impressionist movement

Art History for Dummies

I’m a big art and art history fan. Unfortunately, between college, work, and other commitments I don’t get to create to a decent standard as much as I’d like to but I hope to return to that once the little issue of getting a degree is out of the way. Through time spent looking for work to blatantly plagiarise and actually studying artists’ work for the Leaving Cert., I’ve picked up a decent amount of art history knowledge. If I ever need to give a TED Talk style presentation on something it would be on my favourite art history movements. Although who can tell whether this is because I’m actually a little knowledgeable this field or I’m just incredibly stupid in others.

Regardless, below is a brief outline of not only four of my favourite art movements, but four of the most important and significant art movements in history. Designed to give the art history rookie a decent understanding into art’s biggest movements, you can now be confident that if you ever find yourself in an art gallery, you can charm your way to impressing whatever party you may find yourself with.

Impressionism

Characterised by: Small, visible brushstrokes, use of light, ordinary subject matter, use of and representation of movement

Championed by: Claude Monet, Edgar Degas, Camille Pissaro, Pierre-Auguste Renoir

Impressionism is a 19th Century art movement which came about essentially when a group of artists, tired of the stuffy and outdated standard of art expected in Paris at the time, decided to go in a different direction, in terms of subject matter, technique and style. To make any sort of decent living as an artist at Paris at the time (the place to be for art, what’s changed?) your best bet was to submit a piece of work to the French Salon, Paris’s official art exhibition. However, the selection committee for the Salon were quite particular in what they would display, preferring art done using traditional styles perfected by the old masters and specific subject matter (generally religious or inspired by monarchy in some way). Meaning that anyone who dared to submit anything that varied from this strict set of ideals was fresh outta luck.

Édouard Manet was the artist responsible for bridging the gap between the previous major art movements of romanticism and realism, and the new movement, impression. His piece Le déjeuner sur l'herbe (the luncheon on the grass, pictured below) caused a fair bit of a stir in the art community at the time. Mostly because of the naked prostitute in the forefront (Pro Art History Tip: if there’s a naked woman in a painting from the 19th century, you can be fairly confident she’s a prostitute). This did not sit well with our stuffy friends at the Salon, who when upon seeing this exclaimed “Oh my word, what is this?!” while clutching their pearls (or so I’d like to imagine). It was described as “ugly” and “risqué” in terms of its subject matter (to which I’d say no sh*t Sherlock, that’s the point”). But it did pave the way for true impressionists to make their mark (while Manet was a key figurehead in the impressionist movement, he wasn’t actually an impressionist painter himself).

Claude Monet is the father of Impressionism. His piece Impression Sunrise, featured below, inspired the name of the art movement and truly captures the characteristics of the movement:

Interestingly, a lot of these Impressionist artists were active in Paris at the same time and would often hang out in Parisian bars drinking absinthe (inspiring a Degas piece by the same name). When they all (predictably) were rejected from the Salon, they gave them the ultimate f*ck you by setting up Salon des Refusés, which literally translates to “the exhibition of rejects”, where they could display their work. This went down about as well as you’d expect given the circumstances. Ballers.

Post Impressionism

Characterised By: A more developed use of colour than that of impressionists. Post-impressionists use colour as a way of expressing emotion and are less concerned that things are accurately represented colour-wise. Subject matter is quite ordinary and are not always depicted to scale.

Championed By: Paul Cézanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh, and Georges Seurat.

Despite the (ironically) less than creative name, post impressionism is a really interesting point in art history’s timeline. Impressionism marked the moment that art really started to change rapidly. Post-impressionists rejected the limitiations that impression presented but still took influence from it. Post-impressionism artists continued using vivid colours, often thick application of paint, and real-life subject matter, but were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, distort form for expressive effect, and use unnatural or arbitrary colour.

Arguably the most famous post-impressionist (and my personal favourite artist) was Vincent Van Gogh, whose huge arsenal of work is recognisable worldwide. Van Gogh famously suffered with mental illness during his lifetime and this is evident in his work, which can border on sinister at times. If you can deal with science-fiction, I’d recommend the Van Gogh episode of Doctor Who (Episode title “Vincent and the Doctor”, season 5), which does an excellent job of portraying Van Gogh’s inner turmoil and why his work remains so influential today. Also, if you’re ever in Amsterdam, do yourself the biggest favour and go to the Van Gogh museum. Splurge and get the audio guide. It’s an incredibly enriching and educating experience. I had a moment in that gallery, I’m not going to lie.

If you don’t have time to watch that Doctor Who Episode in its entirety, at least watch this clip from it (although why they didn’t film this scene in the freaking Van Gogh museum remains a mystery to me):



Vincent Van Gogh “Wheat field with Crows”

Georges Seurat “A Sunday on La Grande Jatte”

Cubism

Characterised By: Subject matter that is rounded, reassembled and almost 3D looking.

Championed By: Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso

Cubism followed post-impressionism and is considered one of the most influential art movements of the 20th Century. In Cubist artwork, objects are analysed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from a single viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context. Cubism was a turning point in the art world, leading to multiple diverse art movements that would have been unprecedented before.

The most famous artist of this movement was Pablo Picasso. Some people (who are wrong) may put forward the (incorrect) viewpoint that Pablo Picasso wasn’t a very talented artist. These people are (you guessed it) wrong, and if you hear anyone verbalising such an opinion you are responsible to hit them with the FACTS. Pablo Picasso was an incredibly gifted artist, and this included his technical skills. Even as a child he could paint images so realistic you’d think they were a photograph. But he (and pretty much all the other artists I mention here) didn’t limited in the way they created and wanted to branch out in different directions. Some people may look at a piece of art and say that it required no technical skill to complete (which I can place a firm bet that if they tried to do so they’d fail – not because they’re untalented but because we’re talking about the greatest artists of all time here) but that isn’t the point. The point is that these artists we the first people to create art in this style. It’s easy to say it’s nothing special now, after 100 years of looking at this style. But truth be told movements like cubism were nothing short of ground breaking.

