infant monkeys

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Monkey D. Noa the son of the future pirate king and worlds famous swordsman. I actually wanted to do this for a while but ive been so busy, so consider this as drawing as a “I’m back 😂♥️”

Addictions always originate in unhappiness, even if hidden. They are emotional anesthetics; they numb pain. The first question—always—is not “Why the addiction?” but “Why the pain?” The answer was summed up with crude eloquence, scrawled on the wall of my patient Anna’s room: “Any place I went to, I wasn’t wanted. And that bites large.”

Contrary to popular myth, no drug is inherently addictive. Only a small percentage of people who try alcohol or cocaine or even crystal meth go on to addictive use. What makes those people vulnerable? According to current brain research and developmental psychology, chemical and emotional vulnerability are the products not of genetic programming but of life experience. Most of the human brain’s growth occurs after birth, and so physical and emotional interactions determine much of our neurological development—which brain areas will develop and how well, which patterns will be encoded, and so on. As such, each brain’s circuitry and chemistry reflect individual life experiences as much as inherited tendencies.

Drugs affect the brain by binding to receptors on nerve cells. Opiates work on our built-in receptors for endorphins—the body’s own, natural opiate-like substances that participate in many functions, including regulation of pain and mood. Similarly, tranquilizers of the benzodiazepine class, such as Valium, exert their effect at the brain’s natural benzodiazepine receptors. Other brain chemicals, including dopamine and serotonin, affect such diverse functions as mood, incentive- and reward-seeking behavior, and self-regulation. These, too, bind to specific, specialized receptors on neurons.

But the number of receptors and level of brain chemicals are not set at birth. Infant rats who get less grooming from their mothers end up with fewer natural “benzo” receptors in the part of the brain that controls anxiety. Brains of infant monkeys separated from their mothers for only a few days are measurably deficient in dopamine.

It is the same with human beings. Endorphins are released in the infant’s brain when there are warm, non-stressed, calm interactions with the parenting figures. Endorphins, in turn, promote the growth of receptors and nerve cells, and the discharge of other important brain chemicals. The fewer endorphin-enhancing experiences in infancy and early childhood, the greater the need for external sources. Hence, a greater vulnerability to addictions.

What sets skid row addicts apart is the extreme degree of stress they had to endure early in life. Almost all women now inhabiting “Canada’s addiction capital”—as the Downtown Eastside of Vancouver has been called—suffered sexual assaults in childhood, as did many of the males. Childhood memories of serial abandonment or severe physical and psychological abuse are common.

—  Gabor Mate

Photo by @TimLaman on assignment for @NatGeo at the International Animal Rescue center in Ketapang, West Kalimantan, Indonesia.  These baby orangutans are being cared for at this center, and are being taken by wheelbarrow from their night cages to a forest play area where they will spend their day learning skills to survive in the wild. Unfortunately, many baby orangutans are still kept illegally as pets, and obtained by killing their mothers in the wild.  When confiscated, they end up at centers like this that do their best to care for them and train them for living in the wild some day.  It is a severe challenge, but some of them may make it to live in the wild. #Borneo, #Orangutan, @TimLaman@thephotosociety

Happy Lunar New Year! We’re celebrating the Year of the Monkey by highlighting some amazing Asian monkey species. 

This striking fellow is an adult male proboscis monkey (Nasalis larvatus), also called the long-nosed monkey or bekantan in Indonesian. Male proboscis monkeys use their fleshy, pendulous noses to reverberate loud bellowing noises that attract mates or warn others of predators. Infant proboscis monkeys are born with bright blue faces and black fur!

Proboscis monkeys eat mostly leaves, seeds, and unripe fruits, and sometimes insects. They are only found on the island of Borneo and are endangered with extinction because of deforestation and hunting.

Learn more about Asian primates at our February 21 event, Spotlight Asia: Ring in the Year of the Monkey. 

