indian removal act 1830

anonymous asked:

You said the Republican party fought against slavery.. That is true, but the Republican party around that time period have more modern Democrat beliefs. They were northerners who believed in equal rights. And the Democratic party in the 1800s had view more similar to modern Republican beliefs. The party's beliefs flip flopped around late 1800s-early 1900s.. The conservative states were always advocating for slavery and oppression. They were also the last states to give women the right to vote.

Originally posted by onemorechapter11

Let’s discuss some history then.

1791 - The Democratic-Republican Party is formed by James Madison and Thomas Jefferson against Alexander Hamilton’s Federalist Party. The Democratic-Republicans strongly opposed government overreach and expansion, the creation of a national bank, and corruption.

1804 - Andrew Jackson purchases the plantation that will become his primary source of wealth.

1824 - The Democratic-Republican Party split. The new Democrats were supported by Andrew Jackson and Martin Van Buren, and the National Republicans were supported by John Quincy Adams and Henry Clay.

1828 - Andrew Jackson is elected President of the United States.

1830 - Andrew Jackson signed the Indian Removal Act, whereby the Cherokee and other native tribes were to be forcibly removed from their lands.

1831 - Cherokee Nation v. Georgia, whereby the Supreme Court ruled that Cherokee Nation was sovereign and the U.S. had no jurisdiction over Cherokee lands. Andrew Jackson had already started to enforce the removal of the Choctaw.

1832-33 - The Whig Party is formed in opposition to Jackson’s government expansion and overreach in the Nullification Crisis and the establishment of a Second National Bank. The Whig Party successfully absorbs the National Republican Party.

1838 -  Many Indian tribes had been forcibly removed. Under Jackson, General Winfield Scott and 7,000 soldiers forced the Cherokee from their land at bayonet point while their homes were pillaged. They marched the Cherokee more than 1,200 miles to the allocated Indian territory. About 5,000 Cherokee died on the journey due to starvation and disease.

1854 - The Whig Party dissolves over the question of the expansion of slavery. Anti-slavery Whigs and anti-slavery democrats form the Republican Party with their sole goal being to end slavery.

1861 -The election of President Lincoln spurs the beginning of the Civil War.

1862 - Lincoln writes a letter where he declares he wishes to preserve the union regardless of the morals on slavery. He issues the Emancipation Proclamation, whereby all slaves in Union territories had to be freed. As states came under Union control, those slaves too had to be freed.

1863 - Frederick Douglass, former slave and famous Republican abolitionist, meets with Lincoln on the suffrage of emancipated slaves.

1864 - Lincoln revised his position on slavery in a letter to Albert G. Hodges stating “If slavery is not wrong, nothing is wrong.”

1865 - Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrenders at the Appomattox Courthouse to Union victory. After Lincoln’s Assassination, Democrat President Johnson issues amnesty to rebels and pardons the slave owners of their crimes.

1865 - The 13th Amendment which ended slavery passed with 100% Republican support and 63% Democrat support in congress.

1866 - The Klu Klux Klan is formed by Confederate veterans to intimidate black and Republicans through violence, lynching, and public floggings. They gave open support to the Democrat Party.

1866 - The Civil Rights Act of 1866 is vetoed by Democratic President Andrew Johnson. Every single Republican voted and overturned the veto.

1868 - The 14th Amendment which gave citizenship to freed slaves passed with 94% Republican support and 0% Democrat support in congress. The first grand wizard of the KKK, Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest is honored at the 1968 Democratic National Convention.

1868 - Representative James Hinds who taught newly freedmen of their rights is murdered by the KKK.

1870 - The 15th Amendment which gave freed slaves the right to vote passed with 100% Republican support and 0% Democrat support in congress.

1871 - The violence of the KKK grew so savage that congress passed the Enforcement Acts to repress their influence.

1875 - Democrat Senator William Saulsbury speaks out against the Civil RIghts Act of 1875, claiming it will allow “colored men shall sit at the same table beside the white guest; that he shall enter the same parlor and take his seat beside the wife and daughter of the white man, whether the white man is willing or not, because you prohibit discrimination against him.“

1884 - A train conductor orders Ida B. Wells, a black Republican woman, to give up her seat and move to the smoking car. Wells was an investigative journalist who worked for a Republican journal to expose the horror of lynching. She advocated for the 2nd amendment rights for blacks so that they could protect themselves, and she denounced the Democratic Party for treating blacks as property unequal to whites.

