influenza a virus

Dr. Castiel

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Title: Dr. Castiel

Pairing: Castiel x Reader

Word Count: 748

Warnings: Fluff

A/N: This wasn’t requested, but I thought this would be a cute thing to write for all of you <3 <3 Feedback is welcomed and appreciated! I love you all so much!! <3 <3

With Sam and Dean gone on a hunt on the East Coast, Castiel was left with you.  Unfortunately, you were sick.  Castiel wasn’t familiar with the flu, but he was sure it wasn’t life threatening to you.  He made sure to watch you carefully.  

Castiel padded to the kitchen after reading articles on your laptop about the virus.  He was going to make you some toast to test your stomach.  That was one thing the angel could do without setting the bunker on fire.  

Once he prepared the toast, he walked back to your room.  Castiel poked his head into your room, seeing if you were awake.  He learned that humans rested more when they were ill.  You were no exception.  Netflix was streaming on your tv, but you hadn’t moved.  Castiel took it upon himself to enter your room.  He set your toast down on the nightstand nearest to you.  

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#Influenza can have a serious impact on #patients with a chronic condition. Ever wondered how your flu vaccine is made? Look no further. #vaccineswork

Black Cross of Butler County

In 1918,  Winfield Township, PA was overrun with the Spanish Influenza. The virus killed hundreds of workers who had recently immigrated from various European countries. 

Since they were recent immigrants, most of the workers were without family or church to properly bury them. They needed to be buried quickly to avoid the spread of the disease, so they were put into a mass grave. Father O’Callahan from the St. John’s Church in Coylesville became upset at the fact these victims were not given a proper funeral, and performed Catholic burial rights. He commissioned a large grave marker in the form of a cross made out of railroad ties.  The Black Cross, as it came to be known, lasted until 2002 when it was replaced by a proper memorial in a well-attended ceremony. Visitors to the grave site claim to hear babies crying, and many claim the trees feel like they’re reaching out to grab them. Some claim that you can hear the dead speaking Italian from under the ground. 

Breakthrough Opens Door to Lifelong, Universal Flu Vaccine

A universal vaccine is on the horizon that could stem influenza’s deadly human toll regardless of what strain of the virus happens to be circulating each year. The breakthrough is being reported today in two influential science journals by a pair of international research teams in the U.S., Japan and Europe.

“The ultimate goal of influenza vaccinology is the development of a universal vaccine that protects against a wide range of strains and subtypes, thereby eliminating the need for seasonal reformulation of vaccines and providing an effective defense against viruses with pandemic potential,” write the authors of one of the studies that appears today in the journal Science

To produce proof-of-concept immunizations, the researchers focused on hemagglutinin (HA), one of the proteins that stud the surface of influenza particles. This protein acts like a grasper that allows influenza to latch onto a host’s cells, like the red blood cells moving through the upper respiratory tract of vertebrates. One part of this protein is the same throughout a range of influenza types, which makes it a promising target for a universal vaccine. 

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CDC Announces Discovery of New Deadly Virus

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)announced Friday they have discovered a new virus that killed an otherwisehealthy man last year in the United States. The agency published the announcement in its Emerging Infectious Diseases journal.

 CDC officials reported the Kansas man had tick bites. After becoming ill, the man was given medication for tick-borne illnesses. When his condition didn’t improve, his blood samples were sent to the CDC. The agency determined the man was infected with an unknown virus. CDC officials eventually linked it to the Thogotovirus group and named it the Bourbon virus. The man quickly developed multiple organ failure and died 11 days after developing symptoms.

CDC officials said they’re working with Kansas health officials to determine if other people are infected with Bourbon virus. They are also researching to better understand the virus and how it is spread.

This is the first time such a virus has caused human illness in the United States. It’s only the eighth time a Thogotovirus has caused symptoms in a person worldwide.  Viruses in this group have been linked to ticks and mosquitoes in Europe, Asia, and Africa.

Thogotovirus is a member of the Orthomyxovirus family, the same family as influenza virus. Like influenza virus it has a genome of six single-strands of RNA.  Most viruses have a genome with a single strand of either DNA or RNA.  Unlike influenza virus which is passed from human to human, the thogotovirus is transmitted by ticks.


I got my flu vaccine on Monday and OMG it still hurts! This year’s injection is brutal. I haven’t had a reaction like this in years.

Having said that, unless your religion strictly forbids the vaccine or you are allergic, or cannot tolerate vaccines because you are immuno-compromised, PLEASE GET THE FLU SHOT.

Not only will your reaction to the flu vaccine hurt much less than actually getting the influenza respiratory virus (not a stomach bug, people) but if you get vaccinated you have the opportunity to save another person’s life.

