indian engagement

SUPER LESBIAN MOVIE POST

 1.MAEDCHEN IN UNIFORM 1931

Basically a German produced 1930′s film that features a student who falls in love with her teacher. Some kissing/hugs in it. NOT A HAPPY ENDING.

Pretty good for the time period

2.THE CHILDREN’S HOUR 1961

A student tells a lie about her two female teachers and causes one of them to question her sexuality. NOT A HAPPY ENDING. 

Again good for the time period. 

3. THERESE AND ISABELLE 1968

An old woman visits her old school and reflects on a past lesbian love she had at the school. NOT A HAPPY ENDING.

4. Just the two of us 1973

A pair of housewives fall into bed together after seeing two women hold hands in a restaurant on sunset boulevard. One is a lesbian and the other is exploring. NOT A HAPPY ENDING. 

5. WINDOWS 1980

Lesbian psycho stalker. NOT A HAPPY ENDING

6. PERSONAL BEST 1980

Two young athletes engage in sexual relationship, however, one of the girls leaves and goes off to be with a man. 

7. THE HUNGER 1983

An aging vampire dumps her boyfriend for a woman. 

8. LIANNA 1983

Lianna, a naive young wife of a professor bored with her life has an affair with another woman, Ruth and when her affair becomes common knowledge, she finds herself shunned by both her friends and family. NOT A HAPPY ENDING.

9. Desert Hearts 1985

A middle aged woman in current divorcing of her husband pursues an affair with a young woman named Cay whom she meets in Reno at a ranch. HAPPY ENDING. It is worth a watch.

10. THE BERLIN AFFAIR 1985

The daughter of a Japanese ambassador has an affair with the wife of a Nazi officer. The Japanese woman ruins it by sleeping with the Nazi officer. 

11. NOVEMBER MOON 1984

November is a french/german Jew who falls in love with a french woman in Nazi-occupied France. The two women must fight to be with each other, hiding November in the rural countryside. GUYS THIS FILM IS LIKE HAPPY ENDING ISH BUT YOU WILL CRY COS SOMETHING AWFUL HAPPENS IN END WORTH THE WATCH.

12.THE INCREDIBLY TRUE ADVENTURES OF TWO GIRLS IN LOVE 1995

A young Tina Kernard from L word plays a butch Randy who falls in love with a an upper class black girl. I dont really like it, its overhyped. 

13. GO FISH 1994

Max is a young lesbian student who meets Ely, they end up at her place and, after some flirtatious conversation, they kiss. Suddenly a call comes in from Ely’s  partner Kate, with whom Ely has been in a long-distance relationship for more than two years, which puts a bit of a damper on things. Ely decides to cut off all her hair, ending up with a very short butch style. She runs into Max in a bookstore and Max almost does not recognize her. Ely and her roommate Daria throw a dinner party and, after a spirited game of I Never, Max and Ely reconnect. They make plans to go out again and then begin kissing. They have several phone conversations, in the course of which Ely reveals that she’s “sort of broken up” with Kate. They get together for a second date but they never make it out of the apartment. Max ends up trimming Ely’s fingernails. This turns into foreplay and they have sex. HAPPY ENDING.

14. LATE BLOOMERS 1996

Two women fall in love, a maths teacher and a married secretary who works in the same school. They pursue a relationship to the dismay of work colleagues and family. The two women want to marry each other aw aw aw HAPPY ENDING. This film is a bit of a flop tho

15. WHEN NIGHT IS FALLING 1995

Camille a christian professor meets Petra who is in the circus. Camille has a boyfriend however, falls in love with Petra. Happy Ending, worth the watch. 

16. BOUND 1996

Corky, a tough female ex con falls in love with Violet, the girlfriend of a mobster. Together they concoct a scheme to steal millions of stashed mob money and pin the blame on Violet’s crooked boyfriend Caesar. Happy ending for couple, its not your romantic comedy or anything but ok

17. HIGH ART

Two women fall in love, ones straight, others got a girl, its ok movie

18. FUCKING AMAL(show me love) 1998

Agnes is a depressed teenager with no friends and is in love with the popular girl Elin. After a dare to kiss Agnes, Elin discovers she is attracted to Agnes and avoids her, sleeping with a boy to convince herself otherwise. Elin realises she loves Agnes and kiss in the schools bathroom, the entire school  see them and in turn are outed. HAPPY ENDING.

