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→ historical events: the Year Without A Summer

The year 1816 is known as the Year Without a Summer (also the Poverty Year, the Summer that Never Was, Year There Was No Summer, and Eighteen Hundred and Froze to Death), because of severe climate abnormalities that caused average global temperatures to decrease by 0.7–1.3 °F. Evidence suggests that the anomaly was predominantly a volcanic winter event caused by the massive 1815 eruption of Mount Tambora, the largest eruption in at least 1,300 years. Food riots broke out in the United Kingdom and France, and grain warehouses were looted. The violence was worst in landlocked Switzerland, where famine caused the government to declare a national emergency. Huge storms and abnormal rainfall with flooding of Europe’s major rivers (including the Rhine) are attributed to the event, as is the August frost. A major typhus epidemic occurred in Ireland between 1816 and 1819, precipitated by the famine caused by the Year Without a Summer. An estimated 100,000 Irish perished during this period. The crop failures of the “Year without a Summer” may have helped shape the settling of the “American Heartland”, as many thousands of people (particularly farm families who were wiped out by the event) left New England for what is now western and central New York and the Midwest (then the Northwest Territory) in search of a more hospitable climate, richer soil, and better growing conditions. In June 1816, “incessant rainfall” during that “wet, ungenial summer” forced Mary Shelley, John William Polidori, and their friends to stay indoors at Villa Diodati overlooking Lake Geneva for much of their Swiss holiday. They decided to have a contest to see who could write the scariest story, leading Shelley to write Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus and Lord Byron to write “A Fragment”, which Polidori later used as inspiration for The Vampyre — a precursor to Dracula. In addition, Lord Byron was inspired to write the poem “Darkness”, by a single day when “the fowls all went to roost at noon and candles had to be lit as at midnight”. X

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Angry Indian Goddesses is India’s first female buddy movie with a fresh, realistic portrait of women in India today. Frieda, a fashion-commercial photographer trying to find her own art, gathers her closest girlfriends from all over India to travel to Goa for a surprise announcement: she’s getting married! Thus begins an impromptu bachelorette celebration that lasts for a full week. A riotous roller-coaster ride of girl bonding; friendships, break ups, make ups, passion, devastation, hesitation, terrorization and self realization. Amidst the fun and frenzy, heartbreak and heartache, passion and obsession, youth and innocence, secrets tumble out, tensions emerge, bonds are formed and emotions run high. Soon events will take a more serious turn, but for the moment these women are determined to seize the day.

END-PERMIAN (250 Ma) - “The Great Dying”

Severity: 1st worst

Cause: Eruption of Siberian Traps

Climate: Cold to extremely warm; ocean acidification and anoxia, ozone destruction

Aftermath: Permanent ecosystem reorganization; low O2 for >106 years

There’s good reason why the End-Permian extinction is referred to as “The Great Dying”; 95% of all marine families, 53% of all marine families, 84% of marine genera, and 70% of known land species went extinct,

The extinction likely occurred in three stages:
1. Land extinctions over ~40,000 yrs
2. Very abrupt marine extinctions
3. Second phase of land extinctions

Calcifying marine organisms such as brachiopods and bryozoa were the hardest hit, representative of ocean acidification. The last of the Cambrian fauna also died off, and this was the only known mass extinction of insects

So what exactly made the End-Permian extinction so severe? There truly was a perfect storm to make this the deadliest million years in Earth’s history.

Earth had been emerging from a moderate ice age when the largest flood basalt event in history (the Siberian Traps) occurred, which released vast amounts of CO2. The oceans then became increasingly warm, acidic, stratified, and euxinic from decaying organic matter. The atmosphere also became flooded with light (biogenically fixed) C, possibly from seafloor methane hydrates or from coal gas released as a result of heating from the Siberian Traps. Greenhouse gases soon caused global temperatures to spike, leading to massive extinction. Global euxinia in the oceans then became a severe problem, with sulfate reducing bacteria releasing large amounts of H2S, poisoning the oceans and atmosphere and thinning the ozone layer. These systems then created a cycle of positive feedbacks:
more die-offs → more euxinia → more H2S → more die-offs.

Marine ecosystems were forever changed after the extinction. Land ecosystems didn’t recover for ~5 My, and O2 levels remained low throughout much of Triassic time.