How so? Well, if you get vaccinated and it works and you don’t get the flu then that means that you don’t GIVE the flu. You won’t be spreading a potentially fatal illness on to someone who cannot be vaccinated and who is at risk.

You won’t be causing illness on newborns, pregnant people, people undergoing chemotherapy treatment, people who are highly allergic to eggs, people with severe asthma, etc.,.

Even if you don’t care if you get the flu, care about the other people please. 🙏

I know someone who died from the flu last season. It’s serious. I also know someone who got the swine flu (h1n1) and was hospitalized when that was going around.

The vaccine can cause unpleasant symptoms but it’s nothing compared to the real influenza. Be good to others if you can. ♥️ If you can’t afford the vaccine please dm me and I’ll figure out how to get you your injection! Even if I need to call up a nun and beg her for a donation! (😂)

Kisses! 😘✨

anonymous asked:

Hello! Hope you're having a good day! I got an idea from a Hiro x reader a few days ago, it's more of a fluff story than anything else lol but where the reader catches a virus and it only lasts for three days but she has horrible spouts of vomiting, etc. and Hiro goes put of his way to take care of her and goes crazy with ways to 'cure her' lol I got the idea when I caught a virus a couple days ago and watched big hero six a few days later ^^; well anyways love your oneshots! :) *hugs*

Here you go!  Hope you’re feeling better now! (:

Hiro frowns when he steps out of his personal lab space and sees that the room across the hall is still locked up and the lights are off.  It’s almost 9:00 in the morning, and you still haven’t shown up.  He goes out to the main area to see if you’re just hanging out with everyone over there.  As he walks around, he can see everyone working diligently on their projects, but there’s still no sign of you.

Hiro walks up to Honey Lemon and Wasabi who are both discussing something near Wasabi’s tool set. “Hey, have you guys seen (Name) at all, today?” he asks.

They pause their conversation and shake their heads.  “No, actually.  She’s not in her lab?” Honey Lemon asks.

Hiro shakes his head, “No, I’ve checked several times.  It’s not like her to show up this late, though.”

“Maybe you should call her, to check if everything is okay,” Wasabi suggests.

Hiro nods in agreement and begins to walk back to his lab, pulling out his phone and calling you along the way.

“Hiro?” he winces at the sound of your hoarse voice.

“(Name)? Are you okay? Did I wake you up?”

He hears you groan, “No, I was already awake.  I’ve been throwing up all morning and I feel horrible.”

Hiro feels his heart rate pick up as his concern for you grows, “You’re sick? Do you have a fever?”

“I don’t know.  My head is super fuzzy.  But the cold floor feels really good.”

“The floor?  Why are you on the floor?”

You let out a small whimper, “My bed was too hot.”  Hiro’s heart clenches at how vulnerable you sound.

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Dad Jokes
Series: Tales of Symphonia 
Characters: Lloyd, Kratos

Lloyd and the others seemed to always have so much energy, Kratos found himself bringing up the rear of the group most of the time. He didn’t mind so much; it gave him the chance to hear what they were talking about. Most of it was childish drivel- well, most of them were children, after all. But one subject that Lloyd constantly brought up drew Kratos’ attention more than he thought it should have.

“…and so Dad says, the elf throws the beer away, the human waves the fly off and drinks the beer, and the dwarf picks up the fly and yells, ‘spit it out, you dirty thief!” 

Lloyd’s tale was followed by a mix of laughter and groaning. Kratos could hear Colette saying something like “Oh, Lloyd, your dad is always so funny!” and Raine commenting that “Dirk certainly likes to tell dwarf jokes, doesn’t he?” and Lloyd proudly exclaiming “I love my dad!”

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Penyakit Yang di Anggap Ringan, Padahal Mematikan !

Seringkali kita menganggap remeh penyakit yang ada di sekitar kita. Tanpa kita sadari penyakit tersebut dapat merenggut nyawa orang-orang disekitar kita, atau bahkan kita sendiri. Apa saja penyakit itu ? berikut beberapa penyakit sederhana yang dapat menyebabkan kematian.