1892 - Democrat Benjamin Tillman is re-elected to the Senate. He was a white supremacist who boasted his participation in lynchings. He is quoted saying that “as long as the Negroes continue to ravish white women we will continue to lynch them.”

1915 - Democrat President Woodrow Wilson screens KKK promotion film Birth of a Nation. The film pictured blacks as ignorant and violent savages, and the Klu Klux Klan as rescuers and protectors of the civilized world. The popularity of the movie revived the Klu Klux Klan which had previously gone extinct. Reportedly Wilson said about the film that “[it] is like writing history with lightning, and my only regret is that it is all so terribly true.”

1919 - The 19th Amendment which officially gave women the right to vote passed with 82% Republican support and 54% Democrat support in congress.

1924 - Thousands of Klansmen attend the 1924 Democratic National Convention.

1933 -  The chief Nazi newspaper, Volkischer Beobachter, praised “Roosevelt’s adoption of National Socialist strains of thought in his economic and social policies” and “the development toward an authoritarian state.”

1933 - Democrat President Franklin Delano Roosevelt passes the Agricultural Adjustment Act with the well-meaning goal to help farmers and sharecroppers. Instead, though it aided white farmers, it resulted in increased unemployment and displacement of black farmers.

1933 -  FDR established the National Recovery Administration to stimulate business recovery by forcing employers to pay higher wages for less work. This relief program was enforced on a local level and allowed Jim Crow racism to flourish, resulting in many blacks being fired to be replaced by whites. 

1934 -  The Federal Housing Administration is introduced under FDR. The FHA made homeownership accessible for whites, but explicitly refused to back loans to black people or even other people who lived near black people.

1936 - The Roosevelt Administration finally begins vying for the black vote. Though the relief programs neglected blacks, their communities were bombarded with advertisements. FDR began to garner black support though the vast majority remained economically unchanged and locked into poverty.

1942 - FDR orders American citizens of Japanese ancestry from their homes into interment camps without due process after the bombings at Pearl Harbor.

1953 - Senator Robert Byrd is elected into congress and remains a staunch Democrat until his death in 2010. He was a prominent member in the KKK and praised by Bill Clinton, Barack Obama, and Hillary Clinton.

1955 - Democrat Richard Daley is elected mayor of Chicago. He resisted residential desegregation, defended public school segregation, and used urban renewal funds to build massive public housing projects that kept blacks within existing ghettos.

1957 - The Civil Rights Act of 1957 is passes with 93% Republican support and 59% Democrat support.

1963 - After the assassination of JFK, Lyndon B. Johnson is sworn into office. LBJ was a Democrat remembered by a famous quote: “I’ll have them niggers voting Democrat for the next 200 years.”

1965 - The Voting Rights Act of 1965 passes with 94% Republican support and 73% Democrat support.

1968 - Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is assassinated. MLK voted Republican.

1960-70s - A total of 24 Democratic members of congress switched to become Republican over a 20 year period. The majority of democrats in that time period remained democrats.

1995 - Dreams from My Father by Barack Obama is published. Obama discusses how the urban cities would become the new plantation for blacks under Democrat political bosses: “The plantation, the blacks have the worst jobs, the worst housing, police brutality rampant; but when the so-called black committee man come around election time, we’d all line up and vote the straight Democratic ticket. Sell our souls for a Christmas turkey. White folks spit in our faces, and we reward them with the vote.“

2009 - Hillary Clinton lauds Margaret Sanger, KKK advocate, white supremacist, and eugenicist at the 2009 Planned Parenthood Honors Gala: “I admire Margaret Sanger enormously, her courage, her tenacity, her vision. I am really in awe of her, there are a lot of lessons we can learn from her life.”

Me: 1
History revisionism: 0

Originally posted by whiteangelxoxo

anonymous asked:

Whites aren't supreme. Natives and Whites are equal. Natives killed whites and wiped out settlements. If you honestly think we just slaughtered them without retribution you really have no idea what colonial war is. The deaths on both sides signed the contract, we own this land with steal, America, not whites. We as a nation are above their silly tribal communities, and they only exist through our mercy. The land is ours because we took it, an honor that is not racially reserved.