19. AMIEE AND JAGUAR 1999

Based on a true story follows two women in Berlin whilst  the Gestapo is purging the capital of Jews, a dangerous love affair blossoms between two women. One of them, Lilly Wust, married and the mother of four sons, enjoys the privileges of her stature as an exemplar of Nazi motherhood. For her, this affair will be the most decisive experience of her life. For the other woman, Felice Schragenheim, a Jewess and member of the underground, their love fuels her with the hope that she will survive. BUT ITS A SAD FUCKING ENDING U WILL CRY GOOD FILM

20. BETTER THAN CHOCOLATE 

Maggie meets a young artist named Kim. They quickly develop an intense romance and move in together. However when Maggie’s mother and brother come to stay she is forced to decide between living in secret or revealing who she really is. A tale of love, acceptance, loss and pleasure.

21. GRAY MATTERS 2006

Gray falls in love with her brothers fiance after drunkenly kissing her. Gray discovers she is gay and has to find herself in this rom com. Its not a romance film as such but it is a feel good film with a lesbian protagonist, quite campsy but a great film. 

22. FINGERSMITH 2005

Complicated storyline but the premise is basically two women who fall in love in victorian england under strange circumstance. Some sweet and passionate love scenes, Happy ending. 

23. LOVING ANNABELLE 2006

Annabelle and her female teacher fall in love, resulting in the teacher being arrested. Some nice love scenes. Ending a bit meh

24. JENNYS WEDDING 2015

This film had the potential to be good, however, the characters fell flat and you were left wanting more. The film follows Jenny who is in the closet to her parents and decides to marry Kitty her partner of five years. The film is more about her parents accepting her and going to her wedding, its a good watch in terms of its gay themed, its just the lesbian couple is not rooted for as much as you would if the love was portrayed between them more, they kiss a couple of times and thats it. 

25. CONCUSSION 2013

WOW lemme just say this film is an odd one, weirdly you root for the lesbian housewife who cheats on her wife and becomes a prostitute. Its a fantastic film with well executed love scenes. Abbey, a lesbian housewife decides to become a lesbian escort as she is in a sexless marriage. WATCH IT ITS GOOD

26. THE WORLD UNSEEN 2007

Beautiful film of lesbian love. Miriam a housewife falls in love with Amina, a cafe owner in the 1950′s and in South Africa. Optimistic ending for the two. Despite no sex scene, the love between them is elicited via kisses and looks. 

27. I CANT THINK STRAIGHT 2008

Tala, a Palestinian, falls in love with Leyla a British Indian. Tala is engaged to be married and must overcome her sexuality in order to be with Leyla. HAPPY ENDING WATCH IT, ITS CORNY BUT GOOD

28. CRACKS 2009

This film is a weird one. A teacher, the sexy Eva Green is obsessed with the new Spanish girl, she rapes her in her sleep and the ending omg watch it, Its not happy but the character Eva Green portrays is fantastic. 

29. THE GIRL KING 2015

A Swedish Queen falls in love with her Lady in waiting. Good film

30. CHLOE 2009

This film is no romantic happy film but it is so raw and interestingly poignant. Chloe is hired by Catherine to seduce her husband as she believes he is cheating on her. Chloe reports back to Catherine and in a state of sadness from what Chloe says her husband did, they sleep together. Chloe becomes obsessed with Catherine, leading to a death at the end of the film omg watch it, see Amanda Seyfried have sex with Julianne Moore

31. BANDAGED 2009

Lucille disfigures her face and is bandaged until her surgeon Father can cure her. He hires a nurse, Joan, to care for Lucille in her recovery. As Lucille begins to heal, it is clear the two are falling for each other resulting in love scenes that are v niceee. The ending is happy/sad/who knows

32. ITS IN THE WATER 1997

A cheesy comedy about Alex who tests her sexuality when old high school friend Grace tells her she had an affair with another woman. The two fall in love in a town where homosexuality is a sin. Its v cheesy but what do you expect from a 1997 lesbian film. 

