immune system cell

On Prompto’s Bar Codes

Disclaimer: I am a scientist. (Neurochem)I know this doesn’t work in real life applications, but I thought it was interesting to see anyways.


So I threw this numbers into GenBank – NIH genetic sequence database just for fun because I was drunk one day. They are associated with some pretty interesting DNA sequences.

The bottom number there is part of a retrovirus.  An ENV protein specifically.  It would trigger a conformational change, allowing for binding of the fusion protein. So what does that mean fro Prompto? Well,  retroviral vectors are the most widely used delivery vehicles to integration genes into chromosomes of affected cells. So he’s a “knock in” animal for sequences that would allow him to change. For fantasy purposes, we could say he’s He’s been genetically programed to mutate.

This 01987 – that’s a fun one. It’s swine IL-alpha. I work with ILs on a daily basis and they are used as markers for “something gone wrong.” For instance, if I take a tissue from a stressed animal vs a nonstressed animal, the stressed animal will have produced more IL-alpha. It is the marker various immune responses and and hematopoiesis (The production of all types of blood cells). This cytokine is released in  response to cell injury, and thus induces apoptosis. (cell death) That is to say, he’s durable. He can regenerate blood cells, including his immune system white blood cells, to ward of disease and infection. Then he has the ability to kill off and clear out the “bad cells” faster too. It’s even been implicated in protection from gamma radiation (meteor anyone?) But this is not without consequence. Its a marker for inflammation, neuro-degenerative diseases, and diabetes. So, he’s sturdy, but he’s also set up for a lot of problems later. Implication? He’s not made to live long. He’s made of pig and virus parts because he’s disposable.

And the best bit? NH. He’s non human. He’s a non human primate. Therefore he wouldn’t be afforded personhood.

Edit: Feel like I should say too that he’s properly coded. As in you put non-human primate codes on their outer wrist so it’s scannable when they grip the bars. He should have had a chip implanted at that age which should be in his right bicep. Maybe it rejected and he covered it with that bandana?

A groundbreaking gene therapy treatment which boosts a patient’s own immune cells has been shown to clear disease from one third of terminal patients.

US pharmaceutical company Kite Pharma released results from the first six months of its trial of the new treatment, called CAR-T cell therapy.


Some 36 per cent of the 101 patients on the trial were still in complete remission at six months, and eight in 10 saw their cancer shrink by at least half during the study.

“The numbers are fantastic,” said Dr Fred Locke, a blood cancer expert at Moffitt Cancer Center in Tampa who co-led the study.

“These are heavily treated patients who have no other options.”

The treatment, which has been dubbed ‘a living drug’ by doctors, works by filtering a patient’s blood to remove key immune system cells called T-cells, which are then genetically engineered in the lab to recognise cancer cells.

Cancer cells are very good a evading the immune system, but the new therapy essentially cuts the brakes, allowing immune cells to do their job properly.

Martin Ledwick, Cancer Research UK’s head cancer information nurse, said: “These results are promising and suggest that one day CAR-T cells could become a treatment option for some patients with certain types of lymphoma.

“But, we need to know more about the side effects of the treatment and long term benefits.”

Patients in the study had one of three types of non-Hodgkin lymphoma, a blood cancer which affects 13,600 patients in Britain, and had failed all other treatments. Most patients with such an advanced condition only live for six months but half of the trial group are still alive nine months since the trial began, and a third may be cured.

Dimas Padilla, 43, of Orlando, who was warned his case was worsening after chemotherapy stopped working, is now in complete remission after undergoing the therapy last August.

After learning his cancer was probably terminal he said: "I was thinking how am I going to tell this to my mother, my wife, my children,” he said.

After CAR-T therapy he saw his tumours “shrink like ice cubes” and is now in complete remission.

“They were able to save my life,” Mr Padilla added.

However there are still concerns that the treatment has significant side effects, and can even kill some patients, as it puts the immune system into a state of over-drive. During the trial two people died from the therapy, rather than their cancer.

Of the study participants, 13 per cent developed a dangerous condition where the immune system overreacts in fighting the cancer, and roughly a third of patients developed anaemia or other blood-count-related problems.

Nearly one third also reported neurological problems such as sleepiness, confusion, tremor or difficulty speaking, but these typically lasted just a few days.

The scans show how cancer has disappeared after just three months, and the remission has continued
The scans show how cancer has disappeared after just three months, and the remission has continued
Full results will be presented at the American Association for Cancer Research conference in April and the company plans to seek approval from European regulators later this year.