1. Mendengkur (Ngorok)
Kebiasaan tidur mendengkur yang dianggap biasa oleh semua orang itu ternyata dapat menyebabkan resiko kematian. Menurut Dokter Andreas A.Prasadja dari Sleep Disorder Clinic – RS. Mitra Kemayoran, resiko itu bermula dari masalah gangguan tidur yang bernama Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA). Andreas menyebutkan gangguan OSA ini terjadinya penyempitan saluran pernafasa atas saat tidur. Penyempitan ini menyebabkan tidak efektifnya pertukaran antara oksigen dengan karbondioksida pada saat tidur. Akibatnya di pagi hari si penderita merasa tidak segar dan masih kurang istirahat. Tidak jarang ia juga mengeluhkan sakit kepala di pagi hari. Sedangkan pada siang hari karena banyaknya aktifitas mungkin ia tidak merasakan kantuk, tetapi di saat meeting atau sedang mengendarai rasa kantuk yang tak tertahankan bisa menyerang setiap saat. Akibatnya, Kemampuan konsentrasi dan daya ingat menurun, dan nyawa pun banyak yang melayang karena kecelakaan lalu lintas yang diakibatkan oleh rasa kantuk dan berkurangnya reflex untuk menghindar.

2. Gigi Berlubang
Sakit gigi sering dianggap sebagai penyakit yang sepele, terutama bagi orang yang belum pernah mengalaminya. Namun akibat yang ditimbulkan sakit gigi dapat mengganggu aktifitas sehari-hari dan bahkan sangat berbahaya karena bisa menyebabkan kematian. Pasalnya apabila gigi tersebut tidak dirawat Maka gigi yang berlubang dapat menjadi jalan yang cukup besar bagi bakteri untuk dapat masuk ke dalam tubuh. Masalah utama yang menyebabkan sakit gigi adalah lubang pada gigi yang dimasuki oleh bakteri. Infeksi yang terjadi pada gusi dan akar gigi dapat menjalar ke berbagai organ vital, dan bisa menyebabkan berbagai gangguan kesehatan.
Apabila daya tahan tubuh kita sedang lemah, maka infeksi bakteri akan semakin hebat. Bila tidak segera diobati, infeksi akan menyebar ke daerah di sekitar mulut seperti leher dan pipi. Kondisi ini bisa di katakan cukup serius, dan mengharuskan si penderita untuk melakukan operasi pada daerah yang terinfeksi untuk mengeluarkan nanahnya. Bila kondisinya cukup parah, ada resiko terjadinya kematian jika kondisi pasien sangat lemah, disertai komplikasi penyakit lain ataupun perawatan yang kurang intensif.

3. Maag
Penyakit yang sering dianggap sepele oleh sebagian penderitanya, namun sangat berbahaya. jika penyakit ini sudah terlalu parah, bisa menyebabkan Penyakit baru, yaitu gejala Thypus. Bahkan kematian ! Penyebab dari penyakit maag yaitu, pola makan yang tidak teratur atau sering terlambat makan sehingga menimbulkan luka pada lambung yang diakibatkan oleh aktifitas lambung pada saat perut sedang kosong. Kebiasaan buruk ini sering dilakukan oleh banyak orang dengan alasan sibuk dan lain-lain. Penyebab lainnya dari penyakit maag, yaitu stress dan kurang istirahat, kurangnya istirahat bisa menyebabkan turunnya nafsu makan dan dapat menimbulkan maag.
Gejala-gejala dari penyakit maag yaitu: perut kembung, perut akan terasa penuh walaupun perut penderita sedang kosong. mual dan rasa ingin muntah pada saat makan, rasa perih pada perut dan ulu hati, merasa lapar namun tidak nafsu makan, sering bersendawa, sendawa tersebut disebabkan karna asam lambung yg tinggi.
Cara mengatasi maag dengan cepat saat sedang kambuh, yaitu dengan meminum obat yang mengandung Hydrotalcite, Magnesium hidroksia, dan Simethicone yg biasa dijual di apotik dan toko obat. Dan bagi anda yg tidak biasa meminum obat generik, terdapat juga obat tradisional/alami untuk mencegah dan mengobati maag yaitu dengan memakan Singkong Madu mentah 1 potong setiap hari sebelum makan. Selain obat-obat di atas, kita juga bisa mencegah kambuhnya penyakit maag dengan menghindari makanan pedas, asam, makanan yg mengandung santan, serta makanan yg susah di cerna oleh lambung karena membuat luka di lambung semakin parah. Dan juga menghindari minuman yg menyebabkan asam lambung naik, seperti kopi dan minuman soda.

4. Sariawan
Jangan pernah sepelekan sariawan. Apalagi, jika sariawan itu selalu muncul dalam jangka waktu 6 bulan hingga 1 tahun. sering menderita sariawan ternyata merupakan indikasi utama terjadinya penyakit pemfigus vulgaris. penyakit ini tidak bisa disembuhkan, dan akan diidap penderita hingga akhir hayatnya. Bahkan, 50 persen penderita akan meninggal dalam waktu 12 bulan jika tidak segera diberikan pertolongan. Penyakit ini tidak menular, mereka yang beresiko terkena penyakit pemfigus vulgaris rata-rata berusia antara 50 sampai 60 tahun. Dan merupakan keturunan dari bangsa Yahudi, Indian atau Mediteranian.

