infections

So I have remembered when I could have possibly hurt my knee.  I got kicked by a patient who was severely drugged, and it honestly isn’t his fault, nor is it mine.  It was just a bad situation.  I got a small knock across my kneecaps and the top of my thighs, and when I realized it, I told my mom.  And she called the doctor.  

But I’m on a Non weight bearing status, which really friggen sucks.  But we’re still concerned about infection because I have an highly elevated CRP, which is an inflammation/infection marker.  And I’m still running a slight temp so.  

But yeah.  I may have injured it, but we’re still looking at infection.  I now am non-Weight Bearing on that right leg, and it’s a little painful just bending my knee joint, and I’m not the best patient at all.  

Mom likes to laugh and joke that I am definitely like the saying ‘Doctors/Nurses/People in Healthcare are the worst patients.’ And I definitely am, unfortunately.  I honestly don’t think that I’m doing stuff I shouldn’t be when it all happens, and I break what I’m supposed to do.  It’s just hard to think about when it happens, because it’s what I’m used to doing now. Because I haven’t been NWB for two years now.  And thankfully I’m able to rest the knee now that we know that I need to be NWB per doctor, even before we realized it may have been injury instead of infection.  

But I’m gonna rest, because I took my pain pill (I only take one a day, if I need it.  ) and I have to be up early tomorrow for my A&P Final

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Necrotizing fasciitis…very graphic video. This is a deep skin infection, we can have this infection if a wound is contaminating by a bacteria … shocking because this infection is very very fast, you can see litteraly your skin rotting in some hours…

Kids' urinary infections usually not a kidney risk


“If there is no structural abnormalities in the kidney ultrasound after the first UTI, the parents should not be worried at all” about the risk of chronic kidney disease, said lead researcher Dr. Jarmo Salo of the University of Oulu in Finland.Recurrent UTIs in young children have been seen as a possible risk factor for chronic kidney disease later in life. That’s especially true if a child has what’s called vesicoureteral reflux, or VUR.About 1 percent of children have VUR, where some urine backs up from the bladder into the kidneys. The reflux itself does not damage the kidneys, but because bacteria in the urine can get into the kidneys, these children are more prone to kidney infections that can lead to scarring.But the idea that repeat UTIs and VUR are risk factors for chronic kidney disease later in life is not universally accepted – nor is the practice of testing children for VUR when they have a urinary tract infection.So for the new study, reported in the journal Pediatrics, researchers in Finland combed the medical literature to look for evidence that childhood UTIs are a risk factor for chronic kidney disease.They also reviewed the records of all 366 patients who were treated for chronic kidney disease at their hospital over one year.The team found 10 published reports that either looked at the history of childhood UTIs in people with chronic kidney disease, or that followed children with UTIs to see how their kidney health fared.Among the 1,576 patients in those studies, there was no evidence that childhood UTIs – even along with VUR – were the main cause of chronic kidney disease, according to the researchers.And of the kidney disease patients who did have a history of childhood UTIs, all also had structural abnormalities in their kidneys. Similarly, of the 366 patients at their center, the researchers found that only three had repeat childhood UTIs that might have contributed to their chronic kidney disease – and all had structural abnormalities in the kidneys.Such structural abnormalities – problems like an obstruction in the kidneys – can be picked up by an ultrasound when a young child is diagnosed with a UTI.But Salo told Reuters Health in an email that the findings suggest that kids with VUR are at no increased risk of kidney disease, as long as there are no structural abnormalities in the kidneys.NO LONGER LOOKING IN FINLANDWhen VUR is diagnosed, it is usually because doctors specifically look for it in a young child with a UTI. That takes a special test called a cystogram, where a catheter is placed in the bladder and the bladder is filled with fluid. X-rays allow the doctor to see if the fluids back up into the kidneys.Salo said doctors in Finland no longer “actively” look for VUR because there’s evidence that it is a “normal phenomenon,” and that treating it does not prevent long-term kidney damage.“We suggest that the (x-ray) imaging studies are not necessary if the child has structurally normal kidneys in ultrasound,” Salo said.But a pediatric urologist not involved in the study cautioned against making a “sweeping” recommendation against VUR testing.“The good news for parents is yes, the chances of your child developing kidney disease will be very low,” said Dr. Hiep T. Nguyen of Children’s Hospital Boston.However, he told Reuters Health, repeat UTIs in young children (generally younger than 5) are not the same as those in older kids or adults. And some of those children are at increased risk for kidney damage – particularly if they have more-severe, “high-grade” VUR.What’s more, Nguyen said, there is evidence that finding and treating high-grade VUR may prevent kidney damage. Treatment involves low doses of antibiotics to prevent repeat UTIs and periodic testing to see if the reflux has gone away. Some children with severe VUR end up having surgery to correct the problem if they keep getting infections.Mild reflux typically goes away on its own – though, in North American, doctors still prescribe low-dose antibiotics to prevent the UTIs.Nguyen said that a young child with a UTI should have an ultrasound “at a minimum” to look for structural abnormalities in the kidneys. Salo agreed.SHOULD DOCTORS TEST?But the area of controversy is in testing for VUR. Essentially, Nguyen said, pediatricians are increasingly moving away from recommending VUR testing for children with urinary tract infections.Pediatricians, he noted, see a lot of children with UTIs, and most of those kids will have no long-term kidney disease as a result. But urology specialists see the people with chronic kidney disease, and they are apt to see the value in testing for VUR so that kids with reflux can be treated.“We are looking from two different viewpoints,” Nguyen said.VUR has a strong genetic component, and researchers are working on gene tests – where a child will just have to “spit in a cup,” Nguyen said – that could help pinpoint the kids with UTIs who would be the best candidates for VUR testing.For now, the decision to do VUR testing is basically case-by-case.Dr. John Gearhart, director of pediatric urology at Johns Hopkins Children’s Center in Baltimore, said the current findings “should reassure mothers and fathers."But he agreed that there are cases where testing for VUR is appropriate: if there’s a family history of the condition, for example, or if a young child has more than one urinary infection that includes fever.Testing for VUR does involve radiation, albeit as low a dose as possible, Gearhart noted in an interview. So limiting the number of children who have it is important.There can also be side effects from the low-dose antibiotics given to children with VUR – such as stomach upset, diarrhea and yeast infections.There is an ongoing North American clinical trial looking at whether giving antibiotics to young children with mild to moderate VUR prevents kidney scarring (which, down the line, might contribute to chronic kidney disease).That, according to Gearhart, should give more insights into whether it is helpful to give all children with VUR preventive antibiotics.