Okay, so, if its how you say, that we are equal, then why are Natives still being treated like shit? And, if you need prime examples, here is a website containing many stories of how the Natives in the reservations of The Northern Plains and the Southwest, as well as how their “education” from Whites were from 1776 to 1998. So this doesn’t even include what has been done to them for the past 19 years. And we all know know of at least one thing that’s been happening recently enough. And you talk about the Colonial times? Well, The colonial period was in the range of 1492 - 1763. The only telling within all of the ones listed on the website during that time was the Pueblo Revolts in 1680. The closest in the timeline after that? 1830 - the Indian Removal Act. That is 67 years after the american colonial period. So, lets not bring up “colonial war” alright, sweetie? Cause hardly any of this was during the colonial days, thus, cannot be referred to as such.

I’ve read through all of these stories the website offers and one thing has rung out very clearly among those of them: white people would kill men, women, and even children just because they were in their way. They were doing nothing to the white man! They were fearful and just wanted things to return to normal! You know, settling where they could, hunting their usual prey and continuing to live their lives. And what did the white man do? Blame them for insignificant things, things that should not have been a problem, as well as even went back on their word with certain events in this history where they promised the Natives something but OH WAIT! NOpe. They’re gonna take it back and kill those who try to stop them.

You think they live only because of our mercy?! WHAT MERCY HAVE WE SHOWN THEM? I’ll answer that: none. We do not own this land, and never say that their way of living is ‘silly’. It is a culture you obviously don’t understand and don’t even want to learn about. If you agree that what was done to them was right? Then I deem you a monster. Might as well call you the new General Custer, huh?

I am horrified and livid at how Native Americans were treated then and now by racist white people… and, again I will show you:

Originally posted by tum-binha

Now, you can see yourself out, k thx bye~

DBQ/FRQ First Aid (Precolonial to Imperialism)

Tomorrow, you will be taking the APUSH Advanced Placement Exam. Determining on what college you want to go to, at least a three is commonplace. I don’t know about you guys, but my biggest problem is going the length of an entire essay (for example if they want me to talk about Colonial Times through the Revolution, but they just write “1763-1781” I wouldn’t know what to write about). Furthermore, I’m going to list eras, what happening during them in chronological order and a very brief description of what they did. Keep in mind that many eras (such as the 1960’s) are important both in foreign policy and domestic affairs. I will divide them accordingly. The DBQ will not ask for specific years, but it’s better to have a general understanding of the era they are asking you about so you can throw in some “specific evidence” to get that 7-9 essay. This chart is also particularly helpful with the FRQ. Anyway, let’s begin.

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An End to a National Disgrace.

A lot of people are going to talk today about why it’s a good and important thing that Harriet Tubman a woman whose bravery and courage are IMO without measure, will be replacing President Andrew Jackson on the US twenty dollar bill.  But I am not entirely sure what this would mean to some people outside of the United States for whom Jackson is beyond a face on one of the most widely circulated monetary notes in the world.

I wrote a masters thesis about a subject in Jacksonian America and lived in the politics of that world for a long time so I want to give you a sense of this man and why it is so important that today we are ending a practice of honoring him in favor of Tubman.

Andrew Jackson was President of the United States from 1829-1837.  The sanitized version of US history that I was taught in primary and secondary school describes Jackson as the first popularist and western president who reflected the will of the common man.  When I was first in school they had begun to regularly teach about his role in what is called the Trail of Tears but it was very much framed as a tragedy of his times.

The truth is that he made and shaped his times.

Jackson came to prominence as a Tennessee state militia general fighting Native Americans in the south east, and became a national hero after his victory over the British army at the Battle of New Orleans in 1815 (ironically after the peace treaty ending the War of 1812 had already been signed).  The United States for all intents and purposes lost the War of 1812 but the victory at New Orleans formed a central part in a re-writing of that history such that the American public very quickly thought of it as a war they had won.

