day.
  • Interviewer: What other character types interest you?
  • William S. Burroughs: Not the people in advertising and television, nor the American postman or middle-class housewife; not the young man setting forth. The whole world of high finance interests me, the men such as Rockefeller who were specialized types of organisms that could exist in a certain environment. He was really a moneymaking machine, but I doubt that he could have made a dime today because he required the old laissez-faire capitalism. He was a specialized monopolistic organism. My uncle Ivy created images for him. I fail to understand why people like J. Paul Getty have to come on with such a stuffy, uninteresting image. He decides to write his life history. I've never read anything so dull, so absolutely devoid of any spark. Well, after all, he was quite a playboy in his youth. There must have been something going on. None of it's in the book. Here he is, the only man of enormous wealth who operates alone, but there's nobody to present the image. Well, yes, I wouldn't mind doing that sort of job myself. I'd like to take somebody like Getty and try to find an image for him that would be of some interest. If Getty wants to build an image, why doesn't he hire a first-class writer to write his story? For that matter, advertising has a long way to go. I'd like to see a story by Norman Mailer or John O'Hara which just makes some mention of a product, say, Southern Comfort. I can see the O'Hara story. It would be about someone who went into a bar and asked for Southern Comfort; they didn't have it, and he gets into a long, stupid argument with the bartender. It shouldn't be obtrusive; the story must be interesting in itself so that people read this just as they read any story in Playboy, and Southern Comfort would be guaranteed that people will look at that advertisement for a certain number of minutes. You see what I mean? They'll read the story. Now, there are many other ideas; you could have serialized comic strips, serial stories. Well, all we have to do is have James Bond smoking a certain brand of cigarettes.
  • Interviewer: In some respects, Nova Express seems to be a prescription for social ailments. Do you see the need, for instance, of biologic courts in the future?
  • William S. Burroughs: Certainly. Science eventually will be forced to establish courts of biologic mediation, because life-forms are going to become more incompatible with the conditions of existence as man penetrates further into space. Mankind will have to undergo biologic alterations ultimately, if we are to survive at all. This will require biologic law to decide what changes to make. We will simply have to use our intelligence to plan mutations, rather than letting them occur at random. Because many such mutations—look at the saber-toothed tiger—are bound to be very poor engineering designs. The future, decidedly, yes. I think there are innumerable possibilities, literally innumerable. The hope lies in the development of nonbody experience and eventually getting away from the body itself, away from three-dimensional coordinates and concomitant animal reactions of fear and flight, which lead inevitably to tribal feuds and dissension.
  • Interviewer: You see hope for the human race, but at the same time you are alarmed as the instruments of control become more sophisticated.
  • William S. Burroughs: Well, whereas they become more sophisticated they also become more vulnerable. Time, Life, Fortune applies a more complex, effective control system than the Mayan calendar, but it also is much more vulnerable because it is so vast and mechanized. Not even Henry Luce understands what's going on in the system now. Well, a machine can be redirected. One technical sergeant can fuck up the whole works. Nobody can control the whole operation. It's too complex. The captain comes in and says, “All right, boys, we're moving up.” Now, who knows what buttons to push? Who knows how to get the cases of Spam up to where they're going, and how to fill out the forms? The sergeant does. The captain doesn't know. As long as there're sergeants around, the machine can be dismantled, and we may get out of all this alive yet.
  • Interviewer: Sex seems equated with death frequently in your work.
  • William S. Burroughs: That is an extension of the idea of sex as a biologic weapon. I feel that sex, like practically every other human manifestation, has been degraded for control purposes, or really for antihuman purposes. This whole Puritanism. How are we ever going to find out anything about sex scientifically, when a priori the subject cannot even be investigated? It can't even be thought about or written about. That was one of the interesting things about Reich. He was one of the few people who ever tried to investigate sex—sexual phenomena, from a scientific point of view. There's this prurience and this fear of sex. We know nothing about sex. What is it? Why is it pleasurable? What is pleasure? Relief from tension? Well, possibly.
  • Interviewer: Mary McCarthy has characterized you as a soured utopian. Is that accurate?
  • William S. Burroughs: I do definitely mean what I say to be taken literally, yes, to make people aware of the true criminality of our times, to wise up the marks. All of my work is directed against those who are bent, through stupidity or design, on blowing up the planet or rendering it uninhabitable. Like the advertising people we talked about, I'm concerned with the precise manipulation of word and image to create an action, not to go out and buy a Coca-Cola, but to create an alteration in the reader's consciousness. You know, they ask me if I were on a desert island and knew nobody would ever see what I wrote, would I go on writing. My answer is most emphatically yes. I would go on writing for company. Because I'm creating an imaginary—it's always imaginary—world in which I would like to live.