Click HERE to see all Mass Extinction Monday posts

Black History Month: What makes you proudest?

For Black History Month, we’ve featured some talented NSF Graduate Research Fellows doing important research in a variety of fields. This week, we’re asking them “What makes you proudest thus far in your career?”


“I have always wanted to pursue a field of study that would enable me to develop new materials, medicine, and technologies that have the potential to impact and ameliorate the quality of human life. I am most proud of my achievements throughout my undergrad, during which I worked at Harvard University developing functional bio-inspired materials and published my first paper.”

– Cicely Shillingford, Ph.D. candidate,  Department of Chemistry, Molecular Design Institute, New York University


“What makes me the proudest of my scientific career? I’m appreciative of the fact that each day I enter the laboratory, I learn new concepts and techniques, as well as get closer to the goal I set for myself as a 12-year-old boy: to become an assistant professor and researcher. I was drawn to science because it helps improve the lives of others, sometimes immediately or in the long-term.”

– Johnathan D. Culpepper, graduate research assistant, IIHR-Hydroscience and Engineering, The University Of Iowa


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We have a new show: Analog Network: Mail Art, 1960–1999. Come see it in the Cullman Building Mezzanine through January 5.

Mail art—broadly defined as artists’ postal communication—emerged in the early 1960s from Fluxus, Nouveau Réalisme, and Conceptual art practices and expanded into a decentralized, global network. This exhibition traces the growth of correspondence networks, shows politically oriented works, documents discourse about the practice, and concludes with mail artists’ adaptation to the Internet.

We’ll be having a related event on Friday, November 14, focusing on mail artist Guglielmo Achille Cavellini. Details to come. -jt

Envelope from the Franklin Furnace Collection, MoMA Library.

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Vans today announced the formation of the first ever world championships of park terrain skateboarding with the 2016 introduction of the Vans Pro Skate (PS) Park Series. Showcasing an international roster of top pros, and a total prize purse in excess of one half-million U.S. dollars, the inaugural Vans PS Park Series establishes the premier global points ranking system for Men’s and Women’s park terrain skateboarding.

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PHOTOS - A Sneak Peek At David Tennant In Episodes 9 & 10 Of Gracepoint

FOX TV’s enthralling murder mystery Gracepoint may be absent from our screens for this week due to US Thanksgiving, but fortunately we can bring you some brand new promotional pictures of David Tennant to look at in the meantime.

The ten-part series explores events in a small town in Northern California following the murder of a young local boy. David Tennant plays Detective Emmett Carver who is leading the hunt for the killer, alongside his colleague Ellie Miller played by Anna Gunn. But in the small community of Gracepoint, anyone could be a suspect, and as the boy’s family struggle to recover from the tragedy, the long-held secrets of the town’s residents start to emerge. Other cast include Jacki Weaver, Kevin Zegers and Kevin Rankin. 

Episode 9
Airs Thursday 4th December at 9pm ET on FOX in the USA and Global in Canada
Also on Friday 5th December at 8.30pm on the Universal Channel in Australia

After Detective Carver’s heart condition worsens, he has 24 hours before his boss removes him from the case. So he and Miller race against the clock to find out who killed Danny Solano. Meanwhile, Beth Solano seeks out advice from Paul Coates, and Susan Wright shares a deep secret that no one saw coming. Episode 10 (Season Finale)
Airs Thursday 11th December at 9pm ET on FOX in the USA and Global in Canada
Also on Friday 12th December at 8.30pm on the Universal Channel in Australia

The Gracepoint murder case comes to a close when Detective Emmett Carver and Detective Ellie Miller finally catch Danny’s killer
Yahoo Screen + Live Nation = 365 Days of Awesome!

Initial Artist Lineup Released for Live Nation Channel on Yahoo Screen – Featuring Dave Matthews Band, Justin Timberlake and Usher

By Kathy Savitt, CMO 

Live moments are the most memorable.  In today’s on-demand entertainment environment, live events dominate the water cooler conversation, because they’re the only ones that we all share in the moment, together at the same time.

That’s why we’re so excited to kick off the world’s largest live concert series together with Live Nation.  One live streamed concert a day, for 365 days … fusing together global superstars and emerging artists across genres, from rock to pop, hip hop to electronic.  