Pablo Picasso “Three Musicians”

Pop Art

Characterised By: Influence of mass culture – comic books, advertising, cultural figures and mundane cultural objects.

Championed By: Andy Warhol, Jasper Johns, Eduardo Paolozzi, Richard Hamilton and Robert Rauschenberg

Pop Art is an art movement that took place throughout the mid to late 1950’s that uses elements of popular culture as inspiration. Pop Art is widely recognisable and remains a popular movement in not just art but fashion, TV and social media. Pop Artists often use their work to express certain beliefs (sometimes political), which differentiates it from movements previously discussed here. Its use of recognisable images and people really shifted the direction that modern art was heading in.

Andy Warhol “Campbell’s Soup Cans”

Can you imagine what Arts were like in the Wizarding World, tho? I mean we have talking portraits but what about abstract paintings? Did wizards have impressionist movements as well? Surrealist? Do we get these sweeping landscapes constantly shifting, constantly changing to imitate a dream like state? Does it give of scents and endorphins to further the experience? Can you look into it and just suddenly… lose yourself in a dream?

And what about theatre? Do we have dancers that dance on literally water air and fire? Do they incorporate apparition and portkeys in their performances? Do they have performances that span across hundreds of kilometers with the performers constantly going back and forth between theatres?

And literature, god the literature. What is the wizard version of the fantasy genre? Is it tales about muggles who are able to build things, sweeping towers, miniature objects that can talk, without the use of their wand? And their poetry? It puts a whole new depth to it. Can you put spells on a page to give off a certain mood, a certain sound. Do they have poems where the typography is always different whenever you look at it, or do they have forms that incorporate veela magic? 

I just… I have a lot of thoughts in the Arts of the Wizarding world, oaky? 

5

Monet on the Run - 22. A few words about Eugène Boudin
Even though Boudin took part in the first Impressionist Exhibition in 1874, he never felt like an innovator or a radical. And he was right, but don’t these later studies of his match remarkably well with Monet’s ‘Impression, Sunrise’?
Monet’s iconic painting shocked the visitors of that same first exhibition, was laughed away by the press, but eventually gave its name to the impressionist movement. 

Eugène Boudin, Études de ciel, c. 1888 - 1895. Musée d’Art Moderne André Malraux, Le Havre, France
Claude Monet, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), 1873. Oil on canvas, 48 x 63 cm. Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris

anonymous asked:

Have you ever painted with oil paints and if so, how do you find it is different to acrylic? I haven't used a lot of oil paint and I was wondering if the two are sort of interchangeable? Like they can work in similar ways? I love your work btw have a great day

I learned how to paint with oils and exclusively used the medium until discovering acrylic ink– which is very different from normal acrylic paint and behaves more like ink. I have very little experience with straight acrylic, but I know a bit about it. In short, oil paint and acrylic paint are very different and using them interchangeably in a single painting would prove difficult. 

Acrylic paint is pigment suspended in acrylic polymer emulsion. It’s water-soluble when wet but dries incredibly fast. 

Oil paint is pigment suspended in slow-drying linseed oil. Oil paint is not water-soluble, but can be diluted and lengthened with linseed oil, walnut oil, etc. 

Preparation: Acrylic paint can be painted on any surface without causing damage, so preparation is quick and easy. Oil paint, on the other hand, seeps into surfaces, eventually rotting wood and fiber. When preparing a surface for oil paint, you have to prime with a layer of gesso to protect the integrity of your materials. 

Permanence: Acrylic paint is seemingly indestructible. It won’t crack, fade, or rot surfaces. Oil paint has great color retention, but if you dilute the paint with extra linseed or walnut oil, you have to layer carefully to ensure your painting won’t crack. If oily colors are used early on, they may shift as they dry, cracking layers that have already solidified above them. 

Drying time: Applied acrylic paint dries quickly, so you can paint over dry layers with ease to cover mistakes with crisp, clean edges. You can paint over dry oils as well, but it takes longer as the medium stays wet for days, making it the preferred medium for wet-into-wet techniques. Some painters will put their paintings in the freezer to keep the paint wet, or bake paintings in the oven to speed the drying process.

Color quality: Oil paint is packed with more pigment, so the colors are more vibrant and pure. 

Texture: To me, acrylic paint feels like melted plastic. Oil paint is made from natural materials, so it has a soft, supple texture. Comparing acrylic to oil is like comparing polyester to cotton.

Cost: There’s no comparison here: acrylic paint is exceedingly more affordable, which is why it’s commonly found in elementary art classes. 

The price of oil paint varies between colors and companies. Color names are not just poetic descriptions– they also tell you what was ground up to make the paint. A tube of sienna is less expensive because it’s made from cheap iron oxide which is more easily mined than precious cobalt, ultramarine, or ochre. To save on cost, you can buy hues (example: viridian vs. viridian hue), which are either synthetic versions or true oil paint cut with a lengthener. You can also opt for “student” lines like Winsor & Newton’s Winton Oil Colors rather than pricey artisanal companies like Williamsburg, who hand-craft exquisite colors in small batches.

My preference: There is some snobbery and elitism surrounding oil paint, which I’ll admit I buy into. But it’s not without reason. Oil paint allows wet-into-wet painting and (with patience) can be layered when dry. The texture and color quality surpasses acrylics hands down. It also requires a bit more skill and care in preparation and application, which is a badge of honor for some. Finally, oil paint comes from a longer history than acrylics. Acrylic paint was first developed in the 1940s and was made commercially available by Golden in 1950. Oil paint has been used since the 12th century. The invention of the paint tube took oil painters outside their studios, ushering in the Impressionist art movement. I love being a part of this history, continuing the tradition, and knowing I’m using the same medium as so many of my heroes. 

A still life from 2008 rendered in oil paint

Monet on the Run - 32. A few words about Daubigny
Charles-François Daubigny (1817-1878) was one of the leading artists of the School of Barbizon, precursors of the impressionist movement. (Barbizon was a small village in the Forest of Fontainebleau). 
Daubigny and his fellow artists admired John Constable’s rural scenes and refused to see nature as a backcloth for some historical or academic scene, but rather as the sole subject of their paintings. And then, there was this invention that set them free: paint in tubes. Painters no longer had to go through the tedious process of preparing their own paints in their studios. They were free to go out and paint wherever they liked. ‘Plein air’ painting was born.

