inca's

(1213) N-ai idee cate mesaje ti-am scris plangand, dar pe care nu ti le-am trimis niciodata de teama ca ar fi in zadar si ca as pica de fraiera ca inca-mi mai pasa in timp ce tu pari a fi bine si in lipsa mea.. #A
—  31decembrie2014
Antibiotic resistance discovered in the guts of ancient mummies

The gut bacteria inside 1000-year-old mummies from the Inca Empire are resistant to most of today’s antibiotics, even though we only discovered these drugs within the last 100 years.

“At first we were very surprised,” Tasha Santiago-Rodriguez of California Polytechnic State University in San Louis Opisbo, told the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology last month.

Her team studied the DNA within the guts of three Incan mummies dating back to between the 10th and 14th centuries and six mummified people from Italy, from between the 15th and 18th centuries. They found an array of genes that have the potential to resist almost all modern antibiotics, including penicillin, vancomycin and tetracycline.

These ancient genes were largely in microbes whose resistance is problematic today, including Enteroccocus bacteria that can infect wounds and cause urinary tract infections. Read more.

newscientist.com
Antibiotic resistance discovered in the guts of ancient mummies
By Andy Coghlan

The gut bacteria inside 1000-year-old mummies from the Inca Empire are resistant to most of today’s antibiotics, even though we only discovered these drugs within the last 100 years.

“At first we were very surprised,” Tasha Santiago-Rodriguez of California Polytechnic State University in San Louis Opisbo, told the Annual Meeting of the American Society for Microbiology last month.

Her team studied the DNA within the guts of three Incan mummies dating back to between the 10th and 14thcenturies and six mummified people from Italy, from between the 15th and 18th centuries. They found an array of genes that have the potential to resist almost all modern antibiotics, including penicillin, vancomycin and tetracycline.

These ancient genes were largely in microbes whose resistance is problematic today, including Enteroccocus bacteria that can infect wounds and cause urinary tract infections. But they found that many other species, including some harmless ones, carried some of these resistant genes too.

Enterococcus enigma

“When you think about it, almost all these antibiotics are naturally produced, so it makes sense to find antibiotic genes as well,” says Santiago-Rodriguez.

Their finding shows that genes that can confer resistance to antibiotics were relatively widespread hundreds of years before Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin in 1928. “It’s ridiculous to think evolution of antibiotic resistance began when penicillin was discovered,” said team-member Raul Cano, also at California Polytechnic State University, at the meeting while discussing the findings. “It’s been going on for 2 billion years.”

These genes existed long before antibiotics became common, but it is our overuse of these drugs in both people and livestock that caused the superbug resistance to explode worldwide, said Cano.

“This is exciting data,” says Adam Roberts, who studies antibiotic resistance genes at University College London. While it is already well known that antibiotic resistance occurred naturally before people started using antibiotics, this study shows that resistance genes were already within the human gut long before we started using these drugs, he says.

“It begs the question of what was selecting for these genes at this time? Was it the natural production of antibiotics by other bacteria, or were there other, as yet unknown forces at play?” asks Roberts.

a pair of traditional drinking cups, or aquillas, were discovered in situ at Purunllacta de Soloco in Peru, and date to about 1536 to 1580s. They are evidence that the traditional gift giving practices of Andean elites were still in operation fifty years after the Spanish conquest of the Incan Empire. The silver cups date to the early Spanish colonial occuption of Purunllacta, and are decorated with hybrid Incan and Spanish designs. For instance, colonial hats worn with traditional Incan unca tunics.

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PEOPLE OF THE ANCIENT WORLD: Pachacuti Inca Yupanqui (Inca Ruler) 

PACHACUTI Inca Yupanqui (often simply Pachacuti or Pachacutec) was the 9th Inca ruler (r. 1438 - 1471 CE) who founded their empire with conquests in the Cuzco Valley and beyond. Pachacuti is also credited with founding the site of Machu Picchu

His title Pachacuti, which he gave himself on his accession, means ‘Reverser of the World’ or ‘Earth-shaker,’ and the same word was used by the Incas to refer to the epoch-changing event or ‘turning over of time and space’ which they believed occurred regularly through history. An appropriate enough title, then, for a ruler who set his people on the road to prosperity and the creation of an empire which would eventually be the largest ever seen in the Americas. 

Read More  


Article by Mark Cartwright on AHE

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This week I visited Southwind Farms in Connecticut, where I made the acquaintance of more than 40 woolly friends. The critters look a lot like llamas, but are smaller with less prominent ears. For thousands of years, they’ve been bred for their durable and luxurious fur, which adorned the likes of Inca royalty. Today, enjoy a few facts about the alpaca (Vicugna pacos).