It all starts next Tuesday, July 15, with “A Very Special Evening with Dave Matthews Band” at the Jacksonville Veterans Memorial Arena. Additional artists confirmed include Usher, Gavin DeGraw, Common, The Neighbourhood, MKTO, The Kooks, Airborne Toxic Event, Three Days Grace, The Fray and many more. The Live Nation Channel on Yahoo Screen will also feature special performances including:

  • Recent Rock and Roll Hall of Fame inductees, KISS, streaming live from their 40th Anniversary Tour;

  • John Legend performing Marvin Gaye’s classic album, “What’s Going On” in its entirety, with Sharon Jones & the Dap-Kings and the Los Angeles Philharmonic live from the Hollywood Bowl; and

  • Justin Timberlake and the Tennessee Kids performing their first ever concert in Reykjavik, Iceland.

Music fans can get a sneak peak at the first 30 days of scheduled performances by going to yahoo.com/live. Starting Monday, July 14, you can sign up for text, email and calendar reminders for the concerts you want to watch – and invite your friends to tune in, as well.   

Don’t miss out on live concerts, artist interviews, behind the scenes footage, and exclusive releases.  And check back often, because we’ll be announcing more of your favorite artists in the coming weeks.    

Follow us @YahooScreen and #YahooLive for the latest news and updates.  

Want to learn more? Check out our Press Center.

Louis Tomlinson To Host Charity Cinderella Ball - One Direction’s Most Charitable Deeds

You know it, we know it, heck, the whole bloomin’ world knows it, but still it’s always nice to have an excuse to remind everybody just how bloomin’ lovely, wonderful, and big-hearted those One Direction boys are.

The latest example of this comes courtesy of the gorgeous, high-cheekboned babe that is Louis Tomlinson, who last night announced that he was set to host a ‘Cinderella Ball’ for Believe In Magic - a charity that makes dreams come true for seriously ill children.

We will give you a moment to stop crying.

With the majority of tickets to the ball being invite only, Louis has released a few to the public and we are just about ready to sell everything that we have in order to go.

We shall go to the ball, etc. etc.

Originally posted by queentianas

Anyways, Louis’ act of goodwill had us thinking about all of the other charitable and amazing good deeds that our fave four boys have done over the years, and we figured that today was as good a day as any to put all of them in writing.

After all, it’s far too common for the fab stuff that the boys do to get overlooked by all the drama and scandal surrounding their personal lives in the mainstream - so why not spread the word a little bit, eh?

1D made their mark on the philanthropist world early on in their careers, jetting off to poverty-stricken Ghana as part of Comic Relief in 2013. Clearly heartbroken by the tragedies that they were witnessing first hand, the boys also recorded the official single for the charity, a remix of ‘One Way Or Another’ and ‘Teenage Kicks’.

Prior to that, however, the boys had started to individually work with causes that meant something to them, with Niall Horan organising an event to raise money for Irish Autism Action and another charity, Temporary Emergency Accomodation Mullingar, in September 2012.

Originally posted by 1dlovershere

Saying that he was “honoured to be able to give back to his community”, Niall’s popularity saw the ticket website for the event break down with all 500 tickets being snapped up in moments.

Talk about a legend, eh?

Liam Payne and Harry Styles also teamed up for a cause close to their hearts, with Trekstock - a leading cancer charity that supports young people battling the illness.

As ambassadors of the charity, they launched a global campaign in 2013 which promised the chance to #HangWithLiam&Harry by offering all those who donated the chance to win an evening out with the boys.

The original goal for the campaign was to raise $500,000, however, Liam and Harry’s involvement saw them exceed the $784,000 mark - or £500,000 to you and us and Her Royal Highness - which the charity revealed would be enough to allow them to “complete funding of their Hodgkin’s lymphoma trial, in the hope of offering a much brighter future to thousands of children and young people affected by this form of disease.”

AMAZING, RIGHT?!

Originally posted by theonewhoprotested

Earlier this year, Liam also hosted a Great-Gatsby-Esque ball for Trekstock, ensuring that the charity celebrate their fifth birthday of saving lives and generally being awesome in style. Dressed in a gorge blue suit, Liam was supported by his bandmates as he took on the mammoth, and brilliant, task of raising money for the cause.