From the 1850s, another - unexpected - invention boosted the movement of outdoor painting. From then on, artists attracted by the work of Daubigny, Corot, Millet and the like, could simply take the train and travel from Paris to the edge of the Forest of Fontainebleau in just an hour and a half.

Monet, Renoir, Sisley and Bazille all took that train…

Charles-François Daubigny, Paysage avec un ruisseau éclairée par le soleil (Landscape with a Sunlit Stream), c. 1876. Oil on canvas, 63.8 x 47.9 cm. The Met, New York

List of paintrist by Isme

Second part: Impressionism to abstract expressionism

impressionism

Impressionism is a 19th-century art movement that originated with a group of Paris-based artists. Their independent exhibitions brought them to prominence during the 1870s and 1880s, in spite of harsh opposition from the conventional art community in France. The name of the style derives from the title of a Claude Monet work, Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which provoked the critic Louis Leroy to coin the term in a satirical review published in the Parisian newspaper Le Charivari.

Impressionist painting characteristics include relatively small, thin, yet visible brush strokes, open composition, emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its changing qualities (often accentuating the effects of the passage of time), ordinary subject matter, inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience, and unusual visual angles.

the French impressionism

  • Frédéric Bazille
  • Marie Bracquemond
  • Gustave Caillebotte
  • Mary Cassatt
  • Paul Cézanne
  • Edgar Degas
  • Paul Gauguin
  • Eva Gonzalès
  • Armand Guillaumin
  • Edouard Manet
  • Claude Monet
  • Berthe Morisot
  • Camille Pissarro
  • Pierre-Auguste Renoir
  • Alfred Sisley

American impressionism

  • Walter Emerson Baum
  • Reynolds Beal
  • James Carroll Beckwith
  • Frank Weston Benson
  • Rae Sloan Bredin
  • Soren Emil Carlsen
  • John Fabian Carlson
  • William Merritt Chase
  • Morgan Colt
  • Colin Campbell Cooper
  • Fern Isabel Coppedge
  • Nate Dunn
  • John Fulton Folinsbee
  • Edmund Greacen
  • Arthur Clifton Goodwin
  • Frederick Childe Hassam
  • Joseph Rodefer DeCamp
  • Thomas Wilmer Dewing
  • Frederick Carl Frieseke
  • Daniel Garber
  • Wilfid de Glehn
  • Philip Leslie Hale
  • William Langson Lathrop
  • Willard Leroy Metcalf
  • Roy Cleveland Nuse
  • Julian Onderdonk
  • Mary Elizabeth Price
  • Robert Lewis Reid
  • Edward Willis Redfield
  • Granville Redmond
  • Guy Orlando Rose
  • Charles Rosen
  • Walter Elmer Schofield
  • Edward Emerson Simmons
  • George William Sotter
  • Robert Carpenter Spencer
  • Edmund Charles Tarbell
  • John Henry Twachtman
  • William Wendt
  • Julian Alden Weir
  • Guy Carleton Wiggins
  • Mary Agnes Yerkes

impressionism elswhere

  • George Hendrik Breitner
  • Emile Claus
  • Joaquin Clausell
  • Lovis Corinth
  • Isaac Israels
  • Konstantin Korovin
  • Max Liebermann
  • Valentin Serov
  • Max Slevogt
  • Joaquin Sorolla
  • Frits Thaulow
  • Lesser Ury
  • Sherree Valentine-Daines
  • Federico Zandomeneghi

post-impressionism

Post-Impressionism (also spelled Postimpressionism) is a predominantly French art movement that developed roughly between 1886 and 1905; from the last Impressionist exhibition to the birth of Fauvism. Post-Impressionism emerged as a reaction against Impressionists concern for the naturalistic depiction of light and colour. Due to its broad emphasis on abstract qualities or symbolic content, Post-Impressionism encompasses Neo-Impressionism, Symbolism, Cloisonnism, Pont-Aven School and Synthetism, along with some later Impressionists work. The movement was led by Paul Cezanne, Paul Gauguin, Vincent van Gogh and Georges Seurat.
The term Post-Impressionism was coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910 to describe the development of French art since Manet. Fry used the term when he organized the 1910 exhibition Manet and the Post-Impressionists. Post-Impressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its limitations: they continued using vivid colours, often thick application of paint, and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary colour.

  • Richard Bergh
  • Emile Bernard
  • Frank Bramley
  • Paul Cezanne
  • Paul Gauguin
  • Charles Guerin
  • Augustus John
  • Nils Kreuger
  • Henri Lebasque
  • Karl Nordstrom
  • Leonid Pasternak
  • Maurice Prendergast
  • Henri Rousseau
  • Paul Serusier
  • Gaston La Touche
  • Henri Toulouse-Lautrec
  • Suzanne Valadon
  • Vincent van Gogh

Camden Town Group (Post-impressionism) (UK)

The Camden Town Group was a group of English Post-Impressionist artists active 1911-1913. They gathered frequently at the studio of painter Walter Sickert in the Camden Town area of London.

  • Walter Bayes
  • Robert Bevan
  • Malcolm Drummond
  • Harold Gilman
  • Charles Ginner
  • Spencer Gore
  • Ducan Grant
  • James Dickson Innes
  • Augustus John
  • Henry Lamb
  • Wyndham Lewis
  • Maxwell Gordon Lightfoot
  • James Bolivar Manson
  • Lucien Pissarro
  • William Ratcliffe
  • Walter Sickert

Non members

  • Anna Hope Hudson
  • Ethel Sands
  • Marjorie Sherlock
  • John Nash
  • Paul Nash

neo-impressionisme

Neo-Impressionism is a term coined by French art critic Félix Fénéon in 1886 to describe an art movement founded by Georges Seurat. Seurats greatest masterpiece, A Sunday Afternoon on the Island of La Grande Jatte, marked the beginning of this movement when it first made its appearance at an exhibition of the Societe des Artistes Independants (Salon des Independants) in Paris. Around this time, the peak of France™s modern era emerged and many painters were in search of new methods. Followers of Neo-Impressionism, in particular, were drawn to modern urban scenes as well as landscapes and seashores. Science-based interpretation of lines and colors influenced Neo-Impressionists™ characterization of their own contemporary art. Pointillism technique is often mentioned, because it was the dominant technique in the beginning.