“It’s a safe treatment, certainly a lot safer than having progressive lymphoma,"said the cancer institute’s Dr Steven Rosenberg,

Other companies, such as Juno Therapeutics, have had to halt trials into CAR-T treatments following patient deaths.

6

How Tattooing Really Works

1. Tattooing causes a wound that alerts the body to begin the inflammatory process, calling immune system cells to the wound site to begin repairing the skin. Specialized cells called macrophages eat the invading material (ink) in an attempt to clean up the inflammatory mess. 

2. As these cells travel through the lymphatic system, some of them are carried back with a belly full of dye into the lymph nodes while others remain in the dermis. With no way to dispose of the pigment, the dyes inside them remain visible through the skin. 

3. Some of the ink particles are also suspended in the gel-like matrix of the dermis, while others are engulfed by dermal cells called fibroblasts. Initially, ink is deposited into the epidermis as well, but as the skin heals, the damaged epidermal cells are shed and replaced by new, dye-free cells with the topmost layer peeling off like a healing sunburn.

4. Dermal cells, however, remain in place until they die. When they do, they are taken up, ink and all, by younger cells nearby so the ink stays where it is.

5. So a single tattoo may not truly last forever, but tattoos have been around longer than any existing culture. And their continuing popularity means that the art of tattooing is here to stay.

From the TED-Ed Lesson What makes tattoos permanent? - Claudia Aguirre

Animation by TOGETHER

Cellules du système immunologique : cellules qui combattent les maladies dans le corps ou pathogènes.

  • n°1 : Phagocyte en phase d’endocytose du pathogène. La cellule peut capter les virus ou les bactéries, les enveloppe avec deux bras - les pseudopodes - pour l’inclure en son sein : c’est l’endocytose. L’intrus est ensuite digéré par les sucs contenus dans des petites vésicules.
  • n°3 : Lymphocytes T cytotoxiques. Ils sont spécifiques, c’est à dire que chaque type de lymphocyte ne peut tuer qu’un type de pathogène. Les cytotoxiques éliminent les cellules infectées qui circulent dans le sang en les faisant exploser de l’intérieur avec des enzymes : c’est la cytolyse.
  • n°5 : Rien à voir avec l’immunologie, les hématies ou globules rouges circulent dans le sang et transportent l’oxygène nécessaire au fonctionnement des organes.
  • n°7 : Monocytes : voyagent dans le sang. Si le corps détecte une infection, les monocytes sortent des vaisseaux et se transforment en macrophages, des cellules capables de phagocyter les agents infectieux (voir n°1).
  • n°9 : Granulocytes : cellules capables de phagocytose aussi. Contient des granules digestives. A la particularité d’avoir un noyau en plusieurs lobes, donc aussi appelé polynucléaire - à tort.
  • n°11 : Lymphocyte B. Cellule spécifique qui peut se transformer si besoin en “usine” à anticorps.

Mitose : processus de duplication de la cellule en conservant le patrimoine génétique intacte de la cellule mère.

  • n°2 : cellule normale, avec membrane, noyau et cytoplasme. La base!
  • n°6 : Interphase. Phase ou la cellule grossie avant de se séparer en deux, et ses chromosomes se multiplient par deux.
  • n°4 : Prophase. Les parois du noyau éclate, et les chromosomes deviennent visibles au microscope.
  • n°10 : Métaphase : Les chromosomes se placent en centre de la cellule.
  • n°8 : Anaphase : Ils migrent ensuite aux pôles de la cellule de façon symétrique : on retrouve les mêmes chromosomes de part et d’autres de la cellule.
  • n°12 : Télophase : La cellule se sépare en deux et l’enveloppe du noyau se reforme sur les deux ensembles de chromosomes pour avoir deux cellules identiques.

J’adooore la biologie!

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Swalot swallows a lot. According to the pokédex, Swalot has no teeth but can open its mouth wide enough to swallow a tire, where it can be dissolved in its acidic stomach. There’s lots of interesting science going on in this purple blob of a pokémon, so let’s talk about it!

There are a lot of animals in our world who don’t have teeth for chewing, so they swallow things whole: frogs, ducks, and most remarkably, snakes. A snake’s lower jaw actually has two parts, connected by tendons. This makes the snake’s jaw extremely flexible, and able to open extremely wide to swallow things that are practically bigger than it. (Check out this video to see it in action)

While that’s really cool, it doesn’t really help us understand Swalot. We have no reason to believe Swalot is a vertebrate at all, or even has a jaw bone. In fact, Swalot’s whole body seems incredibly flexible, and it is able to distort itself to swallow prey.