33. Elena Undone 2010

Elena Undone is a tad corny and low budget but the characters are well explored and little factoid for you: it has the longest onscreen kiss in history. Elena is married to a pastor but falls in love with Peyton.

34. BLOOMINGTON 2010

Its not great, its corny and a bit of a flop but some scenes get your heart racing. Classic student teacher relationship with extra cheese on top, the ending is pants as is the whole film. 

35. A PERFECT ENDING 2012

A married woman hires a female prostitute, they fall in love but one of them dies. A bit shit this film but potential to be good.

36. BLUE IS THE WARMEST COLOUR 2013

People dont give this film a chance and seek out the explicit sex scene but if you invest time in the film, you will cry at the end omg. Adele and Emma fall in love, break up cos Adele is a slutty idiot, then Adele wants Emma back. 

37. IMAGINE ME AND YOU 2005

This film is never going to win Oscars, but its a good feel good lesbian film. Its cute and you will the characters to be together, corny but good. Rachel marries Heck and on her wedding day meets the florist, Luce whom she falls in love with. 

38. LOST AND DELIRIOUS 2001

Paulie and Victoria are roomates who are seemingly in love until Victoria breaks Paulies heart by sleeping with a boy, Paulie kills herself. 

39. KISS MYG 2011

Mia and Frida fall in love after meeting at their parents engagement party. Happy ending and the sex scenes in this film are wowowow

40. KISSING JESSICA STEIN 2002

Bit of a flop, jessica tries being with a woman but doesnan’t work.

41.BETWEEN TWO WOMEN 2004

Some people might see this film as a bit of a flop but personally I love it, it is set in the late 1940′s and follows a married woman who falls in love with her 10 year old sons female teacher. watch ittttt.

42. CONTRACTED 2013 

A lesbian woman is raped and contracts a deadly disease.

43. BRIDGET JONES EDGE OF REASON 2004

Just for the laughs is the sequel to Bridget Jones where the ‘bitch’ Rebecca turns out to be gay and in love with Bridget

44.THE SEA PURPLE 2009

Angela is in love with Sara but the only way to be together is if Angela becomes a man due to the time period. Its sad omg

45. CAROL 2015

BEST FILM IN THE ENTIRE WORLD WATCH IT. CAROL IS OLDER AND SEXY AND PURPOSELY LEAVES HER GLOVES SO THERESE CAN GIVE THEM HER BACK AND INVITE HER ROUND ON SUNDAYS AND MAKE HER HEART CRY AND THEN TAKE HER ON A ROAD TRIP SO THEY CAN MAKE LOVE THEN CAROL LEAVES HER AND WRITES AN EMOSH LETTER AND THERESE HATES CAROL NOW AND CAROL IS LIKE I SHOULD HAVE TOLD HER TO WAIT THEN ASKS TO MEET HER IN OAK ROOM WHERE SHE TELLS HER SHE LOVES HER AND THE FEELS THEN THERESE BEFORE SHE CAN ANSWER COS SHE ACTING FUCKING STUPID GETS INTERRUPTED BY SOME DIK CALLED JACK AND THEY GO TO PARTY AND THERESE IS LIKE OMG DO I LOVE CAROL THEN SHES LIKE YES LEMME GO SEE HER AND SHE BUSTS INTO RESTAURANT AND SEES FUCKING BEAUTIFUL CATE BLANCHETT SITTING THEIR ALL FUCK ME LOVE ME WANT ME THERESE AND IM LIKE THERESE GO GET HER. very good film watch it

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Students, alumni, and faculty from the University of Minnesota’s Ojibwe language program discuss (in Ojibwe!) the techniques and experiences which have helped them achieve a high level of proficiency in this endangered language.