  • Henri-Edmond Cross
  • Alfred William Finch
  • Maximilian Luce
  • Angelo Morbelli
  • Hippolyte Petitjean
  • Lucien Pissarro
  • Theo van Rysselberghe
  • Georges Seurat
  • Paul Signac

les Nabis (France)

Les Nabis (Nabi means prophet in Hebrew and in Arabic.) were a group of Post-Impressionist avant-garde artists who set the pace for fine arts and graphic arts in France in the 1890s. Initially a group of friends interested in contemporary art and literature, most of them studied at the private art school of Rodolphe Julian (Académie Julian) in Paris in the late 1880s.
In 1890, they began to participate successfully in public exhibitions, while most of their artistic output remained in private hands or in the possession of the artists themselves. By 1896, the unity of the group had already begun to break: The Homage to Cézanne, painted by Maurice Denis in 1900, recollects memories of a time already gone, before even the term Nabis had been revealed to the public. Meanwhile, most members of the group—Maurice Denis, Pierre Bonnard, Édouard Vuillard—could stand, artistically, on their own. Only Paul Sérusier had problems to overcome—though it was his Talisman, painted at the advice of Paul Gauguin, that had revealed to them the way to go.

  • Pierre Bonnard
  • Maurice Denis
  • Paul Serusier
  • Felix Vallotton
  • Edouard Vuillard

Newlyn School (UK)

The Newlyn School was an art colony of artists based in or near Newlyn, a fishing village adjacent to Penzance, Cornwall, from the 1880s until the early twentieth century. The establishment of the Newlyn School was reminiscent of the Barbizon School in France, where artists fled Paris to paint in a more pure setting emphasizing natural light. These schools along with a related California movement were also known as En plein air.
Newlyn had a number of things guaranteed to attract artists: fantastic light, cheap living, and the availability of inexpensive models. The artists were fascinated by the fishermen’s working life at sea and the everyday life in the harbour and nearby villages. Some paintings showed the hazards and tragedy of the community’s life, such as women anxiously looking out to sea as the boats go out, or a young woman crying on hearing news of a disaster. Lamorna Birch was the prime mover behind the colony and the work done there. The later Forbes School of Painting, founded by Stanhope Forbes and his wife Elizabeth in 1899, promoted the study of figure painting.
In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, Lamorna, a nearby fishing village to the south, became popular with artists of the Newlyn School and is particularly associated with the artist S. J. “Lamorna” Birch who lived there from 1908.

  • Frank Bramley
  • Samuel John Lamorna Birch
  • Percy Robert Craft
  • Elizabeth Adela Forbes
  • Stanhope Alexander Forbes
  • Norman Garstin
  • Thomas Cooper Gotch
  • Edwin Harris
  • Harold Harvey
  • William Ayerst Ingram
  • Harold Knight
  • Laura Knight
  • Walter Langley
  • Alfred Munnings
  • Dod Procter
  • Ernest Procter
  • Henry Meynell Rheam
  • Albert Chevallier Tayler
  • Henry Herbert La Thangue
  • Henry Scott Tuke

The Ashcan School (USA)

The Ashcan School, also called the Ash Can School, was an artistic movement in the United States during the early twentieth century that is best known for works portraying scenes of daily life in New York, often in the city’s poorer neighborhoods. Some of the members of the Eight were also part of the Ashcan School.

  • Thomas Anshutz
  • Gifford Beal
  • George Bellows
  • William Glackens
  • John Grabach
  • Robert Henri
  • George Luks
  • Jerome Myers
  • Everett Shinn
  • John French Sloan

The Eight (USA)

  • Arthur Bowen Davies
  • William Glackens
  • Robert Henri
  • Ernest Lawson
  • George Benjamin Luks
  • Maurice Prendergast
  • Everett Shinn
  • John French Sloan

The Philadelphia Ten

  • Theresa Bernstein

Mir iskusstva (World of Art) (Russia)

Mir iskusstva (Russian: «Мир иску́сства», World of Art) was a Russian magazine and the artistic movement it inspired and embodied, which was a major influence on the Russians who helped revolutionize European art during the first decade of the 20th century. In fact, few Europeans outside Russia actually saw issues of the magazine itself.
From 1909, several of the miriskusniki (i.e., members of the movement) also participated in productions of Sergei Diaghilev’s Ballets Russes company based in Paris.

  • Yury Annenkov
  • Leon Samoilovitch Bakst
  • Alexandre Nikolayevich Benois
  • Mstislav Valerianovich Dobuzhinsky
  • Igor Grabar
  • Boris Grigoriev
  • Pyotr Konchalovsky
  • Boris Kustodiev
  • Filipp Malyavin
  • Eugene Lanceray
  • Ilya Mashkov
  • Anna Ostroumova-Lebedeva
  • Nicholas Roerich
  • Konstantin Somov
  • Serge Sudeykin

Cubism (France)