5. Demam
Demam merupakan penyakit yang sering dialami setiap orang dan biasanya demam terjadi akibat adanya infeksi pada tubuh manusia, penyakit demam yang bisa menyebabkan kematian adalah demam berdarah, yaitu demam yang disebabkan oleh virus dengue. Virus dengue dapat masuk ke dalam tubuh melalui gigitan nyamuk Aedes Aegypti. Gejala yang akan timbul biasanya demam tinggi mencapai 39-40 derajat celcius dan timbul secara mendadak, disertai keringat yang cukup banyak dan tubuh tampak loyo, nyeri di seluruh tubuh, pendarahan yang tampak dari luar maupun dari dalam. Bila sudah terlihat tanda-tanda seperti di atas, ada baiknya si penderita langsung dibawa ke rumah sakit. Kalau tidak maka akan menyebabkan kematian.

6. Keracunan makanan
Saat ini kita sering mendengar banyak anak-anak atau bahkan orang dewasa yang keracunan makanan. Hal ini bisa terjadi karena pengolahan makanan yang tidak sempurna, adanya zat beracun yang terkandung di dalam makanan namun kita tidak mengetahuinya. Hal ini disebabkan adanya persaingan yang tidak sehat diantara para penjual makanan dengan tujuan untuk menghancurkan usaha si lawan agar tidak laku. Atau hanya sedekar mencari keuntungan yang lebih banyak dengan cara jalan pintas. tanda-tanda keracunan makanan adalan perut akan terasa mual dan diare biasanya ini akan sembuh sendiri. Namun banyak juga akibat keracunan makanan yang berujung maut, karena penanganan yang buruk

7. Influenza
Influenza atau yang lebih dikenal dengan sebutan flu, merupakan penyakit yang bisa menular yang di sebabkan oleh Virus RNA dari familia Orthomyxoviriade (virus influenza). Gejala yang di timbulkan dari penyakit ini adalah badan menggigil, sakit di bagian kepala, sakit tenggorokan, nyeri otot, batuk, demam dan rasa tidak nyaman di sekujur tubuh. Influenza biasanya ditularkan melalui udara lewat batuk dan bersin, yang akan menimbulkan aerosol yang mengandung virus. Akhir-akhir ini banyak orang yang meninggal akibat penyakit influenza, flu yang sedang marak tersebar di seluruh dunia ialah flu babi (H1N1) dan flu Burung (H5N1). Bila anda sudah terjangkit segera periksakan diri ke dokter. Karena penyakit ini sangat berbahaya dan bisa merenggut nyawa anda.

8. Diabetes
Penyakit diabetes atau yang sering kita sebut penyakit kencing manis. biasanya disebabkan karena terlalu banyak mengkonsumsi gula. Banyak orang menganggap remeh penyakit ini. Padahal diabetes merupakan salah satu penyakit yang berbahaya karena bisa menyebabkan kematian. Pada tahun 2013 indonesia memiliki sekitar 8.5 juta penderita diabetes yang merupakan jumlah ke-4 terbanyak di Asia dan nomor 7 di dunia. Faktor yang menyebabkan diabetes antara lain: orang dewasa yang umurnya diatas 45 tahun, berat badan yang terlalu gemuk (obesitas), tekanan darah tinggi (140/90 mmHg) dan faktor keturunan.


salam sehat bahagia - @dokterfina


History meme 1|2 natural disasters

The 1918 flu pandemic (January 1918 – December 1920) was an unusually deadly influenza pandemic, the first of the two pandemics involving H1N1 influenza virus. It infected 500 million people across the world, including remote Pacific islands and the Arctic, and killed 50 to 100 million of them—three to five percent of the world’s population —making it one of the deadliest natural disasters in human history.  Most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill juvenile, elderly, or already weakened patients; in contrast the 1918 pandemic predominantly killed previously healthy young adults. Modern research, using virus taken from the bodies of frozen victims, has concluded that the virus kills through a cytokine storm (overreaction of the body’s immune system). The strong immune reactions of young adults ravaged the body, whereas the weaker immune systems of children and middle-aged adults resulted in fewer deaths among those groups. 