This is a lot less like an animal eating a meal, and more like a process called phagocytosis used by single-celled protozoans and a few other cells, including in your own body. In your immune system, white blood cells will often devour harmful bacteria using phagocytosis. Phagocytosis comes from the greek work “to devour”, and that’s a fairly accurate description of what it does. 

During phagocytosis, the predator engulfs the prey by surrounding it with its body. The predator’s cell membrane wraps around the prey and fuses back together, sealing the prey inside its own body and creating a cavity known as a phagosome, essentially a new stomach. Other parts of the cell, called lysosomes, will then flock towards the new stomach, and release enzymes to digest the prey: stomach acid. As the prey digests, the nutrients are absorbed into the cell. Whatever is leftover, the waste, can be thrown away by simply parting the membrane again, opening the stomach out to the world, and dropping the waste out. 

Creatures that use phagocytosis don’t have just one stomach. Instead, they essentially create a new stomach every time they need to eat. This stomach can be as big or as small as they want: whatever size it needs to be to dissolve their prey.

At first glance, Swalot might look too large to be a single-celled organism and use phagocytosis. But, there are plenty of single celled organisms that aren’t microscopic. The algae Valonia ventricosa, for example, is a single cell that grows several inches in diameter.

So maybe Swalot is a single-celled organism! Perhaps Swalot’s mustache is a kind of flagellum, which acts as a sensory organ to see/smell/detect chemicals like flagellum do in single-celled organism. It is pokémon, so the interpretation is entirely up to you. One alternative theory could be that Swalot is a colonial organism, like Trubbish (read here).

Swalot is a single-celled organism that uses phagocytosis to digest its prey. It wraps its body around its prey, sealing them in and creating a new stomach. Enzymes are injected into the new stomach by lysosomes, which digest the prey and absorb its nutrients.

i’ve seen a text post going around saying something to the effect of “do you know how much ur body loves you? so you should love it back!” (i’m paraphrasing here)

i want to give a shoutout to girls with autoimmune illnesses.

to the girls whose bodies don’t love them, to the girls whose bodies betray them every instant of the day, to girls whose immune system attacks the very cells it’s designed to protect:

i love you and i am so, so sorry that you are in this position. i wish i could offer advice or make it go away but i can’t.

for me, one of the worst things about being diagnosed w/rheumatoid arthritis was the loss of confidence that went with it because i started thinking “why bother loving my body if it doesn’t even love me?”

i still don’t know, intellectually, why you should love your body but i know that learning to love it again was the best decision i ever made (tho god knows i’m forever a bitter cripple). 

please remember that it’s okay to mourn the life your disability didn’t let you have. but one day, i hope that every girl with an autoimmune illness can learn protect and love her body even though it doesn’t love her back.

i’m still trying to learn too.

Passive Immunotherapy

Active immunotherapies:

  • Cytokines (TNFa IL-2, IFNs)
  • Cancer vaccines
  • tumour CTL and APC
  • DC priming

Passive immunotherapy:

  • Administration of monocolnal (clone derived asexually from a single individual or cell) antibodies which target either tumour-specific or over expressed antigens
  • Generally comprised of antibodies made outside of the body (in a lab)
  • administered to patients to provide immunity against a disease, or to help fight existing disease
  • do not stimulate a patient’s body to ‘actively’ respond to a disease the way a vaccine does
  • immunogen is given several times to induce a strong secondary response
  • blood serum contains many different antibodies to the immunogen
  • most immunogens have multiple antigenic epitopes 
  • each stimulates a different B cell clone/receptor –> polyclonal antibody (PAb) response 

Monoclonal antibody (mAb) therapy is the most widely used form of cancer immunotherapy. Monoclonal antibodies cannot be purified from a polyclonal sample and are derived from a single clone/specific for a single epitope.