The goal of the Ojibwe Language major is to best situate both heritage and non-heritage Ojibwe students to be able to positively intervene in the cultural life of the state’s Ojibwe communities by contributing to the revitalization of the Ojibwe language. As a land grant institution, the University of Minnesota has a mission to contribute to the state’s communities and the Ojibwe Language major helps further that mission. The department also prioritizes local American Indian community engagement and advocacy. One of the single best ways to create positive change within our communities is to instill pride and celebrate cultural traditions like language at an early age.

You know what I want to see more of?

I want to see more Indian men unabashedly praise Indian women.

I want to see more Indian men take pride in Indian women’s unbreakable strength, dedication, and dignity.

I want to see more Indian men defend the Indian women who bravely choose to wear cultural attire and ornaments despite possible backlash.

I want to see more Indian men noisily applaud Indian women who speak their mother-tongues in foreign lands.  

I want to see more Indian men wholeheartedly encourage Indian women who pour their hearts and souls into their passions.

I want to see more Indian men extol the virtues of Indian women who value unwavering loyalty to their families, their partners, and themselves. 

I want to see more Indian men roar with fiery rage when Indian women are assaulted, abused, raped, and murdered.

I want to see more Indian men bluntly shut down attempts to degrade, objectify, and mock Indian women.

I want to see more Indian men vocally protest when Indian women are robbed of their cultural wealth by those who trivialize and commercialize it.

I want to see more Indian men engage in discussions about using their privilege to build a safer, kinder, more humane world for Indian women.

I want to see more Indian men recognize the deep potential that lies within daughters who will one day become powerful, radiant Indian women.

I want to see more Indian men shamelessly brag about the timeless, mesmerizing beauty of Indian women.

I want to see more Indian men respect Indian women for the humans that they are.

I want to see more Indian men honor Indian women for the goddesses that they are.

Emptiness / Buddhanature

by Traleg Kyabgon Rinpoche

The middle view avoids the extremes of eternalism and nihilism. Any view that does not fall into the parameters of the middle view — in other words, all views that fall into the extremes of eternalism or nihilism — are referred to as wrong views in Buddhist literature. The Buddha and his subsequent followers have called these wrong views because the nihilistic view minimises what is there in reality, while the eternalistic view adds more to reality than what is really there.

Adherents of all Buddhist schools try to understand everything about themselves — their consciousness, the material world, sentient life, their karmic inheritance and its history, even rebirth or reincarnation — in terms of this middle view. In the Mahayana tradition, the establishment of the middle way is also an aspect of one’s own practice, because the Buddhist adherent steers a course between the two extremes to cultivate the two wisdoms: transcendental knowledge (Skt., prajna) and wisdom/gnosis (Skt., jnana).

THE MADHYAMAKA AND YOGACARA SCHOOLS

With the emergence of Mahayana thought, this middle view was critically examined and taken to highly refined levels of philosophical sophistication. There were two major strands of Buddhist thought in the Mahayana: Madhyamaka and Yogacara. These two schools have had an enormous impact on the cultural, philosophical and religious landscape of Buddhist thinking in the whole of Asia, from India to Japan and beyond. Madhyamaka and Yogacara have produced original and somewhat different (although not necessarily incompatible) interpretations of the middle view. Their perspective on how enlightenment is to be attained is also different.

For the Madhyamikas (or Shunyatavadins), enlightenment is obtained by the practice of the two accumulations, merit and wisdom. In order to carry out this necessary but difficult task with minimal risk of deviations and diversions, the practitioner must engage in the six transcendental actions (Skt., paramitas). From the first four transcendental actions one accumulates merit, while the last two transcendental actions lead to the accumulation of wisdom (which includes both transcendental knowledge and wisdom/gnosis). The reason for practicing these accumulations is to reduce one’s negative karmic inheritance and delusional tendencies. As Nagarjuna, the founder of the Madhyamaka school, continually stated, it is only by developing the middle view that one can gain an understanding of emptiness (Skt., shunyata), which is ultimate reality itself. This understanding of emptiness is applied to the rest of the transcendental actions, so that even the merit that issues forth from one’s practice is seen to be empty of substance or inherent existence. In other words, it is through the realisation of emptiness that one attains enlightenment.