Cubism is an early-20th-century avant-garde art movement that revolutionized European painting and sculpture, and inspired related movements in music, literature and architecture. Cubism has been considered the most influential art movement of the 20th century. The term is broadly used in association with a wide variety of art produced in Paris (Montmartre, Montparnasse and Puteaux) during the 1910s and extending through the 1920s.
The movement was pioneered by Georges Braque and Pablo Picasso, joined by Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Henri Le Fauconnier, Fernand Léger and Juan Gris. A primary influence that led to Cubism was the representation of three-dimensional form in the late works of Paul Cézanne. A retrospective of Cézanne’s paintings had been held at the Salon d'Automne of 1904, current works were displayed at the 1905 and 1906 Salon d'Automne, followed by two commemorative retrospectives after his death in 1907.
In Cubist artwork, objects are analyzed, broken up and reassembled in an abstracted form—instead of depicting objects from one viewpoint, the artist depicts the subject from a multitude of viewpoints to represent the subject in a greater context.
The impact of Cubism was far-reaching and wide-ranging. Cubism spread rapidly across the globe and in doing so evolved to greater or lesser extent. In essence, Cubism was the starting point of an evolutionary process that produced diversity; it was the antecedent of diverse art movements.
In France, offshoots of Cubism developed, including Orphism, Abstract art and later Purism. In other countries Futurism, Suprematism, Dada, Constructivism and De Stijl developed in response to Cubism. Early Futurist paintings hold in common with Cubism the fusing of the past and the present, the representation of different views of the subject pictured at the same time, also called multiple perspective, simultaneity or multiplicity, while Constructivism was influenced by Picasso’s technique of constructing sculpture from separate elements. Other common threads between these disparate movements include the faceting or simplification of geometric forms, and the association of mechanization and modern life.

  • Henryk Berlewi
  • Georges Braque
  • Roger de la Fresnaye
  • Albert Gleizes
  • Juan Gris
  • Auguste Herbin
  • Fernand Leger
  • Jean Metzinger
  • Pablo Picasso

De Stijl (Netherlands)

  • Burgoyne Diller
  • Theo van Doesburg
  • Jean Gorin
  • Vilmos Huszar
  • Piet Mondrian

Futurisme (Italy)

  • Giacomo Balla
  • Umberto Boccioni
  • Carlo Carra
  • Fortunato Depero
  • Luigi Russolo
  • Gino Severini

Rayonism (Russia)

  • Natalia Goncharova
  • Mikhail Larionov

The Berlin Secession (Germany)

The Berlin Secession (German: Berliner Secession) was an art association founded by Berlin artists in 1898 as an alternative to the conservative state-run Association of Berlin Artists. That year the official salon jury rejected a landscape by Walter Leistikow, who was a key figure amongst a group of young artists interested in modern developments in art. Sixty-five young artists formed the initial membership of the Secession.
Max Liebermann was the Berlin Secession’s first president, and he proposed to the Secession that Paul Cassirer and his cousin Bruno act as business managers.
In 1901 Bruno Cassirer resigned from the Secession, so that he could dedicate himself entirely to the Cassirer publishing firm. Paul took over the running of the Cassirer gallery, and supported various Secessionist artists including the sculptor Ernst Barlach and August Gaul, as well as promoting French Impressionism and Post-Impressionism.
The biggest conflict in the Berlin Secession was about the question if it should follow the new wave of Expressionism or not.

  • Hans Baluschek
  • Bruno Cassirer
  • Paul Cassirer
  • Lovis Corinth
  • Lyonel Feininger
  • August Gaul
  • Adolf Eduard Herstein
  • Kaethe Kollwitz
  • Walter Leistikow
  • Max Liebermann
  • Emil Nolde
  • Jacob Steinhardt
  • Hermann Struck
  • Wilhelm Truebner
  • Julie Wolfthorn

Vienna Secession (Austria)

The Vienna Secession (German: Wiener Secession; also known as the Union of Austrian Artists, or Vereinigung Bildender Künstler Österreichs) was formed in 1897 by a group of Austrian artists who had resigned from the Association of Austrian Artists, housed in the Vienna Künstlerhaus. This movement included painters, sculptors, and architects. The first president of the Secession was Gustav Klimt, and Rudolf von Alt was made honorary president. Its official magazine was called Ver Sacrum.

  • Josef Anton Engelhart
  • Gustav Klimt
  • Wojciech Weiss

Expressionism (Germany)

Expressionism was a modernist movement, initially in poetry and painting, originating in Germany at the beginning of the 20th century. Its typical trait is to present the world solely from a subjective perspective, distorting it radically for emotional effect in order to evoke moods or ideas. Expressionist artists sought to express meaning or emotional experience rather than physical reality.

Die Bruecke (The Bridge)

Die Bruecke (The Bridge) was a group of German expressionist artists formed in Dresden in 1905.

  • Fritz Bleyl
  • Erich Heckel
  • Ernst Ludwig Kirchner
  • Karl Schmidt-Rottluff
  • Emil Nolde
  • Max Pechstein
  • Otto Mueller

Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider)

Der Blaue Reiter (The Blue Rider) was a group of artists from the Neue Kuenstlervereinigung Muenchen in Munich, Germany.

  • Albert Bloch
  • David Burliuk
  • Heinrich Campendonk
  • Agnes Cleve
  • Clotilde von Derp
  • Lyonel Feininger
  • Natalia Goncharova
  • Alexej von Jawlensky
  • Wassily Kandinsky
  • Paul Klee
  • August Macke
  • Franz Marc
  • Gabriele Muenter
  • Arnold Schoenberg
  • Marianne von Werefkin

Other expressionist

  • Max Beckmann
  • Marc Chagall
  • Otto Dix
  • James Ensor
  • Lyonel Feininger
  • George Grosz
  • Shalva Kikodze
  • Oskar Kokoschka
  • Kaethe Kollwitz
  • Paula Modersohn-Becker
  • Edvard Munch
  • Georges Rouault
  • Egon Schiele
  • Jan Sluyters
  • Karl Sterrer
  • Wojciech Weiss

Fauvism (France)

Fauvism is the style of les Fauves (French for “the wild beasts”), a loose group of early twentieth-century Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism. While Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and continued beyond 1910, the movement as such lasted only a few years, 1904 to “1908, and had three exhibitions.