Antibodies in cancer therapy:

  • Trigger immune system to attack cancer cells 
  • Block molecules that stop the immune system working (checkpoint inhibitors)
  •  Block signals telling cancer cells to divide 
  • Carry drugs or radiation to cancer cells

Checkpoint inhibitors

  • Immune system uses particular molecules to stop it being over activated and damaging healthy cells  - these are known as checkpoints
  • some cancers make high levels of checkpoint molecules to switch of immune system T cells which would normally attack cancer cells
  • examples of targets include CTLA-4, PD-1 and PD-L1 (programmed death ligand 1)

Blocking cell division signals 

  • Cancer cells often express large amounts of growth factor receptors on their surface –> rapid cell division when growth factors stimulate them
  • some monoclonal antibodies stop growth factor receptors working
  • either by blocking the signal or the receptor itself 
  • cancer no longer gets signal to divide

Carrying drugs/radiation

  • drugs or radioisotopes can be attached to monoclonal antibodies
  • the mAB binds to the cancer cell, delivering directly
  • known as conjugated MABs

MCAT Immune System (Specific Defenses) Review
Adaptive immunity: highly specific response to pathogen/antigen
Antigen presenting cells (APCs) present foreign antigen on their surface → antigen is recognized by T and B cells → cytotoxic T cells kill infected cells → helper T cells activate macrophages (engulfs pathogens), T cells, and B cells
B cells produce antibodies
Antibodies binding to antigen affects:
Neutralization: pathogens can not attack the host cells
Opsonization: phagocytosis can occur easier
Complement activation: kills infected cells by puncturing holes on the membrane
Memory cells: made without T cell activation
Proliferate and produce antibodies to prepare for same infection in the future

Immune system review video
http://youtu.be/Nw27_jMWw10

13 Things you didn't knew about Watermelon

1. Immune support, wound healing, and helps prevent cell damage

Watermelons are surprisingly high in vitamin C. Vitamin C is great at improving your immune system by protecting our cells from reactive oxygen. Reactive oxygen damages our cells and DNA. Vitamin C has long been known to help heal wounds in the body and is essential to making new connective tissue. Enzymes involved in forming collagen, the main compound needed when wounds are healing, simply cannot function without Vitamin C. If you should find you are suffering from slow healing wounds, seriously up your consumption of vitamin C heavy fruit such as watermelon!

2. Watermelon has more lycopene than tomatoes

Just one cup of watermelon has 1.5 times more lycopene than a large fresh tomato. Why should you care? Lycopene is a super antioxidant, which is important for stopping those free radicals that damage your cells, mess with your immune system, and lead to advanced aging. Research shows that lycopene, which is found in most red fruits and veggies, helps fight against several types of cancer. To get the most antioxidants possible, store your watermelon at room temperature.

3. Relieves Sore Muscles

A study conducted in Spain discovered that drinking about 16 ounces of watermelon juice before working out had less muscle soreness, as well as a lower heart rate, within 24 hours. This study was published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry. This is attributed to a compound in watermelon called citrulline that has been found to improve the functioning of arteries and lower blood pressure overall. In fact, watermelon can relax the blood vessels so much; Texas A&M University says that watermelon is like the Viagra of the fruit world! Unfortunately, most of that citrulline is found in the green rind, not so much in the red flesh.

4. Supports eye health

Watermelon is a fantastic source of beta-carotene, which your body will turn into vitamin A. Vitamin A helps to make the pigments in the retina of your eyes and this helps to protect you against macular degeneration.

5. Alkaline

When fully ripe, watermelons have an alkaline effect in the body. Eating plenty of alkaline forming fruits and veggies helps to reduce your risk of developing illness and chronic disease.

6. It’s both a fruit and a veggie

Almost unbelievable, but true! Like almost all fruits, watermelon comes from seeds but its roots can be traced to pumpkins, squash, and cucumbers. Talk about an overachiever!

7. It’s absolutely packed with, well, water

Of course! You are really talking about some serious hydration when you start talking watermelon! It’s 91.5 percent water! This is good to know since being dehydrated is really bad for your health. It’s a good thing we eat these when we are under the hot summer sun so we can keep ourselves hydrated.

8. Reduces body fat

We are talking about that wonderful compound citrulline again. It’s been shown in studies to help our body’s stop the accumulation of fat. This amino acid, with a little help from our kidneys, coverts into arginine, which blocks the activity of TNAP, which makes our fat cells, accumulate less fat. Kinda complicated, but a beautiful thing all the same.

9. Anti-inflammatory

Watermelons are high in phenolic compounds such as carotenoids, flavonoids, and triterpenoids. Carotenoids are super helpful in reducing inflammation and killing off those nasty free radicals. Tripterpenoid curcurbitacin E is another great compound in watermelons, which is another great anti-inflammatory. Be sure to eat really ripe watermelons as they have much higher levels of these helpful compounds.