The Yogacarins (or Vijnanavadins), on the other hand, advanced a slightly different perspective on how the two accumulations are to be realised. For Maitreya and Asanga, the founders of the Yogacara school, the main concern was establishing buddhanature (Skt.,tathagatagarbha) as fact.

It was their firm belief that the reality of buddhanature was the foundation upon which all the Mahayana paths and stages were to be erected. They reasoned that if enlightenment were possible — not just in principle but as a realisable actuality — then each sentient creature must possess that enlightened nature. It is only due to the presence of ignorance that sentient creatures have not realised their “existentially intimate” and yet “experientially and cognitively distant” nature.

The key text that Maitreya and Asanga authored — which is widely used by followers of the Kagyü and Nyingma traditions of Tibetan Buddhism — is known as the Mahayanuttaratantra (in one of its shorter names). Its recurrent theme is the removability of the defilements. These defilements are all that obscure the innate purity of one’s inherent buddhanature, which exists in an uncorrupted and incorruptible fashion within the continuum of one’s being.

The difference between these two philosophical schools is that the Madhyamikas see the realisation of emptiness as the one uniquely significant insight, whereas the Yogacarins see the realisation of buddhanature as the very essence of awakening. In the Prajnaparamitasutras, the canonical Mahayana Buddhist sutras upon which Nagarjuna singularly relied, the subject matter is principally about emptiness. In them, shunyata is portrayed as the “Mother of all the buddhas,” because enlightenment arises from the realisation of emptiness. According to the Yogacarins, the source of enlightenment is buddhanature, which is pure and untainted by defilements. However, it is the understanding of emptiness that allows one to realise this buddhanature.

There is very little evidence in Indian literature to suggest that there were any critical exchanges in India between these two prominent Buddhist philosophical schools. However, after the transplantation of Buddhism to Tibet, matters became wildly different. Rival schools of Tibetan Buddhist tradition, each claiming to be faithfully following the preceding Indian schools, engaged in a flurry of scholarly exchanges in which the concept of buddhanature was subjected to severe critical discussion.

These rival schools could not agree on the nature of buddhadharma and its status within the Mahayana teachings as a whole. Their disputes mainly came down to this: “Is buddhanature to be treated as a definitive teaching, or is it an interpretative teaching that relies on explanations to reveal itself?” Many latter-day Kagyü masters, for example, came to accept the teachings on buddhanature as belonging to the definitive class of Mahayana teachings. Those who followed strictly Madhyamaka interpretations of emptiness, on the other hand, did not accept this interpretation. For them, it had pedagogical value only, something that an individual grows out of as he or she develops a deeper understanding of emptiness. They argued that it is only through emptiness that all conceptual categories are deconstructed, and that these conceptual categories include the notion of buddhanature.

We can see, then, that the Yogacara teachings have had just as much influence on the development of Kagyü and Nyingma thought as the Madhyamaka ones, although no Kagyü or Nyingma teacher would consider him or herself to be a Yogacarin. What the early and contemporary Kagyü teachers have done is combine the Yogacara teachings on buddhanature and the Madhyamaka teachings on emptiness.

THE RANGTONG AND SHENTONG DISTINCTION

Further complications regarding the understanding of buddhanature occurred in Tibet as a result of the marriage of these two streams of thought within the Kagyü and other Buddhist schools. This marriage led to the development of the distinctly Tibetan philosophical tradition called the Shentong (“emptiness of other”) school. The Shentongpas charged those schools that interpreted the teachings on emptiness as definitive with falling into the extreme of nihilism. These schools, known in this context as upholders of Rangtong(“emptiness of itself”), counter-charged the Shentongpas with falling into the extreme of eternalism.

It should be noted at this point that many great Kagyü and Nyingma masters have not arrived at the same conclusion as the Shentongpas regarding the concept of buddhanature. Rather, they have accepted the reality of buddhanature while maintaining the Rangtong view of emptiness of itself. Accepting the reality of buddhanature does not mean that one has to accept the Shentong interpretation of emptiness. Shentongpas regard the nature of mind as empty of defilements but not empty of its intrinsic nature. The notion of buddhanature, however, does not in itself imply that mind has any intrinsic nature. Many of the great Kagyü and Nyingma masters, in fact, have interpreted buddhanature to mean that mind is empty of both the defilements and any kind of inherent existence.