  • Hermenegildo Anglada Camarasa
  • Charles Camoin
  • Emilie Charmy
  • Andre Derain
  • Kees van Dongen
  • Raoul Dufy
  • Henri Evenepoel
  • Othon Friesz
  • Henri Manguin
  • Maurice Marinot
  • Albert Marquet
  • Henri Matisse
  • Jean Puy
  • Georges Rouault
  • Louis Valtat
  • Maurice de Vlaminck

Dada (Europe)

Dada or Dadaism was an art movement of the European avant-garde in the early 20th century. Dada in Zürich, Switzerland, began in 1916 at Cabaret Voltaire, spreading to Berlin shortly thereafter, but the height of New York Dada was the year before, in 1915. The term anti-art, a precursor to Dada, was coined by Marcel Duchamp around 1913 when he created his first readymades. Dada, in addition to being anti-war, had political affinities with the radical left and was also anti-bourgeois.

  • Theo van Doesburg
  • Marcel Duchamp
  • Max Ernst
  • Angelika Hoerle
  • Heinrich Hoerle
  • Francis Picabia
  • Christian Schad
  • Rudolf Schlichter
  • Franz Wilhelm Seiwert

New Objectivity (Germany)

The New Objectivity (in German: Neue Sachlichkeit) was a movement in German art that arose during the 1920s as a reaction against expressionism. The term was coined by Gustav Friedrich Hartlaub, the director of the Kunsthalle in Mannheim, who used it as the title of an art exhibition staged in 1925 to showcase artists who were working in a post-expressionist spirit. As these artists—who included Max Beckmann, Otto Dix, and George Grosz—rejected the self-involvement and romantic longings of the expressionists, Weimar intellectuals in general made a call to arms for public collaboration, engagement, and rejection of romantic idealism.
Although principally describing a tendency in German painting, the term took a life of its own, and came to characterize the attitude of public life in Weimar Germany as well as the art, literature, music, and architecture created to adapt to it. Rather than some goal of philosophical objectivity, it was meant to imply a turn towards practical engagement with the world—an all-business attitude, understood by Germans as intrinsically American.
The movement essentially ended in 1933 with the fall of the Weimar Republic and the rise of the Nazis to power.

  • Max Beckmann
  • Otto Dix
  • George Grosz
  • Heinrich Hoerle
  • Alexander Kanoldt
  • Anton Räederscheidt
  • Rudolf Schlichter
  • Georg Scholz
  • Georg Schrimpf
  • Franz Wilhelm Seiwert

Group of Seven (Canada)

The Group of Seven, also known as the Algonquin School, was a group of Canadian landscape painters from 1920 to 1933. Believing that a distinct Canadian art could be developed through direct contact with nature, The Group of Seven is most famous for its paintings inspired by the Canadian landscape, and initiated the first major Canadian national art movement.

  • A.J. Casson
  • Franklin Carmichael
  • Emily Carr
  • Lionel LeMoine FitzGerald
  • Lawren Harris
  • Edwin Holgate
  • A.Y. Jackson
  • Frank Johnston
  • Arthur Lismer
  • J. E. H. MacDonald
  • Tom Thomson
  • Frederick Varley

Surealism (Global)

Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early 1920s, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings. The aim was to “resolve the previously contradictory conditions of dream and reality”. Artists painted unnerving, illogical scenes with photographic precision, created strange creatures from everyday objects and developed painting techniques that allowed the unconscious to express itself.
Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and writers regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader André Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was, above all, a revolutionary movement.
Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the 1920s onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory.

  • Michael Cheval
  • Salvador Dali
  • Paul Delvaux
  • Max Ernst
  • Leonor Fini
  • Felix Labisse
  • Rene Magritte
  • Paul Nash
  • Felix Nussbaum
  • Francis Picabia
  • Felka Platek
  • Helene Schjerfbeck

Abstract expressionism

Abstract expressionism is a post–World War II art movement in American painting, developed in New York in the 1940s. It was the first specifically American movement to achieve international influence and put New York City at the center of the western art world, a role formerly filled by Paris. The term abstract expressionism was first applied to American art in 1946 by the art critic Robert Coates.The movement’s name is derived from the combination of the emotional intensity and self-denial of the German Expressionists with the anti-figurative aesthetic of the European abstract schools such as Futurism, the Bauhaus, and Synthetic Cubism. Additionally, it has an image of being rebellious, anarchic, highly idiosyncratic and, some feel, nihilistic. In practice, the term is applied to any number of artists working (mostly) in New York who had quite different styles.

  • Arshile Gorky
  • Elaine de Kooning
  • Willem de Kooning
  • Lee Krasner
  • Barnett Newman
  • Jackson Pollock
  • Mark Rothko


A Paintrist can belong to more then one isme or be a isme on his one

This is a list in progress…

Ultrasound

There I was. Trying not to bring attention to the goosebumps circling my tummy. Cold from the gel. Not really showing yet. Looks like the mommy and me yoga is paying off. Squinting at the monitor. An old espresso stain fudging the corner. Today marks 8 weeks and 5 days. And 2.02 centimeters. I’m staring at a crappy Seurat. Definitely one of his earlier attempts gone wrong. I’ve never been a fan of the neo-impressionist movement to begin with, not to mention that this one is just grayscale and too out of focus. A dark roast stained perimeter framing a black background and white dashes and drifting off center in the negative space is a distorted peanut. Rather, it’s more of a kidney bean. A blob of static. With tiny nub legs flailing. Kicks I can’t feel yet. A little stubby nose and a dimple that has to be a mouth. The shape of ears. Soon to cringe at my renditions of Isn’t She Lovely in the shower. Sometimes I shake things up with Cherry Bomb. Both are equally bad. But there I was. Stevie Wonder stuck in my head and mouth drying at the thought of coffee. Watching my heartbeat become two.