10. Diuretic and kidney support

A natural diuretic, watermelon can help increase the flow of urine but doesn’t place a strain on the kidneys the same way caffeine does. Also, watermelons help your liver process ammonia which will help you get rid of excess fluid in the body while making it easy on the kidneys.

11. Nerve and muscle support

Watermelon is a great, all natural electrolyte that helps to regulate the nerves and muscles. Potassium is important in the determination of how much our muscles contract and controls the over stimulation of the nerves in the body. Since watermelon is high in potassium, it’s super good for those nerves and muscles.

12. Supports cardiovascular and bone health

Those high lycopene levels that are in watermelon are important to both our bone health and cardiovascular health. Consuming large amounts of watermelon has been linked to improved cardiovascular function as it improves blood flow due to the relaxation of blood pressure as well as reducing the oxidative stress which is involved in the pathogenesis of osteoporosis. This means you will get stronger bones when you eat foods rich in lycopene, such as watermelons.

13. About those yellow watermelons

If you haven’t seen them, there are watermelons that are not that beautiful pinkish-red red color. It’s called Yellow Crimson. It has a yellow interior with a sweeter taste that will remind you of honey. Both types of watermelons are green on the outside so unless they are labeled, you can’t tell which one is which! Just remember that no one knows what, if any, nutritional value the yellow kind might have to offer. If you love the yellow kind, mix up a batch of both colors, just to be on the safe side.

Sources:

Huffingtonpost.com

Livelovefruit.com

Naturalon.com

A tattoo machine causes a wound that alerts the body to begin the inflammatory process, calling immune system cells to the wound site to begin repairing the skin. It is this very process that makes tattoos permanent.

From the TED-Ed Lesson What makes tattoos permanent? - Claudia Aguirre

Animation by TOGETHER

South African nine-year-old becomes third HIV infected child to go into remission

A South African nine-year-old is the world’s third child born with HIV to go into remission, scientists have said.

The child has had a healthy immune system for more than eight years after receiving a short course of treatment in early life, according to a new study.

Researchers believe aggressive treatment soon after infection could enable long-term remission of the disease – which, if it lasts, would be a form of cure for the deadly virus.

HIV-positive individuals must take daily antiretroviral drugs (ART) for their whole lives to control the infection’s progression.

But experts were surprised by the results of the clinical trial, presented at a conference in Paris, which appears to have left the child with no need for medication.

The study was sponsored by the US National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, which previously found that early treatment helped babies survive.

Researchers did not identify the minor but said they started on HIV drugs when they were two months old and stopped 40 weeks later.

Tests when the child was nine and a half years old found signs of the virus in a small number of immune system cells, but none capable of reproducing.

The child does not have a gene mutation that gives natural resistance to HIV infection, the researchers said, so remission seems likely due to the early treatment.

Experts have stressed the case is extremely rare, and does not suggest a simple path to a future cure for Aids, which killed an estimated 1.1 million people worldwide in 2015.

Linda-Gail Bekker, president of the International Aids Society, said the study raises the “interesting notion that maybe treatment isn’t for life” but was “clearly a rare phenomenon”.

“It’s a case that raises more questions than it necessarily answers,” she told Reuters.

So far, similar results have been seen in two other children, one in the US and another in France.

A French woman who was born with HIV and is now around 20 has had her infection under control despite no HIV medication since she was around six years old.

And the infection was suppressed in a baby born with the virus in Mississippi in 2010 for 27 months after stopping treatment before it reappeared in her blood. She was able to control the virus again after treatment resumed.

Around 18 million people – half of all those living with HIV around the world – take ART, which can cause unpleasant side effects.

These drugs could in future be replaced with six yearly injections that slowly and continuously release HIV medication into the blood, scientists also revealed in separate research.

At least a dozen adults have had remissions lasting for years after stopping HIV medication.

A study under way now is testing whether treating HIV-infected newborns within two days of birth can control the virus later after treatment stops.

It started in 2014 in South America, Haiti, Africa and the United States, and some of the earliest participants might be able to experiment with stopping treatment later this year.

Access to drugs and fewer people being infected with HIV have led to a steep fall in the number of deaths related to the virus, according to the World Health Organisation. In 2015, 45 per cent fewer people died of the virus compared to in 2005.

Dr Michael Brady, medical director of the Terrence Higgins Trust, said the case report was “really interesting” and called for further research into the phenomenon.

