Portrait of Túpac Amaru, the last Sapa Inca. In 1533, after the death of Atahualpa, Atahualpa’s brother, Manco Inca Yupanqui, was crowned Emperor by the Spaniards. In 1536, he revolted, gathered troops, and marched on the city of Cuzco and besieged it. The revolt was only partially successful, and he fled to the remote city of Vilcabamba where he continued to rule as Sapa Inca of a “post-Inca” or “neo-Inca” state. He was succeeded by his three sons, of whom Túpac Amaru was the last. Túpac Amaru was captured and executed by the Spanish in 1572, bringing the Inca Empire to a permanent end.
TInca Písac, the Incan ruins situated atop a hill at the entrance to the valley, located in Peru. It is unknown when Inca Písac was built, though it does not appear to have been inhabited by any pre-Inca civilization.
Many have speculated why this site was initially constructed. Kim MacQuarrie states that Pachacuti (the ninth Sapa Inca of the Kingdom of Cusco) erected a number royal estates to memorialize victories over other ethnic groups. These include: Písac (victory over the Cuyos), Machu Picchu (conquest of the Vilcabamba Valley), and Ollantaytambo (victory over the Tambos). Some other historians suggest that it was built to protect Cusco from possible attacks of the Antis nations.
Agricultural terraces (see photo 2) on the steep hillside were constructed by the Inca, which are still used today. The ruins have been separated into 4 groups: Pisaqa, Kinchiracay, Q'allaqasa, and Intihuatana (which includes the Temple of the Sun, altars, baths, a ceremonial platform).
Choquequirao is a 15th and 16th century settlement associated with the Incan Empire, or more correctly Tawantinsuyu. The site had two major growth stages. This could be explained if Pachacuti founded Choquequirao and his son, Tupaq Inka Yupanki, remodeled and extended it after becoming the Sapa Inka. Choquequirao is located in the area considered to be Pachacuti’s estate; which includes the areas around the rivers Amaybamba, Urabamba, Vilcabamba, Victos and Apurímac. Other sites in this area are Saywite, Machu Picchu, Chachapampa (Chachabamba), Chuqisuyuy(Choquesuysuy) and Wamanmarka (Guamanmarca); all of which share similar architectural styles with Choquequirao. The architectural style of several important features appears to be of Chachapoya design, suggesting that Chachapoya workers were probably involved in the construction. This suggests that Tupaq Inka probably ordered the construction. Colonial documents also suggest that Tupaq Inka ruled Choquequirao since his great grandson, Tupa Sayri, claimed ownership of the site and neighboring lands during Spanish colonization.
It was one of the last bastions of resistance and refuge of the Son of the Sun (the “Inca”), Manco Inca Yupanqui, who fled Cusco after his siege of the city failed in 1535.
According to the Peruvian Tourism Office, “Choquequirao was probably one of the entrance check points to the Vilcabamba, and also an administrative hub serving political, social and economic functions. Its urban design has followed the symbolic patterns of the imperial capital, with ritual places dedicated to Inti (the Incan sun god) and the ancestors, to the earth, water and other divinities, with mansions for administrators and houses for artisans, warehouses, large dormitories or kallankas and farming terraces belonging to the Inca or the local people. Spreading over 700 meters, the ceremonial area drops as much as 65 meters from the elevated areas to the main square." The city also played an important role as a link between theAmazon Jungle and the city of Cusco.
Unlike a number of the elaborate metropolis’ and statuary left behind by the Incan people the rings at Moray are relatively simple but may have actually been an ingenious series of test beds. Descending in grass-covered, terraced rings, the rings of rings vary in size with the largest ending in a depth of 30 meters (98 feet) deep and 220 meters (722 feet) wide. Studies have shown that many of the terraces contain soil that must have been imported from other parts of the region. The temperature at the top of the pits varies from that at the bottom of the ringed pits by as much as 15 degrees Celsius , creating a series of micro-climates that not coincidentally match many of the varied climate conditions among the Incan empire. It is now believed that the rings were used as a test bed to see what crops could grow where. This proto-America’s-Test-Kitchen is yet another example of the Incan ingenuity that makes them one of the most remarkable of declined societies in the planet’s history.
Emotional Frequency: Why Are Many Old Souls Empaths?
Some of you may have heard of Empaths: people who are known for their highly developed ability to sense the emotions and thoughts of the people around them.
You might have heard all the symptoms of being an Empath; finding public places overwhelming, confusing others emotions with your own and absorbing them like an “emotional sponge“, finding films/images of violence or cruelty unbearable, feeling other people’s physical pains, being a great listener, suffering from fatigue, needing solitude to recharge and even experiencing the emotions of loved ones who are far away. But most articles fail to answer why this occurs.
“‘Rediscovered’ by Hiram Bingham in 1911, this monumental ‘lost’ Inca citadel was built in the mid-15th century on a dramatic mountain top. Its stunning natural surroundings and awe-inspiring standing remains make this a truly remarkable site – a vivid reminder of the technological capabilities and power of the Inca Empire at its peak. Its terraced platforms and cave cemeteries allowed a fascinating insight into the lives of the 1000 or so people who had once lived here.”
Use of coca leaves, the leaves which can be used to make cocaine, is traditional in the Andes. In fact, its consumption dates to the very earliest of ancient South American cultures. We have evidence that coca was consumed in what is today Ecuador as early as the 8000s BCE. This is hardly surprising. Coca is extremely useful.
The leaves contain a powerful alkaloid which acts as a stimulant. Its effects include raised heart rate, increased appetite, and suppressed hunger and thirst. Its muscle-relaxing properties mean coca leaves are great for menstrual cramps. And that also helps treat altitude sickness, by opening up the respiratory tract and relieving the feeling of shortness of breath and tightness in the chest. Further, coca leaves have antibacterial and analgesic properties. It also aids in digestion and preventing constipation. Finally, the leaves themselves are nutritionally beneficial. They are rich in iron, vitamin B, and vitamin C. No wonder coca leaves continue to be a large part of Andean culture through today.