- Maya Doolali

Our art influences!
In the past few years or so, we’ve been inspired by a lot of artists and their techniques, and while we can’t really say that we still have a single, definable “style”, we can show you a little insight into our inconsistent art universe!
We love things with any kind of dramatic lighting that sets the mood of an image, so from the past 4 years, we’ve been drawn to later renaissance paintings, such as Bouguereau, and anything from the Impressionistic movement, especially from Monet.
Scandinavian patterns and early Russian animation have been very influential in our graphic approach to painting, along with any kind of mid-century art. We also love Gustav Klimt for his use intricate of patterns and sketching style. Mary Blair has been a huge color inspiration, and while we feel we have moved slightly away from her style quite a bit in our later years, her influence still remains for us, as well as many others!
Man, Fantasia. Also bunch of cool Disney Peeps.
Soft focus photography has been quite interesting for us. It could come across as a bit kitschy in some ways when we paint it, (the photography itself and its photographers are cooler, though) but it’s just fun to do! We’ve been following a few flower and nature photographers the past couple of years that capture this technique. So soft! @debannmcknight @stuart7allison @life.by.linus We have modern influences like @pascalcampionart , Eyvind Earle, Tezuka, Miyazaki, Tyrus Wong, and Genndy Tartakovsky to mix in with other cool art things in between!
Yes. #elioliart #artinfluences

Kitagawa Utamaro (c. 1753-1806)

Utamaro was a Japanese artist who primarily worked with woodblock prints popular at the time. He became a famous artist in his national country and even later in Europe, roughly 50 years after his death. Regarded mostly for his portraits of women, it was his technique and use of light which interested artists in the 1800’s and later. Impressionists were those most strongly inspired by the genre of work that Utamaro practiced; ukiyo-e. Those in the Impressionist movement that looked to Utamaro as a foundation for their work included Louis Anquetin (1861-1932) and Claude Monet (1840-1926).

Also the artist of many nature and erotica related pieces, Utamaro had his works published for a number of years. Nudity and erotica in Japanese culture was not given the connotations of sham, like the way Western culture often labels it. Unfortunately his publications stopped, along with any artistic advancement, in 1804. This was due to a legal dispute concerning a banned novel which depicted ruler Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1537-1598). As a result, Utamaro was imprisoned. While his incarceration lasted only fifty days, this incident humiliated him. He did not continue with any more works of art and died two years later.

Above: Ase o fuku onna (Woman Wiping Sweat), 1798, by Utamaro.

lyrically-lit-deactivated201601  asked:

Thank you so much for your awesome reviews! Would you be able to explain the progression of art through the ages? Like Renaissance, romantic, baroqu...

Hi lyrically-lit!

Alright, art through the ages in 20 minutes flat:

1. Check out this post on Renaissance through Baroque.

2. Okay, once you’re prepped:

ROCOCO: omg these roses go great with these swoops that go great with these curly cues and the swirly whirly-o’s

-The shift of power form royal court to the aristocracy is paralleled by the shift in taste from Baroque to Rococo.

-Characterized by flowery, flowing, detailed and over-stylized architecture and painting. With Rococo, think frivolity and frilly things.

-The French Royal Academy dominated this style and dictated taste in Paris during the 18th century.

-Rococo portrays the wealthy aristocracy in their leisurely pursuits.

-Epic dudes: Jean-Antoine Watteau

-Developed a talented school of satirical painting.

NEOCLASSICISM: ugh, oh my god i am so dramatic, ugh, Rome was so dramatic just like me, ugh, brood, hey doesn’t this julius caesar look just like the king. yeah. that’s not an accident

-Enlightenment - rejection of aristocratic authority

-Neoclassicism perceived as more democratic, inspired by Pompeii and work of art theorist Johann Winckelmann

-Frequent classical allusions within contemporary depictions, and frequent contemporary allusions among classical depictions.

-Drew inspiration from Greek and Rome.

-New technologies because of the Industrial Revolution - bronze carving, cast iron.

-Epic dudes: Jacques-Louis David, Benjamin West, Angelica Kauffman

ROMANTICISM: i am such a special snowflake, the world is not a machine and I am my own person, also isn’t nature great and i once had a dream about a melting banana so i painted it and also i fantasize about shadows and also fog. nature though

-Influenced by a spirit of individuality and freedom, naturalism of man, and a rejection of the Newtonian ideas of the world-machine and unchanging laws.

-Expresses an appreciation for nature’s excellence and political revolution

-Photography invented in this period

-Architecture does throwback thursday to the Medieval period

-Epic dudes: Eugene Delacroix, William Blake, Goya, Gericault, Joseph MW Turner, Caspar David Friedrich

LATE NINETEENTH CENTURY: i’ll only paint what’s actually there. what the hell is all this mystical crap. what was this. no one ever saw this. what is this shit??? goya??? what is this??? you never saw cronus eat a baby?? oh also isn’t light cool. look at light. wow. imma do that. ugh nevermind that’s way too unstructured. let’s add structure. 

Impressionism:

-Modernist movement furthered by the avant-garde artists who spearheaded the movement. Shadow contains color, brushstrokes to capture the ‘dappling effect’ of light on objects.

-Epic dudes: Renoir, Monet

Post-Impressionism:

-Took Impressionist movement and reapplied structure and form to the technique, making impressionism more “solid and durable”, as Cezanne once said. Moved toward abstraction but also managed to preserve solid forms and traditional elements.

-Epic dudes: Van Gogh, Cezanne, Seurat, Munch

EARLY TWENTIETH CENTURY: i am all over the map. i don’t know what’s w rong with me??? w orld wARS???? just fuck me up

okay very quickly, the major early twentieth century art forms IN CHRONOLOGICAL ORDER:

-expressionism: violent juxtaposition of color, abstraction as a way of perceiving the natural world in means beyond literal representation.

-cubism: took post-impressionism a step further, meant to emphasize angles and shapes, from many perspectives at once. PICASSO.

-dada: a nonsense word that means “hobby horse.” The movement was effected by the disillusionment and hopelessness of the era after World War I. Rejected most conventional methods of representation. Began to champion “ready-mades” as an art form. Basically taking random things and incorporating words. Duchamp, Duchamp, Duchamp.

-destijl: At best, completely abstract. White background, black lines to outline rectangular spaces. Only primary colors used. Diagonals are forbidden. Mondrian.

-bauhaus: The Bauhaus was an architectural school in Germany. Taught that everything, from simple objects to large buildings, should be crafted as a unit. Technology embraced. Simple and elegant designs. Expressive forms.