I am going into the studio to record “Doctor LOVE Bimbo Flu” today… and it should be out tonight… it is one that I am very excited about… I start our as Doctor LOVE in it… explaining how the Influenza virus has mutated into influenza Double D… the Bimbo Flu… as I do I let out a sneeze and giggle… the virus is not like other viruses and must be treated with deep hypnotic conditioning to eliminate it from your mind… I have had this idea a while… and in a flash of inspiration this weekend I wrote the very EROTIC and HYPNOTIC script that I think all you BIMBOS will really LOVE… there will also be a second recording that you can listen to overnight in a loop called Bimbo Flue Overnight

Federal health officials are urging all Americans to get their flu shots as soon as possible, and are especially concerned that too few elderly people are getting vaccinated.

“Flu is serious. Flu is unpredictable,” Dr. Thomas Frieden, the director of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, told reporters during a joint briefing Thursday with the National Foundation for Infectious Diseases. “Flu often does not get enough respect.”

While the influenza virus causes relatively mild illness in most people, the disease can lead to tens of thousands of deaths during severe flu seasons, Frieden noted. About 100 children die each year from the flu.

CDC Urges Americans To Get A Flu Shot As Soon As Possible

Photo: Brent Lewis/The Denver Post via Getty Images

Conrad Knickerbocker, Interview: William S. Burroughs, 35 The Paris Review (1965)
  • Interviewer: When and why did you start to write?
  • William S. Burroughs: I started to write in about 1950; I was thirty-five at the time; there didn't seem to be any strong motivation. I simply was endeavoring to put down in a more or less straightforward journalistic style something about my experiences with addiction and addicts.
  • Interviewer: Why did you start taking drugs?
  • William S. Burroughs: Well, I was just bored. I didn't seem to have much interest in becoming a successful advertising executive or whatever, or living the kind of life Harvard designs for you. After I became addicted in New York in 1944, things began to happen. I got in some trouble with the law, got married, moved to New Orleans, and then went to Mexico.
  • Interviewer: There seems to be a great deal of middle-class voyeurism in this country concerning addiction, and in the literary world, downright reverence for the addict. You apparently don't share these points of view.
  • William S. Burroughs: No, most of it is nonsense. I think drugs are interesting principally as chemical means of altering metabolism and thereby altering what we call reality, which I would define as a more or less constant scanning pattern.
  • Interviewer: What do you think of the hallucinogens and the new psychedelic drugs—LSD-25?
  • William S. Burroughs: I think they're extremely dangerous, much more dangerous than heroin. They can produce overwhelming anxiety states. I've seen people try to throw themselves out of windows; whereas the heroin addict is mainly interested in staring at his own toe. Other than deprivation of the drug, the main threat to him is an overdose. I've tried most of the hallucinogens without an anxiety reaction, fortunately. LSD-25 produced results for me similar to mescaline. Like all hallucinogens, LSD gave me an increased awareness, more a hallucinated viewpoint than any actual hallucination. You might look at a doorknob and it will appear to revolve, although you are conscious that this is the result of the drug. Also, van Goghish colors, with all those swirls, and the crackle of the universe.
  • Interviewer: Have you read Henri Michaux's book on mescaline?
  • William S. Burroughs: His idea was to go into his room and close the door and hold in the experiences. I had my most interesting experiences with mescaline when I got outdoors and walked around—colors, sunsets, gardens. It produces a terrible hangover, though, nasty stuff. It makes one ill and interferes with coordination. I've had all the interesting effects I need, and I don't want any repetition of those extremely unpleasant physical reactions.
  • Interviewer: The visions of drugs and the visions of art don't mix?
  • William S. Burroughs: Never. The hallucinogens produce visionary states, sort of, but morphine and its derivatives decrease awareness of inner processes, thoughts, and feelings. They are painkillers, pure and simple. They are absolutely contraindicated for creative work, and I include in the lot alcohol, morphine, barbiturates, tranquilizers—the whole spectrum of sedative drugs. As for visions and heroin, I had a hallucinatory period at the very beginning of addiction, for instance, a sense of moving at high speed through space. But as soon as addiction was established, I had no visions—vision—at all and very few dreams.
  • Interviewer: Why did you stop taking drugs?
  • William S. Burroughs: I was living in Tangier in 1957, and I had spent a month in a tiny room in the Casbah staring at the toe of my foot. The room had filled up with empty Eukodol cartons; I suddenly realized I was not doing anything. I was dying. I was just apt to be finished. So I flew to London and turned myself over to Dr. John Yerbury Dent for treatment. I'd heard of his success with the apomorphine treatment. Apomorphine is simply morphine boiled in hydrochloric acid; it's nonaddictive. What the apomorphine did was to regulate my metabolism. It's a metabolic regulator. It cured me physiologically. I'd already taken the cure once at Lexington, and although I was off drugs when I got out, there was a physiological residue. Apomorphine eliminated that. I've been trying to get people in this country interested in it, but without much luck. The vast majority—social workers, doctors—have the cop's mentality toward addiction. A probation officer in California wrote me recently to inquire about the apomorphine treatment. I'll answer him at length. I always answer letters like that.
  • Interviewer: Have you had any relapses?
  • William S. Burroughs: Yes, a couple. Short. Both were straightened out with apomorphine, and now heroin is no temptation for me. I'm just not interested. I've seen a lot of it around. I know people who are addicts. I don't have to use any willpower. Dr. Dent always said there is no such thing as willpower. You've got to reach a state of mind in which you don't want it or need it.
  • Interviewer: You regard addiction as an illness but also a central human fact, a drama?