The Mahayanuttaratantra itself may yield a conclusion that is consistent with the Rangtong view of emptiness of itself. A true Shentongpa, if there is such a person, is seen by Rangtongpas as always being at risk of reifying buddhanature, thus falling into the extreme of eternalism — a Buddhist heresy. However, for our purposes, we need not be detained by these different interpretations. Suffice it to say that the appropriations and intermingling of the Madhyamaka and Yogacara traditions within Tibetan Buddhism has had a rather complicated and illustrious history. This is not the place to assess and evaluate the legitimacy of the claims and counter-claims, let alone defend this or that master’s favored interpretation. Rather, I would like to offer a general outline of buddhanature, with certain inspirations drawn from the teachings of the mainstream Kagyü tradition.

TEACHINGS ON BUDDHANATURE

The Kagyüpas rely on the Mahayanuttaratantra as the main text on buddhanature. According to the Uttaratantra (its shorthand name) we all possess buddhanature. Our true nature is said to be untainted and not devalued by defilements, delusions, obscurations and other pollutants. However, buddhanature is obscured by those defilements, which have their origins in primordial ignorance. As such, these defilements and obscurations have to be removed. Their removal will lead to the realisation of buddhanature, and the realisation of buddhanature is equated with the attainment of true freedom or liberation.

Thus, freedom and determinism are not incompatible in the Buddhist philosophical tradition. In fact, according to the Buddhist teachings, freedom is contingent on understanding the prevailing and predetermined karmic causes and conditions in our lives. An act of freedom is not regarded as something that occurs in a miraculous fashion, as if our actions had no antecedent causal conditions. Only by understanding the governing causes and conditions — which have led to our present state of bondage in samsara — can we entertain the possibility of achieving true freedom. If we are to have any real chance of realising ultimate freedom, we need to understand how such and such causes and conditions have contributed to our state of bondage, and we need to understand the factors that sustain the underlying mechanisms of samsaric imprisonment. According to the teachings on buddhanature, our state of ignorance and the obscurations that govern our current state of being are caused by distorted thoughts, conflicting emotions and unbridled instinctual feelings. However, because these things are a product of causes and conditions, they can be illuminated and renounced. Their potential removability, combined with the primordial presence of buddhanature, is what makes liberation possible. In the Uttaratantra, the following three reasons are given for this possibility of liberation:

The defilements are removable.

Owing to ignorance, we have unconsciously become afflicted by distorted thoughts, corrupted by conflicting emotions, and led astray by erroneous views and misunderstandings. These various states and tendencies of the mind supply the necessary materials for the formation of fairly stable and persistent character traits, personality structures, self-images and habit patterns. However, although these deluded states of mind — the source of all of one’s misery and anguish — are persistent, they are not permanent fixtures of one’s dispositional properties. Therefore, they are removable and can be jettisoned, provided one engages in the appropriate methods of training.

The remedial qualities and attributes that tend towards enlightenment are already present.

We have the ability to accomplish the difficult, although not impossible, task of eradicating undesirable, self-destructive and degrading states and habits of mind. This is due fundamentally to the wholesome states of the mind and traits that one can cultivate and develop by and within oneself. Therefore, we do not need to draw on divine inspiration in the form of grace. It is evident that liberation is attained through personal effort and not through the bestowal of salvation by an ultimate Other.

Buddhanature is not different from the nature of a fully enlightened being.

Our true nature is buddhanature and that buddhanature is the nature of all sentient beings. Therefore, it is not our nature that separates sentient beings such as ourselves from the fully enlightened beings — although there certainly is a temporal gap that separates the time before and the time after the onset of enlightenment. Since our true nature is the nature of the buddhas, the temporal divide that separates these two states can be narrowed for now and completely bridged in the future.