Hi my names Klam, I’m 23, English and yes that is a blind infant vervet monkey with his finger knuckle-deep up my nose. He’s called Liam and I was his surrogate mother over the summer as part of a placement in South Africa.

Aaaanyway, come say hi!

Lets-andsaywedidnt.tumblr.com

anonymous asked:

Hello! I read probably in your blog about how animals don't really long for maternity so sterilizing them doesn't affect them that much. Now I am curios as to why some animals adopt and raise babies that aren't theirs, even if they are from an entirely different species. Are there some common factors like previous maternity or being domesticated or something? Thank you for sharing your knowledge with the world :)

Mm, well, you probably didn’t read that on my blog even though I agree with the idea behind it.

If you were to ask me, longing for “maternity” isn’t an emotion an animal would feel in the same way that it would feel hunger or thirst or the desire to mate. An animal is unlikely to conceptualize, “Gosh, I really want babies.” That type of thinking is much more complex than it seems- it involves episodic future thinking (difficult for many animals).

What is probably true is that animals in species that have evolved parental care for their offspring gain some sort of emotional reward for caring from them. We don’t often think about it, but something like caring for a pet is somehow very rewarding for us- otherwise, why would we keep pets?

I wrote about this more in another post, but I’ll bring up something I didn’t then. In many highly social species, from meerkats to African wild dogs, nonreproductive group members have a particular fascination the new offspring of others. Some of this is simply evolutionarily rewarding: in groups where only one pair reproduces, the others may gain a fitness benefit from helping to raise the young of their relatives.

However, many primate species live in groups in which there are multiple reproducing females with their own offspring. In these cases, why are group members so eager to handle the infants of others?

We know that the opportunity to handle infants must be rewarding, at least for primates, because in some cases they will even trade favors like grooming for the opportunity to hold the baby.

Because both experienced adults and juveniles are fascinated by infants, this does not seem to be either a result of previous care experience or a means of learning to be maternal. Likewise, other theories- like a means of reproductive competition via harassing or taking the infant from its mother- don’t hold much water due to the fact that infant handling doesn’t often cause infant mortality. (Direct infanticide behaviors do occur in most social species, but they’re different from infant handling.)

The best hypothesis that fits with what researchers have observed is that for many social animals, the sight of infants brings out a strong compulsion to care for them. This can even occur in infants of different species which still have infantile traits. For example, there’s a now-famous case of a group of capuchin monkeys adopting a baby marmoset.

Obviously this doesn’t happen often- or at least happen often successfully, as a different species may feel the urge to care for an infant from another but lack the means to do so.

Further Reading

Gumert, M. D. (2007). Grooming and infant handling interchange in Macaca fascicularis: the relationship between infant supply and grooming payment. International Journal of Primatology, 28(5), 1059-1074.

Henzi, S. P., & Barrett, L. (2002). Infants as a commodity in a baboon market. Animal Behaviour, 63(5), 915-921.

Izar, P., Verderane, M. P., Visalberghi, E., Ottoni, E. B., Gomes De Oliveira, M., Shirley, J., & Fragaszy, D. (2006). Cross‐genus adoption of a marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) by wild capuchin monkeys (Cebus libidinosus): case report. American journal of primatology, 68(7), 692-700.

Silk, J. B. (1999). Why are infants so attractive to others? The form and function of infant handling in bonnet macaques. Animal Behaviour, 57(5), 1021-1032.

Slater, K. Y., Schaffner, C. M., & Aureli, F. (2007). Embraces for infant handling in spider monkeys: evidence for a biological market?. Animal Behaviour, 74(3), 455-461.

fitziggler  asked:

i saw the adorbleness of your pregnant jemma head canons, but i kind of wanna know about the other side. would you mind listing your expecting father fitz head canons? like his side of the scene while jemma's pregnant.

*cracks knuckles* *winces bc wait I don’t crack my knuckles that shit hurts*

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