  • William S. Burroughs: Both, absolutely. It's as simple as the way in which anyone happens to become an alcoholic. They start drinking, that's all. They like it, and they drink, and then they become alcoholic. I was exposed to heroin in New York—that is, I was going around with people who were using it; I took it; the effects were pleasant. I went on using it and became addicted. Remember that if it can be readily obtained, you will have any number of addicts. The idea that addiction is somehow a psychological illness is, I think, totally ridiculous. It's as psychological as malaria. It's a matter of exposure. People, generally speaking, will take any intoxicant or any drug that gives them a pleasant effect if it is available to them. In Iran, for instance, opium was sold in shops until quite recently, and they had three million addicts in a population of twenty million. There are also all forms of spiritual addiction. Anything that can be done chemically can be done in other ways, that is, if we have sufficient knowledge of the processes involved. Many policemen and narcotics agents are precisely addicted to power, to exercising a certain nasty kind of power over people who are helpless. The nasty sort of power-- white junk, I call it—rightness; they're right, right, right—and if they lost that power, they would suffer excruciating withdrawal symptoms. The picture we get of the whole Russian bureaucracy, people who are exclusively preoccupied with power and advantage, this must be an addiction. Suppose they lose it? Well, it's been their whole life.
  • Interviewer: Can you amplify your idea of junk as image?
  • William S. Burroughs: It's only a theory and, I feel, an inadequate one. I don't think anyone really understands what a narcotic is or how it works, how it kills pain. My idea is sort of a stab in the dark. As I see it, what has been damaged in pain is, of course, the image, and morphine must in some sense replace this. We know it blankets the cells and that addicts are practically immune to certain viruses, to influenza and respiratory complaints. This is simple because the influenza virus has to make a hole in the cell receptors. When those are covered, as they are in morphine addiction, the virus can't get in. As soon as morphine is withdrawn, addicts will immediately come down with colds and often with influenza.
  • Interviewer: Certain schizophrenics also resist respiratory disease.
  • William S. Burroughs: A long time ago I suggested there were similarities in terminal addiction and terminal schizophrenia. That was why I made the suggestion that they addict these people to heroin, then withdraw it and see if they could be motivated; in other words, find out whether they'd walk across the room and pick up a syringe. Needless to say, I didn't get very far, but I think it would be interesting.
  • Interviewer: Narcotics, then, disturb normal perception—
  • William S. Burroughs: And set up instead a random craving for images. If drugs weren't forbidden in America, they would be the perfect middle-class vice. Addicts would do their work and come home to consume the huge dose of images awaiting them in the mass media. Junkies love to look at television. Billie Holiday said she knew she was going off drugs when she didn't like to watch TV. Or they'll sit and read a newspaper or magazine, and by God, read it all. I knew this old junkie in New York, and he'd go out and get a lot of newspapers and magazines and some candy bars and several packages of cigarettes and then he'd sit in his room and he'd read those newspapers and magazines right straight through. Indiscriminately. Every word.
  • Interviewer: Marshall McLuhan said that you believed heroin was needed to turn the human body into an environment that includes the universe. But from what you've told me, you're not at all interested in turning the body into an environment.
  • William S. Burroughs: No, junk narrows consciousness. The only benefit to me as a writer (aside from putting me into contact with the whole carny world) came to me after I went off it. What I want to do is to learn to see more of what's out there, to look outside, to achieve as far as possible a complete awareness of surroundings. Beckett wants to go inward. First he was in a bottle and now he is in the mud. I am aimed in the other direction—outward.
  • Interviewer: Mary McCarthy has commented on the carnival origins of your characters in Naked Lunch. What are their other derivations?
  • William S. Burroughs: The carny world was the one I exactly intended to create—a kind of midwestern, small-town, cracker-barrel, pratfall type of folklore, very much my own background. That world was an integral part of America and existed nowhere else, at least not in the same form. My family was southern on my mother's side. My grandfather was a circuit-riding Methodist minister with thirteen children. Most of them went up to New York and became quite successful in advertising and public relations. One of them, an uncle, was a master image maker, Ivy Lee, Rockefeller's publicity manager.
  • Interviewer: Earlier you mentioned that if junk had done nothing else, it at least put you in contact with the carny world.
  • William S. Burroughs: Yes, the underworld, the old-time thieves, pickpockets, and people like that. They're a dying race; very few of those old-timers left. Yeah, well, they were show business.
  • Interviewer: What's the difference between the modern junkie versus the 1944 junkie?
  • William S. Burroughs: For one thing, all these young addicts; that was quite unknown in 1944. Most of the ones I knew were middle-aged men or old. I knew some of the old-time pickpockets and sneak thieves and shortchange artists. They had something called The Bill, a shortchange deal. I've never been able to figure out how it works. One man I knew beat all the cashiers in Grand Central with this thing. It starts with a twenty-dollar bill. You give them a twenty-dollar bill and then when you get the change you say, “Well, wait a minute, I must have been dreaming, I've got the change after all.” First thing you know, the cashier's short ten dollars. One day this shortchange artist went to Grand Central, even though he knew it was burned down, but he wanted to change twenty dollars. Well, a guy got on the buzzer and they arrested him. When they got up in court and tried to explain what had happened, none of them could do it. I keep stories like this in my files.
  • Interviewer: Do you think of the artist at all as being a con man?
  • William S. Burroughs: In a sense. You see, a real con man is a creator. He creates a set. No, a con man is more a movie director than a writer. The Yellow Kid created a whole set, a whole cast of characters, a whole brokerage house, a whole bank. It was just like a movie studio.