THE CONDITIONED NATURE OF MIND

Heeding the authoritative nature of the Mahayanuttaratantra and other such texts, followers of Mahayana are counselled to become what they were portended to become in the first place. In a manner of speaking, buddhanature is the very purpose of one’s life, the destiny that one is almost necessarily propelled towards — the very raison d’être of one’s existence. The Uttaratantra, in fact, suggests that our sense of incompleteness and meaninglessness, our feelings of emptiness, dissatisfaction and disquiet, our experience of unhappiness and the litany of other samsaric misfortunes we have, are all indicators of the stirrings of buddhanature that we must heed and respond to.

Furthermore, the Uttaratantra elaborates upon the reasons why, as human beings, we fail to achieve our potential, to actualise our true nature. This temporary failing on our part — which is all that it is according to the Uttaratantra — is attributable to the conditioned nature of our minds. Although our own nature is buddhanature, our thoughts and actions spring not from this unconditioned state but from the deluded and conditioned nature of our minds. As such, every physical, verbal and mental act we perform leaves imprints on our body-mind complex.

It is worth pointing out that in Buddhism, mind does not refer to what we normally mean by consciousness, where consciousness is narrowly defined as that which is opposite to the material or corporeal, and thus of a totally different nature. In Buddhism, mind encompasses the working of any organism that has input/output functions and responds to stimuli. In other words, what is mental is the same as what is sentient. (The term sentientcovers a broad range of living organisms, from the microscopic organisms of aquatic life to highly intelligent, fully realised human beings.) Nothing that sentient beings experience — either on the conscious sentient level or the unconscious level — vanishes. The resulting imprints influence, mold, shape and colour the subsequent experiences of the individual.

The Mahayana teachings mention four different imprints, known as traces and dispositions:

Perceptual traces and dispositions: This means that if we perceive something through our sensory apparatuses, those experiences leave imprints on our brain/mind structure. If we perceive a visual object, even after we stop seeing it in our visual field, that object will continue to appear to our consciousness. For example, an item of clothing in a shop window that caught our eye will subsequently appear to the mind as a mental image. Similarly with audial perceptions, if we hear music that we enjoy, we will continue to hear that tune played over and over in our mind. Of course, these sensory experiences are not simply mentally registered; we respond to them in various ways because of our likes, dislikes, attractions, aversions and so on, thus inculcating ever more fixed predilections and propensities.

Traces and dispositions of apperception: This means that every experience we have is processed, organised and edited, as it were, by the self, although the subject may not be conscious of this process at the time. In other words, there is a self-referential element attached to most of our experiences, so that the experiences that we have through the self are given certain unique characteristics. In this way, they become dispositional properties of the self.

Traces and dispositions of conditioned existence: According to Buddhism, particularly Mahayana Buddhism, there are no physical or mental substances. There are only interacting, mutually interconnected networks of states and processes, brought about by causes and conditions. The causes and conditions themselves are not based in any kind of metaphysical ground. They simply constitute a network of interacting states and processes. The mind, with its conceptual categories and schemas, creates our dispositional properties — in conjunction with the neurochemical activities of the brain, other psychophysical states and processes, and external sensory stimuli.

Traces and dispositions of homogeneity: This last category simply means that our imprints will reflect our current state of mind, as will the future experiences these imprints bring about. For example, if one has the experience of anger, the imprint of anger will give rise to future experiences of anger. A similar process will operate with regard to the wholesome states.

THE FOUR RENUNCIATIONS

We can see, then, that to realise our buddhanature we have to deal with causes and conditions and work with our states of mind with ever-increasing vigilance, mindfulness and awareness. We have to become aware of what sort of likes and dislikes we have, what sort of thoughts we entertain most of the time, what kind of emotional conflicts we habitually perpetuate, and the manner in which we habitually respond to various circumstances, situations and events in life. Knowing more about our potential, on the one hand, and the states and propensities that prevent us from realising that true potential, on the other, is what leads to the attainment of true freedom or enlightenment.

In order to realise our true potential, we have to engage in what are known as the four renunciations. One engages in these practices to attenuate the forces of habit, so that there will be a marked decrease in the unwholesome, non-virtuous, dispositional properties and a corresponding increase in the wholesome and virtuous dispositional properties.