-surrealism: inspired by psychological breakthroughs of Jung and Freud - represented the unconscious world. Dali. 

-art deco: a reaction against popular simplified forms, embraced a taste for refinement and linearity. Streamlined, industrial, mechanic, aerodynamic figures. (think of the Chrysler Building of New York City in the United States) 

I hope that helped! Please let me know if there’s anything else I can do. Best wishes!

-The History Geek

6

Anniversary
If you feel like celebrating something, but don’t yet know what, then here’s a suggestion: Gustave Caillebotte was born exactly, uh, 167 years ago on 19 August 1848.
Caillebotte was an important member of the impressionist movement in France, not only as a painter, but also as a sponsor of  Monet, Sisley, Pissarro and Renoir. 
A number of Caillebotte’s works have become iconic, like his views on the Pont de l’Europe.

Gustave Caillebotte, Le Pont de l’Europe (esquisse - study), 1876c. Oil on canvas, 32,9 x 44,4 cm. Musée des Beaux-Arts de Rennes, France
Gustave Caillebotte, Le Pont de l’Europe (esquisse - study), 1876c. Oil on canvas, 54 x 73 cm. Ordrupgaard, Charlottenlund, Denmark
Gustave Caillebotte, Le Pont de l’Europe (esquisse - study). Oil on canvas, 83,2 x 122,6 cm. Albright-Knox Art Gallery Buffalo USA
Gustave Caillebotte, Le Pont de l’Europe, 1876. Oil on canvas, 125 x 181 cm, Musée du Petit Palais, Genève, Switzerland
Gustave Caillebotte, Le Pont de l’Europe 1876-77. Oil on canvas, 105,7 x 130,8 cm. Kimbell Art Museum, Fort Worth, Texas, USA 
Anonymous, The Pont de l’Europe as seen from the gare Saint-Lazare, 1868

Reading (La Lecture), 1888. Berthe Morisot (French, 1841–1895). Oil on canvas. Museum of Fine Arts, St. Petersburg, Florida.

Morisot’s work is often unjustly characterized as feminine. Jeanne Bonnet was the model for this painting. The artist used thick, bold brushstrokes to apply complementary colors of soft tones in blues and greens with touches of red, blue, and yellow. An important member of the Impressionist movement and equally respected by her peers, her style is no more feminine than that of Renoir.

8

In a letter to friend and fellow artist Frédéric Bazille in 1864 a delighted Claude Monet mentioned, ‘…every day I discover even more beautiful things. It is intoxicating me, and I want to paint it all – my head is bursting.’ Similar sentiments were expressed recurrently whenever the artist came in touch with nature, raw and untamed. And with such passionate love of all things harmonious and beautiful, it was only natural that Monet would become a crucial figure in the impressionist movement.

Claude Monet’s (November 14, 1840 – December 5, 1926) appreciation for en plein air paintings developed under Eugène Boudin. Later in the auteur of Charles Gleyre he became acquainted with Pierre–Auguste Renoir, Alfred Sisley and Bazille. While erstwhile stalwarts like Joseph Mallord William Turner may have influenced him, it was Édouard Manet’s style that he greatly appreciated and minutely studied. The importance of the impressionist art movement is well documented. Early struggles notwithstanding, his stature as an artist grew with the passage of time. He took great care in finding and then cultivating each of his sources of inspiration. Much to the dismay of some people of the time, such details as the palour of Camille Monet’s skintone on her deathbed did not escape his notice. He later revealed, ‘Colour is my day–long obsession, joy and torment. To such an extent indeed that one day, finding myself at the deathbed of a woman who had been and still was very dear to me, I caught myself in the act of focusing on her temples and automatically analysing the succession of appropriately graded colours which death was imposing on her motionless face.’

Monet’s garden is as famous as his art, in fact, its renown increased everytime the artist painted one of its many shady nooks, water body and flowers to the point of abstraction. Over the years he dressed up his garden in great care. In times of personal crisis painting in his garden provided him solace. With advancing age as his eyesight started failing his paintings of the garden developed newer tones and became further abstracted on his canvas. In a mixture of admonishment, sigh and joy he uttered,

Nothing in the whole world is of interest to me but my painting and my flowers.

Anniversary
In the mid 1880′s, the impressionist and neo-impressionist movements almost simultaneously had their breakthrough in Emile Claus’ native country, Belgium. But Claus only got enthusiastic about them in 1889 during a long stay in Paris and specifically after a visit to an exhibition of Monet at the Boussod-Valadon gallery.
From then onwards, he integrated (neo-)impressionism into his work and eventually became the leader of the “Luminist” movement in his country.
Claus was born on September 27, 1849.

Emile Claus, De kastanjelaar (The Chestnut Tree), 1906. Oil on canvas, 135 x 144 cm. Musée d'art moderne et d'art contemporain de Liège, Belgium

4

Remember Berthe Morisot
Berthe Morisot, one of the leading ladies of the impressionist movement died on 2 March 1895, aged only 54. For quite a while, she has been one of Manet’s favourite models. As painters, they had a mutual influence on each other (eg. the last two paintings above). Berthe eventually married Eugène Manet, Edouard’s brother. Their daughter Julie often appears in her paintings.
Morisot was buried in Paris on the Passy cemetary, where she lies in the same grave as Eugène and Edouard Manet (her idol), and Edouard’s wife Suzanne Leenhoff.

Edouard Manet, Portrait de Berthe Morisot, 1872 (published 1884). Lithograph, 45 x 31,5 cm. Städel Museum, Graphische Sammlung, Frankfurt am Main
Edouard Manet, Berthe Morisot au bouquet de violettes (Berthe Morisot with a Bouquet of Violets), 1872. Oil on canvas, 55 x 38 cm. Musée d'Orsay, Paris
Berthe Morisot, Dame et enfant sur la terrasse (Woman and Child on a Balcony), 1872. Oil on canvas, 60 x 50 cm. Private collection
Edouard Manet, Le chemin de fer (The Railway), 1873. Oil on canvas, 93.3 x 111.5 cm. National Gallery of Art, New York