  • Interviewer: What about addicts?
  • William S. Burroughs: Well, there will be a lot of morphine addiction. Remember that there were a great many addicts at that time. Jesse James was an addict. He started using morphine for a wound in his lung, and I don't know whether he was permanently addicted, but he tried to kill himself. He took sixteen grains of morphine and it didn't kill him, which indicates a terrific tolerance. So he must have been fairly heavily addicted. A dumb, brutal hick; that's what he was, like Dillinger. And there were so many genteel old ladies who didn't feel right unless they had their Dr. Jones mixture every day.
  • Interviewer: What other character types interest you?
  • William S. Burroughs: Not the people in advertising and television, nor the American postman or middle-class housewife; not the young man setting forth. The whole world of high finance interests me, the men such as Rockefeller who were specialized types of organisms that could exist in a certain environment. He was really a moneymaking machine, but I doubt that he could have made a dime today because he required the old laissez-faire capitalism. He was a specialized monopolistic organism. My uncle Ivy created images for him. I fail to understand why people like J. Paul Getty have to come on with such a stuffy, uninteresting image. He decides to write his life history. I've never read anything so dull, so absolutely devoid of any spark. Well, after all, he was quite a playboy in his youth. There must have been something going on. None of it's in the book. Here he is, the only man of enormous wealth who operates alone, but there's nobody to present the image. Well, yes, I wouldn't mind doing that sort of job myself. I'd like to take somebody like Getty and try to find an image for him that would be of some interest. If Getty wants to build an image, why doesn't he hire a first-class writer to write his story? For that matter, advertising has a long way to go. I'd like to see a story by Norman Mailer or John O'Hara which just makes some mention of a product, say, Southern Comfort. I can see the O'Hara story. It would be about someone who went into a bar and asked for Southern Comfort; they didn't have it, and he gets into a long, stupid argument with the bartender. It shouldn't be obtrusive; the story must be interesting in itself so that people read this just as they read any story in Playboy, and Southern Comfort would be guaranteed that people will look at that advertisement for a certain number of minutes. You see what I mean? They'll read the story. Now, there are many other ideas; you could have serialized comic strips, serial stories. Well, all we have to do is have James Bond smoking a certain brand of cigarettes.
  • Interviewer: In some respects, Nova Express seems to be a prescription for social ailments. Do you see the need, for instance, of biologic courts in the future?
  • William S. Burroughs: Certainly. Science eventually will be forced to establish courts of biologic mediation, because life-forms are going to become more incompatible with the conditions of existence as man penetrates further into space. Mankind will have to undergo biologic alterations ultimately, if we are to survive at all. This will require biologic law to decide what changes to make. We will simply have to use our intelligence to plan mutations, rather than letting them occur at random. Because many such mutations—look at the saber-toothed tiger—are bound to be very poor engineering designs. The future, decidedly, yes. I think there are innumerable possibilities, literally innumerable. The hope lies in the development of nonbody experience and eventually getting away from the body itself, away from three-dimensional coordinates and concomitant animal reactions of fear and flight, which lead inevitably to tribal feuds and dissension.
  • Interviewer: You see hope for the human race, but at the same time you are alarmed as the instruments of control become more sophisticated.
  • William S. Burroughs: Well, whereas they become more sophisticated they also become more vulnerable. Time, Life, Fortune applies a more complex, effective control system than the Mayan calendar, but it also is much more vulnerable because it is so vast and mechanized. Not even Henry Luce understands what's going on in the system now. Well, a machine can be redirected. One technical sergeant can fuck up the whole works. Nobody can control the whole operation. It's too complex. The captain comes in and says, “All right, boys, we're moving up.” Now, who knows what buttons to push? Who knows how to get the cases of Spam up to where they're going, and how to fill out the forms? The sergeant does. The captain doesn't know. As long as there're sergeants around, the machine can be dismantled, and we may get out of all this alive yet.
  • Interviewer: Sex seems equated with death frequently in your work.
  • William S. Burroughs: That is an extension of the idea of sex as a biologic weapon. I feel that sex, like practically every other human manifestation, has been degraded for control purposes, or really for antihuman purposes. This whole Puritanism. How are we ever going to find out anything about sex scientifically, when a priori the subject cannot even be investigated? It can't even be thought about or written about. That was one of the interesting things about Reich. He was one of the few people who ever tried to investigate sex—sexual phenomena, from a scientific point of view. There's this prurience and this fear of sex. We know nothing about sex. What is it? Why is it pleasurable? What is pleasure? Relief from tension? Well, possibly.
  • Interviewer: Mary McCarthy has characterized you as a soured utopian. Is that accurate?
  • William S. Burroughs: I do definitely mean what I say to be taken literally, yes, to make people aware of the true criminality of our times, to wise up the marks. All of my work is directed against those who are bent, through stupidity or design, on blowing up the planet or rendering it uninhabitable. Like the advertising people we talked about, I'm concerned with the precise manipulation of word and image to create an action, not to go out and buy a Coca-Cola, but to create an alteration in the reader's consciousness. You know, they ask me if I were on a desert island and knew nobody would ever see what I wrote, would I go on writing. My answer is most emphatically yes. I would go on writing for company. Because I'm creating an imaginary—it's always imaginary—world in which I would like to live.
Victime d'Ebola