Part of the romance of the Jackson myth is that he had a saber scar on his face given to him when he was a young boy by a British officer.  He also participated in a number of duels over gambling debts and insults to his wife Rachel who unknowingly to both of them he had married before the divorce to her first husband and been completed.

Those of you who watched the West Wing may remember him as the owner of a two ton block of cheese which was consumed by the public visiting the White House.

But it’s important to remember that “the people” of Jackson’s America were a bit like “the people” of Donald Trump’s America.  This was not everyone, but angry poor and aspirational white men who wanted their chance at the social and economic riches of the country that came from slave owning, unchecked monetary policy, and western expansion.  Jackson owned more slaves during the course of his life than any other US president save George Washington (and that’s actually debatable because many of Washington’s slaves belonged legally to his wife Martha).  

Jackson was owner of a massive plantation mansion that is a popular tourist destination in Nashville, Tennessee named the Hermitage after the palace of Catherine the Great of Russia.  The other day I had someone remark to me that Alexander Hamilton’s family bought and sold slaves.  He did have a role in the slave system but it’s actually quite difficult to prove that Hamilton himself owned slaves.  Jackson however owned more than 150 while he was president and more than 300 over the course of his life.

Jacksonian politics attacked and undermined every institution establishing itself in the early republic as elitist and unnecessary.  Much has been made of the irony of him being on the national currency when he destroyed the Second Bank of the United States and strongly opposed the issue of federal paper currency.  He and his supporters also attacked state universities and the federal military academy, crippling several and closing others, setting back scientific study and advancement in this country probably by decades.

But even if we weren’t talking about the politics of the angry white man in general… we are talking about the politics of genocide.  For you see the thing that Jacksonian politics truly stood for was the displacement and extermination of native peoples without the pretense of “civilizing” them.  The Cherokee Nation were the most assimilated and “civilized” tribe in North America at the time with courts and institutions modeled after European ones and integrated into American society.  

But unfortunately for the Charokee they lived on land that Jackson and his allies wanted.  On the map below the blue boarders were the original claims, red marks the extent of their territory at the Independence of the United States, and green their territory at the time of the Indian Removal Act.

It is worth knowing that Jackson himself is from the dead center of this territory.  These were his neighbors and people he knew well (both from business dealings and from killing them).  Passed in 1830 the Indian Removal Act authorized the president to “give” the native Americans living in the southeast land west of the Mississippi (land at the time described as the Great American Desert) for their ancestral homeland.  It was a straight and unabashed land grab under the guise of the rule of law.  Oh except it wasn’t.  Because the Charokee fought it in the federal courts and won.  Jackson, in response said  “…the decision of the Supreme Court has fell still born, and they find that they cannot coerce Georgia to yield to its mandate.”  In other worse the rule of law has no role in Jackson’s America because no one would enforce it.  

Eventually the Charokee were forced from their land on a march across what is now three states to Oklahoma and along the way conservative estimates are that 4,000 men, women, and children died of cold, exhaustion and starvation in the single worst individual act of ethnic cleansing in this country’s history.  

There are very few men who have occupied the White House I, as a historian, would be comfortable in describing as monsters.  This one I do without reservation or hesitation.

Andrew Jackson first appeared on the the twenty in 1928.  Nearly a century of national shame is far too long.

It gives me pleasure to announce to Congress that the benevolent policy of the Government, steadily pursued for nearly thirty years, in relation to the removal of the Indians beyond the white settlements is approaching to a happy consummation. Two important tribes have accepted the provision made for their removal at the last session of Congress, and it is believed that their example will induce the remaining tribes also to seek the same obvious advantages.
— 

President Jackson’s Message to Congress “On Indian Removal”, December 6, 1830

Series: Presidential Messages, 1789 - 1875Record Group 46: Records of the U.S. Senate, 1789 - 2015

On December 6, 1830, in a message to Congress, President Andrew Jackson called for the relocation of eastern Native American tribes to land west of the Mississippi River, in order to open new land for settlement by citizens of the United States.

With the onset of westward expansion and increased contact with Indian tribes, President Jackson set the tone for his position on Indian affairs in his message to Congress on December 6, 1830. Jackson’s message justified the removal policy already established by the Indian Removal Act of May 28, 1830.

Read more at Our Documents