  • While it might not be obvious at first, alpacas are actually more closely related to camels than they are to other animals you might see on a farm like sheep.
  • How do you tell the difference between an alpaca and a llama? Well, the ears are one clue: llamas have more upright, curved ears, while alpaca ears are pointer. If you’re standing next to both, you could also tell pretty easily: llamas are a lot bigger, weighing up to twice as much as alpacas.
  • Alpacas can live for up to 20 years, spending their days eating hay and grasses, which are efficiently digested in their three-chambered stomachs. 
  • Genetic origins of the alpaca have been a topic of some dispute. For years, it was thought the creatures came from llamas, but a 2001 genetic analysis successfully reclassified alpacas as ancestors of the vicuña, a wild camelid living in the high mountains of the Andes.
  • Prized for their fleece, which is warmer than wool (and less itchy), alpacas were a staple of Inca culture for thousands of years, but were nearly hunted to extinction beginning in the mid-16th century as Spanish invaders slaughtered the animals.
  • Alpacas can spit. They usually do it to other alpacas, but have been known to spit at people, too.

(Image Credit: Clockwise from top: Creative Commons: Roger Johnson, Wikimedia Commons, Patrick Skahill, CC: mattacevedo / Source: Wikimedia Commons, Genetic analysis reveals the wild ancestors of the llama and the alpaca, International Alpaca Association, Black Alpaca, Southwind Farms)

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Choquequirao is a 15th and 16th century settlement associated with the Incan Empire, or more correctly Tawantinsuyu. The site had two major growth stages. This could be explained if Pachacuti founded Choquequirao and his son, Tupaq Inka Yupanki, remodeled and extended it after becoming the Sapa Inka. Choquequirao is located in the area considered to be Pachacuti’s estate; which includes the areas around the rivers Amaybamba, Urabamba, Vilcabamba, Victos and Apurímac. Other sites in this area are Saywite, Machu Picchu, Chachapampa (Chachabamba), Chuqisuyuy(Choquesuysuy) and Wamanmarka (Guamanmarca); all of which share similar architectural styles with Choquequirao. The architectural style of several important features appears to be of Chachapoya design, suggesting that Chachapoya workers were probably involved in the construction. This suggests that Tupaq Inka probably ordered the construction. Colonial documents also suggest that Tupaq Inka ruled Choquequirao since his great grandson, Tupa Sayri, claimed ownership of the site and neighboring lands during Spanish colonization.

It was one of the last bastions of resistance and refuge of the Son of the Sun (the “Inca”), Manco Inca Yupanqui, who fled Cusco after his siege of the city failed in 1535.

According to the Peruvian Tourism Office, “Choquequirao was probably one of the entrance check points to the Vilcabamba, and also an administrative hub serving political, social and economic functions. Its urban design has followed the symbolic patterns of the imperial capital, with ritual places dedicated to Inti (the Incan sun god) and the ancestors, to the earth, water and other divinities, with mansions for administrators and houses for artisans, warehouses, large dormitories or kallankas and farming terraces belonging to the Inca or the local people. Spreading over 700 meters, the ceremonial area drops as much as 65 meters from the elevated areas to the main square." The city also played an important role as a link between theAmazon Jungle and the city of Cusco.

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Choquequirao

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PLACES IN THE ANCIENT WORLD: Sacsayhuaman (Peru) 

THE Sacsayhuaman (also Saksaywaman or Saqsawaman, meaning ‘Royal Eagle’) fortress-temple complex lies at the northern edge of the former Inca capital Cuzco

Constructed during the reign of Pachacuti (1438-1471 CE) and his successors, its massive, well-built walls remain today as a testimony not only to Inca power but also the skills of Inca architects and their approach of blending their monumental structures harmoniously into the natural landscape. The Sacsayhuaman is still used today for reenactments of Inca-inspired ceremonies.

Read More 


Article by Mark Cartwright on AHE

November - DecemberThe Pleiades, the mother of all the stars.That’s how the Inca envisioned this star cluster.Collca was the name given to this constellationbecause the Pleiades predicted the future.In November this cumulus of starscan be seen all night.


Miguel Araoz Cartagena

Peruvian, b.1977-

Oil on canvas,  161 x 100 cms.

Noi ne am dus de mult,iubito
De ce nu vrei sa înțelegi?
Ma doare sa te vad,iubito
Si sa îți spun ca vreau sa pleci.

Cu pași repezi ne am pierdut
Dar inca îmi e dor de tine
Desi de ieri nu te am văzut
Si plâng, caci nu ma pot abține.

Tu nu mai crezi de mult ce spun
Eu nu mai cred in tine
Povesti au devenit minciuni
Si m am pierdut pe mine.

Am lacrimi peste tot,pe perna
Si sufletul mi a amorțit
Am droguri îmbibate in vena
Si sper sa mor la asfințit .

Cum sa îți reproșez ,iubire…
Cum sa îți descriu ce simt ?
Sa înțelegi ca nu mi sta in fire
Dar sunt un om dezamăgit .

In capul meu se învârt idei
Si planurile toate
S au scurs prin mana ei
Nimic nu se mai poate.