(CNN) – Here’s some background information about Ebola, a virus with a high fatality rate that was first identified in Africa in 1976.


Ebola hemorrhagic fever is a disease caused by one of five different Ebola viruses. Four of the strains can cause severe illness in humans and animals. The fifth, Reston virus, has caused illness in some animals, but not in humans.

The first human outbreaks occurred in 1976, one in northern Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo) in Central Africa: and the other, in southern Sudan (now South Sudan). The virus is named after the Ebola River, where the virus was first recognized in 1976, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Ebola is extremely infectious but not extremely contagious. It is infectious, because an infinitesimally small amount can cause illness. Laboratory experiments on nonhuman primates suggest that even a single virus may be enough to trigger a fatal infection.

Instead, Ebola could be considered moderately contagious, because the virus is not transmitted through the air. The most contagious diseases, such as measles or influenza, virus particles are airborne.

Humans can be infected by other humans if they come in contact with body fluids from an infected person or contaminated objects from infected persons. Humans can also be exposed to the virus, for example, by butchering infected animals.

While the exact reservoir of Ebola viruses is still unknown, researchers believe the most likely natural hosts are fruit bats.

Symptoms of Ebola typically include: weakness, fever, aches, diarrhea, vomiting and stomach pain. Additional experiences include rash, red eyes, chest pain, throat soreness, difficulty breathing or swallowing and bleeding (including internal).

Typically, symptoms appear 8-10 days after exposure to the virus, but the incubation period can span two to 21 days.

Unprotected health care workers are susceptible to infection because of their close contact with patients during treatment.

Ebola is not transmissible if someone is asymptomatic or once someone has recovered from it. However, the virus has been found in semen for up to three months.

Deadly human Ebola outbreaks have been confirmed in the following countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), Gabon, South Sudan, Ivory Coast, Uganda, Republic of the Congo (ROC), Guinea and Liberia.

According to the World Health Organization, “there is no specific treatment or vaccine,” and the fatality rate can be up to 90%. Patients are given supportive care, which includes providing fluids and electrolytes and food.

There are five subspecies of the Ebola virus: Zaire ebolavirus (EBOV), Bundibugyo ebolavirus (BDBV), Sudan ebolavirus (SUDV), Taï Forest ebolavirus (TAFV) and Reston ebolavirus (RESTV)

Click here for the CDC’s list of known cases and outbreaks.