Normally 3X constant heavy chain domains per chain and a hinge region (except μ and ε which have 4 and no hinge region)
Classes of Immunoglobulins
The five primary classes of immunoglobulins are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD and IgE, distinguished by the type of heavy chain found in the molecule.
IgG - gamma-chains
IgMs - mu-chains
IgAs - alpha-chains
IgEs - epsilon-chains
IgDs - delta-chains.
Differences in heavy chain polypeptides allow different types of immune responses. The differences are found primarily in the Fc fragment. There are only two main types of light chains: kappa (κ) and lambda (λ), and any antibody can have any combination of these 2 (variation).
70-85% of Ig in human serum.
secondary immune response
only class that can cross the placenta - protection of the newborn during first 6 months of life
principle antibody used in immunological research and clinical diagnostics
21 day half life
Hinge region (allows it to make Y and T shapes - increasing chance of being able to bind to more than one site)
Fc strongly binds to Fcγ receptor on phagocyte - opsono-phagocytosis
Activates complement pathway
Serum = pentamer
Primary immune responses - first Ig to be synthesised
10% of serum Ig
also expressed on the plasma membrane of B lymphocytes as a monomer - B cell antigen receptor
H chains each contain an additional hydrophobic domain for anchoring in the membrane
Monomers are bound together by disulfide bonds and a joining (J) chain.
Each of the five monomers = two light chains (either kappa or lambda) and two mu heavy chains.
heavy chain = one variable and four constant regions (no hinge region)
can cause cell agglutination as a result of recognition of epitopes on invading microorganisms. This antibody-antigen immune complex is then destroyed by complement fixation or receptor mediated endocytosis by macrophages.
In humans there are four subclasses of IgG: IgG1, IgG2, IgG3 and IgG4. IgG1 and IgG3 activate complement.
B cell receptor
<1% of blood serum Ig
has tail pieces that anchor it across B cell membrane
forms an antigen specific receptor on mature B cells - consequently has no known effector function (don’t kill antigens, purely a receptor) (IgM as a monomer can also do this)
Extra rigid central domain
has the most carbohydrates
IgE primarily defends against parasitic invasion and is responsible for allergic reactions.
basophils and tissue mast cells express very high affinity Fc receptors for IgE - mast cells then release histamine
so high that almost all IgE is bound
sensitizes (activates) mucosal cells and tissues
protects against helminth parasites
IgE’s main purpose is to protect against parasites but due to improved sanitation these are no longer a prevalent issue across most of the world. Consequently it is thought that they become over activated and over sensitive while looking for parasites and start reacting to eg pollen and causing allergies.
Exists in serum in both monomeric (IgA1) and dimeric (IgA2) forms (dimeric when 2 Fcs bind via secretory complex)
15% of the total serum Ig.
4-7 day half life
Secretory IgA2 (dimer) = primary defense against some local infections
Secreted as a dimer in mucous (e.g., saliva, tears)
prevents passage of foreign substances into the circulatory system
Isotype: class of antibody (IgD, IgM etc)
Allotype: person specific alleles
Idiotype: (hyper) variable region - antibody specificity
3:07pm: needed a change of scenery so I moved down to the kitchen for the afternoon; it’s a bit chilly, but it’ll do. Things are going okay — not really well but ‘okay’. Still stressed about my exams and I still don’t think I’ll do the best I could do, which is annoying, but really, I just want to pass and for these exams to be over. Revising this much material almost non-stop for 4 whole weeks, is very exhausting. Don’t try it kids.
Administration of monocolnal (clone derived asexually from a single individual or cell) antibodies which target either tumour-specific or over expressed antigens
Generally comprised of antibodies made outside of the body (in a lab)
administered to patients to provide immunity against a disease, or to help fight existing disease
do not stimulate a patient’s body to ‘actively’ respond to a disease the way a vaccine does
immunogen is given several times to induce a strong secondary response
blood serum contains many different antibodies to the immunogen
most immunogens have multiple antigenic epitopes
each stimulates a different B cell clone/receptor –> polyclonal antibody (PAb) response
Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is the most widely used form of cancer immunotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies cannot be purified from a polyclonal sample and are derived from a single clone/specific for a single epitope.
Antibodies in cancer therapy:
Trigger immune system to attack cancer cells
Block molecules that stop the immune system working (checkpoint inhibitors)
Block signals telling cancer cells to divide
Carry drugs or radiation to cancer cells
Immune system uses particular molecules to stop it being over activated and damaging healthy cells - these are known as checkpoints
some cancers make high levels of checkpoint molecules to switch of immune system T cells which would normally attack cancer cells
examples of targets include CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1)
Blocking cell division signals
Cancer cells often express large amounts of growth factor receptors on their surface –> rapid cell division when growth factors stimulate them
some monoclonal antibodies stop growth factor receptors working
either by blocking the signal or the receptor itself
cancer no longer gets signal to divide
drugs or radioisotopes can be attached to monoclonal antibodies
the mAB binds to the cancer cell, delivering directly