A Map for U.S. Travelers Who Want to Avoid Infections

Despite the progress we’ve made in vaccines, drugs, and sanitation, infectious diseases—a category that includes everything from the run-of-the-mill flu to antibiotic-resistant “superbugs"—still kill some 170,00 Americans each year.

But most states—33, to be exact—have taken fewer than half of the recommended steps to prevent the spread of things like whooping cough, HIV, and hospital infections, according to a new report the Trust for America’s Health, a nonprofit that works to prevent outbreaks, and the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation, a public health philanthropy.

Read more.

My worst module this year is definately infection and immunity.

Ugh.

There is just so much of it. It takes me hours and hours to go through the lectures and by the time I’ve finished all the work for the week, monday rolls around again and we get more lectures and work. Fun :p

Anyway- The picture above is of  the HIV virus. HIV infects CD4+ T cells (T helper cells) and leads to low levels of them which means that cell mediated immunity is impaired and people with the virus are susceptible to infections.

HIV Treatment Lags In U.S., Guaranteeing More Infections : Shots

The CDC director outlined a cascade of shortcomings that explain why the vast majority of HIV-positive Americans are untreated or under-treated:

  • Twenty percent of them have not been tested, so their HIV infection is unknown to themselves or their doctors.
  • Nearly 40 percent of the total — and half of those who’ve been diagnosed as HIV-positive — have not been linked up with HIV care.
  • Sixty percent of those who enter care drop out.
  • Only a third of all HIV-infected people get anti-retroviral therapy.
  • Some people who get the drugs don’t achieve control of the virus.

When infections can cause cancer.

Worldwide approximately 18% of cancers are related to infectious diseases. Viruses are usual infectious agents and a virus that can cause cancer is called an oncovirus.

  • Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) - a DNA virus that infects keratinocytes of the skin or mucous membranes. While the majority of the known types of HPV cause no symptoms in most people, some types can cause warts (verrucae), while others can -in a minority of cases- lead to cancers of the cervix, vulva, vagina, penis, oropharynx and anus.
  • Hepatitis B Virus (HBV) and Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) - they can induce a chronic viral infection that leads to liver cancer in about 1 in 200 of people infected with hepatitis B each year and in about 1 in 45 of people infected with hepatitis C each year.
  • Helicobacter pylori - even if it is not a virus, is a Gram-negative bacterium that is present in patients with chronic gastritis and gastric ulcers and it is linked to the development of duodenal ulcers and stomach cancer.
Wi-Fi Drug Delivery, Rapid Testing Offer New Weapons To Fight Infection

by Michael Keller

Two recent research successes show what might be to come in our eternal fight against the microbes that harm and kill us. The first offers doctors a tool to detect infections at their earliest stages while the second is a temporary implant that prevents bacteria from taking root after surgery and then harmlessly dissolves.

Scientists at the University of California, Irvine have unveiled a rapid test that can diagnose life-threatening bacterial infestations of the bloodstream. Unlike current methods, their approach uses a few drops of blood to directly detect low concentrations of bacterial cells. It offers results in an hour and a half, giving doctors an early alert when an infection is just beginning, and might be useful finding other causes of disease.

Their work could potentially help the millions who suffer and the tens of thousands who die from such infections every year.

“We are extremely excited about this technology because it addresses a long-standing unmet medical need in the field,” said Weian Zhao, an assistant professor of pharmaceutical sciences who led the team that developed the Integrated Comprehensive Droplet Digital Detection test. “As a platform technology, it may have many applications in detecting extremely low-abundance biomarkers in other areas, such as cancers, HIV and, most notably, Ebola.”

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I had to take my carrot cake to the hospital today because of a spider bite. These are some of the things that happened while we were there. 

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Parallels across seasons, episodes 3

Infections

1x3 Jerry, the human with U3, is infected with hep D.

2x3 Lafayette has an infected leg after being shot by Ginger.

3x3 Thomas Compton, Bill’s son, is dead after being infected by smallpox.

4x3 Jason has got an infection after being bitten by the were-panthers.

5x3 Pam talks about the death of prostitutes from syphilis or TB, both infectious diseases.