“Early HIV therapy, in both children and adults, has been shown to reduce some of the damage to the immune system that HIV causes in the first few weeks and months of infection,” he said.

“If we can understand this mechanism better it will hopefully lead to novel treatment strategies and, maybe one day, a cure.

“Further research is needed, but this case adds to the hope that, one day, we may be able to prevent the need for life-long therapy with a short course of early HIV treatment in infancy.

“For now, however, early diagnosis and life-long treatment for HIV remain our best options for fighting the epidemic.”

10 THINGS TO KEEP REMINDING YOURSELF EVERY DAY

We are constantly on the look out for ways to improve our lives, ourselves, our bodies, and our minds. No matter how many hacks there are to implement, things to learn and to ponder upon, there are a few simple things that if we learn to start doing now and everyday, they will become valuable habits for a lifetime.

Keep reading

kittenteef replied to your post “Whaddup tumblr guess who’s got mono~ ”

how

“EBV infects B cells of the immune system and epithelial cells. Once EBV’s initial lytic infection is brought under control, EBV latency persists in the individual’s B cells for the rest of the individual’s life.”

And if you fuck up and have a lowered immune system due to chronic illness, stress, god only knows what - it can wake up and be all “SUP BABES” when you’re 30. 

ELI5: Getting sick from a 'bacteria' vs. 'virus'

Bacteria produce harmful chemicals as part of their life processes. They use up your body’s resources (like eating your sugar or even eating your cells) and spit out toxic waste. Sometimes that waste is specifically designed to protect the bacteria by killing your immune system cells that try to attack it. But it also just basically poops all up in your body, which causes some damage. The symptoms of bacterial infections are related to what waste products the bacteria produces and where the bacteria is living. Your body fights bacterial infections by basically eating them, along with some other toxic chemicals that destroy them.

Viruses hijack the DNA in your cells to make more of the virus. They invade the cell and tell it to stop doing whatever it’s doing that your body needs it to do, and instead all it does is manufacture more of that virus. Eventually, the cell dies - usually by literally exploding - when it fills up with copies of the virus. Those viruses go on to infect other cells. Viral symptoms are caused by your body’s own attempt to kill them, and by the deaths of the cells they’re infecting. Your body fights viruses also by eating them, but it’s harder because they’re a lot smaller and have special protein shells that disguise them as “totally not a virus don’t eat me you guys”.

For extra fun, there are also prion diseases! Prions are proteins that folded the wrong way. When properly-folded proteins come into contact with prions, they re-fold into the same wrong shape as the prion. Your body can’t do anything about it because although it’s folded wrong, it’s still a protein that’s supposed to be there. Proteins are the way your body communicates and accomplishes certain things, so folding them wrong can really muck-up what is supposed to happen. In the case of Mad Cow Disease, as more and more proteins turn into prions, your brain turns to mush and gets holes in it until you go crazy and die.

If you think of your body as a factory that builds cars: bacteria are like a drunk hobo sneaking into your factory and dumping empty wine bottles into the machinery so it breaks. Viruses are like a roomba wandered in and reprogrammed your factory to start making more factory-invading roombas instead of cars. Prions are like a weird European car showed up and crashed into one of your factory’s cars after it left the factory, and now they both keep crashing into other cars (which then go on to crash into more cars) and also they all keep crashing into your factory.

Also fungal infections. Fungi can’t produce their own food, so they steal yours. Often that means invading parts of your body to get to it, and dumping toxic waste like bacteria. In the factory, a fungus would be someone building a shed attached to your factory and stealing your power so your factory doesn’t have enough to run and dumping garbage into your factory.

Also also, parasites. Parasites do the same thing as bacteria, but they’re [often] multicellular, so they’re much larger. Instead of a bunch of them, it’s usually a few big ones (although sometimes also a lot of them). In the factory, a parasite would be like the mafia moving into your factory, breaking stuff, and punching you right in the kidneys (or more likely, in the intestines) while they steal your money.

Explain Like I`m Five: good questions, best answers.

4

Viral Membrane Protects Medical Nanorobots From Immune System

Scientists say they have developed a cloaking device to spirit medical nanorobots of the future past immune systems into diseased cells. Their innovation comes from stealing a powerful weapon viruses wield to infect their hosts.

Some viruses wrap themselves in a protective membrane to avoid detection by their host’s immune system and enter cells they are trying to infect. A team at Harvard’s Wyss Institute for Biologically Inspired Engineering have been able to construct their own version of a viral membrane.

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