And of course that’s not all. Fast-forward to 2014 and you’ll find that One Direction donated a whopping £600,000 to the Stand up to Cancer campaign, by kindly giving portions of their ticket sale revenues from their Where We Are Tour to the charity.

Originally posted by tescotommo

Then, later that year, they joined charity group Band Aid 30 to record a new version of ‘Do They Know It’s Christmas?’, finding the time amid their hectic schedules to record vocals for the song that went on to raise over a million pounds for the Ebola crisis in Western Africa.

WAIT, THERE IS MORE.

Louis, the Prince Charming set to host the aforementioned Cinderella ball, is also a patron for Bluebell Wood Children’s Hospice, dedicating his free time to putting a smile on the faces of poorly children.

The rest of the boys are also happy to put their face and name to a whole list of worthwhile foundations, so much so that when each of their birthdays roll around, dedicated fans donate in their thousands to raise money for a charity that means something to them.

Earlier this year, the fandom donated a huge £11,000 to the London Lesbian and Gay Switchboard in honour of Harry’s birthday, £15,000 for Bluebell Wood on behalf of Louis, and they are in the middle of raising funds for Autism Assistance Dogs Ireland
 in time for Niall’s next birthday, and Médecins Sans Frontières (UK), or Doctors Without Borders, for Liam’s. 

Originally posted by babustyles

That’s a LOT of charity donations, eh?

Team all of this up with the band’s latest project #Action1D, which urges their fans to take action to basically make the world a better place, and we have some seriously concrete evidence that these four boys are bloomin’ good eggs.

And we also know for a fact that they will never, ever, change. 

Love you, boys.

Mazda RX-Vision Named Most Beautiful Concept

The Mazda RX-Vision has been awarded “Most Beautiful Concept Car of the Year” at the 31st Festival Automobile International. First revealed at last year’s Tokyo Motor Show, Mazda’s striking rotary-powered sports car concept wowed crowds at its global debut with its exquisitely proportioned dimensions & lines.

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Peter Capaldi made a surprise appearance at this evening’s BBC Worldwide Showcase event in Liverpool.

Capaldi emerged from the TARDIS to the delight of the audience and chatted briefly with Graham Norton.

He said: “As a lifetime follower of the show, I’m delighted to see its global success. And I’m looking forward to sharing with the world the very exciting journey the new series is taking us on”.

His attendance was part of an evening celebrating the best of British TV talent, with appearances including Sir David Attenborough, the presenters of Top Gear, Bollywood dancing from India’s smash hit version of Strictly Come Dancing and a special pre-recorded piece from Sherlock star Benedict Cumberbatch.

The annual 4-day Showcase event, hosted by BBC Worldwide - brings executives from international broadcasters together and provides them with the opportunity to watch new programmes available for international sale. This year 2,800 hours of British TV content are available to buy covering drama, comedy, natural history, factual entertainment, formats, science and children’s; enabling buyers to take the best of British television programming to viewers around the globe.

In 2012/13, BBC Worldwide generated headline profits of £156m and headline sales of £1,116m and returned £156m to the BBC.

The Vans Pro Skate Park Series, skateboarding’s first-ever world championship park terrain series, revealed today an elite roster of the world’s top skateboarders who have joined on to exclusively participate in the inaugural Vans Park Series World Championships of park terrain skateboarding.

The following 15 Park Series Select Pros will meet the five highest ranked skaters to emerge from the Vans Park Series Global Qualifier system when they claim their spots at the 2016 Vans Park Series World Championships of park terrain skateboarding this August 20 in Malmö, Sweden. Park Series Select Pros are also pre-seeded at every Global Qualifier event this year.

Vans Park Series

2016 Select Pros

Aaron Jaws Hamoki

Ben Hatchell

Chris Russell

Collin Provost

Curren Caples

Grant Taylor

Greyson Fletcher

Jack Fardell

Kevin Kowalski

Oskar Rozenberg Hallberg

Pedro Barros

Raven Tershy

Riley Hawk

Ronnie Sandoval

Rowan Zorilla

Detailed event information for each stop of the 2016 Vans Park Series is available at vansparkseries.com and follow along on Instagram at @vansparkseries for the latest information on Vans Park Series events, Webcast details, Select Pros, official sponsors, sanctions and competition formatting.