The first two renunciations consist of thinking about one’s unwholesome states of mind, dispositional properties and habit patterns. Having done so, one should make a pledge to oneself, appealing to one’s own more noble nature by saying, “Whatever unwholesome states of mind, dispositions and propensities that have not yet arisen, I will do everything to make sure that they will not arise in the future.” By engaging in pre-emptive measures, such as the cultivation of mindfulness and awareness, one should also do whatever one can to reduce those unwholesome, non-virtuous states that have already arisen and in so doing attenuate their force.

The second two renunciations consist of the positive side. One must ensure that all of the wholesome states of mind and the virtuous dispositional states and habit patterns that have not yet arisen will arise in the future. One must also vow to do everything within one’s power to increase and inculcate those virtuous and wholesome dispositional properties and habit patterns that have already arisen. By the cultivation of virtues and wholesome qualities and the renunciation of vices and unwholesome qualities, one realises buddhanature and thus attains buddhahood.

August 5-6 1762 The Battle of Bushy Run

Picture: Battle of Bushy Run by Don Troiani. The 42nd Regiment of Foot (Black Watch) break through the surrounding Indians at the battle of Bushy Run during Pontiac’s Rebellion.


The Battle of Bushy Run was fought in western Pennsylvania, between a British column under the command of Colonel Henry Bouquet and a combined force of Delaware, Shawnee, Mingo, and Huron warriors. Although the British suffered serious losses, they routed the tribesmen and successfully relieved the garrison of Fort Pitt.

Background:

In July 1763, a relief column of 500 British soldiers, including the 42nd Highlanders, 60th Royal Americans, and 77th Highlanders, left Carlisle, Pennsylvania, to relieve Fort Pitt, then under siege. Indian scouts observed Bouquet’s army marching west along Forbes Road and reported this to the Indians surrounding Fort Pitt. On August 5, at about 1:00 pm, a part of the force besieging Fort Pitt ambushed the British column one mile east of Bushy Run Station, at Edge Hill. The British managed to hold their ground until after sunset, when the natives withdrew. Bouquet ordered a redoubt constructed on Edge Hill, and the British placed their wounded and livestock in the centre of the perimeter.

According to one account, the allied tribes attacked in the morning, but were themselves ambushed by the sentries relieved from their evening duty. With the surprise attack of the sentries, from a flank, and a frontal assault by the main British column, the outnumbered Indians fled in a disorganised retreat.
A second account holds that the warriors attacked in the morning and “redoubled their efforts to break the British line.” As the tribesmen became bolder, Bouquet realised the combat was nearing a crisis. Determined to lure his attackers close enough to maim them, the British leader deliberately weakened one section of his line. Spotting the gap in the enemy defences, the native warriors rushed forward. Instead, the British soldiers fired a volley in their faces and “made terrible havock” with the bayonet. The surviving warriors fled and were unable to rally.
Having dispersed its attackers, Bouquet’s column headed to Bushy Run, a mile along the Forbes road, where there was badly needed water. The battle has since been attributed to the Bushy Run location, despite the main fighting taking place in Edge Hill. Bouquet then marched to the relief of Fort Pitt.

Aftermath:

The battle cost the lives of 50 British soldiers, including 29 of the 42nd Highlanders, seven of the 1/60th Royal Americans, six of the 77th Highlanders, and eight civilians and volunteers. The confederacy of the Delaware, Shawnee, Mingo, and Huron suffered an unknown number of casualties, which includes two prominent Delaware chiefs; estimates by contemporaries placed the total Indian loss at about 60. The warrior Killbuck later told Sir William Johnson that only 110 Indians were engaged. Bouquet estimated he fought an equal number as his own force.

One contemporary report claimed 20 Indians were killed and many more wounded. The result of the battle inspired in the British “widespread relief on the frontier”, since the Indians had finally been defeated on their own ground, prompting one newspaper to exclaim, “that Indians are no more invulnerable than other Men, when attacked on equal Terms, and especially by British Troops.”

The site of the battle is now Bushy Run Battlefield Park.