Molecule of the Day: Diazepam/Valium

Diazepam (C16H13ClN2O), also known as Valium, is a white solid that is of significant pharmaceutical importance. It is a member of the benzodiazepine family, which shares the similar bicyclic system comprising of a conjoined benzene and diazepine ring.

Diazepam is used to treat anxiety and panic disorders, and this is achieved by its binding to GABA receptors on neurons. This causes the active site of the receptors to become a better fit for GABA molecules, resulting in a higher binding of GABA to it. This triggers a greater influx of chloride ions into the neuron. 

Since the intracellular portion of the neuron is more negative than normal, the membrane is hyperpolarised to a greater extent. Consequently, a stronger stimulus is needed to trigger an action potential, which is created when a stimulus causes the membrane to reach the threshold potential.

Since the resting potential is now more negative, the action potential and thus firing of the neuron is less likely. This then produces the anxiolytic, sedative, amnesia-inducing, and anticonvulsant effects of diazepam. 

Diazepam can be produced by various synthetic pathways; one such route is shown below.

Requested by anonymous


Whenever Luffy falls into the sea, it’s almost always Sanji who dives in first after him and fishes him out. What is interesting is that Zoro is also always there when Luffy drowns, but he lets Sanji be the rescuer (Zoro’s always the first to act when anyone of the crew is in danger, so you can see how much trust he puts in the cook). It’s almost like a silent agreement between Zoro and Sanji since Arlong Park.

Why Arlong Park? In case you don’t remember, Zoro and Sanji’s very first teamwork was when Sanji dived into the water to save Luffy instead of Zoro who was gravely injured. Zoro panicked because he had just met Sanji and didn’t know how strong he was. However,

after Sanji breaks the surface alive and kicking, Zoro starts to trust Sanji enough that he even leaves his captain’s life in his hands (well, to be precise, legs). I believe it became an unspoken rule between those two that it is Sanji’s role to save Luffy from drowning since then. Even though Zoro never openly admits it, he knows better than anyone how much Sanji is capable underwater. He can always count on the cook to bring back their hammer of a captain alive and breathing.

There’s this fic on AO3 that, according to my history page, I have visited 176 times.  Which means I alone am responsible for 176 hits on that fic.  I commented on some of the chapters, but only a few, because I feel like a stalker when I comment every week.  I gave it kudos, but I can only give it one, even though it’s one of my favorites.

So just remember, when you’re looking at that hit count and wondering why you don’t have that same number of kudos (divided by the number of chapters, because each one of those also counts as a hit), it might be because some people out there love your fic.  They read it when they’re feeling down.  They open it in the waiting room at the doctors office, or in the lonesome dark of night.  They turn to it in celebration when they did something right.  They open it over and over so they can send the link to their friends, or just to revisit the characters that they love.  They checked it ten times in one day, hoping that you had updated.

A disparity between hits and kudos does not mean that your readers didn’t like your fic, or that they were too lazy to hit the kudos button.  It means that some of them came back, and there’s nothing that makes me happier about my writing than that.

anonymous asked:

I hope this isn't too specific: You're a transfer honors student, avg family but brilliant, came in during the year. You're in Kyoya's class, and he is shocked when you beat him in class (esp. math) You have a similar 'cold' reputation, so you form a rivalry (we all know what comes of rivalries) His father learns he's losing to a commoner & threatens him if he doesn't get a better score than you. You make a really basic mistake & he knows it was on purpose & confronts you & feelings surface etc.

ohhh no bby don’t worry about specifics, they help me do better to give you what you want! thanks for the prompt cutie ♥

When you get your most recent math test, and you see that you’ve received a more than perfect score, you’re elated. You’d found a mistake and corrected it, leading to the professor to give you bonus points on top of your already flawless work. But of course, in order to maintain your spot as an honors scholarship student, you didn’t have a choice to be anything but.

You smirk when you see that you’ve beaten Ootori - again, you think to yourself - knowing that he’ll be beside himself when he sees (even if he doesn’t show it). 

Your rivalry is made up of short, cool, seemingly unaffected remarks back and forth - Kyoya understands the position you’re in, of course, although it irritates him that his top spot has been taken.

It irritates his father even more, even though you’re unaware of this. You’ve heard whispers, of course, of the situation Kyoya faces as the third son - something you’ve never had to think about, what with coming from a middle class family. 

Things come to a head when Kyoya comes into class one day with what looks like a swollen red mark on his cheek. No one asks, and no one says anything to Kyoya himself but there are groups of people whispering throughout the room.

When you look up and see him, and the welt-like mark on his face, you’re immediately concerned but he just sits down in his seat, choosing to ignore you instead of his usual icy stare. 

You’ve been told that you can be cool but the welt marring Kyoya’s admittedly handsome face causes your concern to overwhelm you, and you lean over and tap on his shoulder to get his attention.

He merely glances over at you, eyebrow quirked like a question mark, saying nothing.

“Not that I care, of course,” You say, always trying to appear even and unperturbed, “But are you okay, Ootori?”

“It’s nothing, really. My father’s just upset that I’m letting a commoner beat me in my studies, is all. While it certainly irritates me as well, not having the top spot, I understand the position you’re in and it can’t be helped.”

You can’t help the sharp intake of breath - you’re incredibly shocked that his father was that serious about such matters. The rest of the day continues as usual, but you can’t help but not put your usual amount of cool aloofness into your glares at Kyoya. 

It’s just sympathy, you tell yourself. You just feel bad for him. Nothing more. You do your best to ignore the aching in your chest and the way you can’t help but continue to look over at him, to watch the way his eyes rush over the material on the board and the way his hands move as he takes notes.

A month later, when you get your most recent tests back, you can’t help but smile when you see that Kyoya’s reclaimed his spot at the top. You’re second, of course - you only made maybe one basic mistake, forgot a negative, to assure you wouldn’t arouse too much suspicion. Besides, you only had to receive top marks on finals to stay in the scholarship program. Things would work out by then.

But when you’re on your way to the refectory for lunch, you’re suddenly pulled into an empty classroom and you hear the door slam behind you. You look up to see who’s kidnapped you, in a manner of speaking, you’re admittedly shocked to see Kyoya of all people.

“Ootori? What are you doing, I was going to go eat my lunch!”

“I know what you did.”

“I don’t know what you’re talking about.”

“Dammit!” He cries, slamming his hand down on a nearby desk. “Don’t lie to me, you’ve never scored any less than perfect on any test you’ve taken while you were here. You never do anything but study, there’s no possible way you didn’t throw that test so I could come out on top.”

“I mean, I wouldn’t say I threw the test, I just forgot a negative. I could never tarnish my own reputation like that, please. I just…that day when you came in, and your father had hit you because I was doing better - I don’t know, Kyoya, what do you want me to say?”

He surprises you by taking your face in his hands and crushing his lips down onto yours - at first you’re too shocked to respond, but after a moment or two you relax into it, enjoying the way his lips feel on yours.

When he pulls away, both of you a little breathless, he says, “You called me Kyoya.” Then, “Thank you.”

You’re surprised, yet again, and ask, “For what?”

“For caring.” Straightening his tie - you may or may not have pulled on it to deepen the kiss - he smirks and says, “I’d like to make a proposition.”


“We could very easily tie for top of the class.”

“Oh really? Will that keep your father off your back?”

“He’ll never really be off my back, I’m used to it by now, I assure you.”

“That must be awful, I’m so sorry.”

He shrugs, before opening the door back up and gesturing for you to leave first. “Why don’t you let me tell you about it over dinner?”

You laugh. “Thanks, Ootori, but I have to study.”

“We can get takeout.”

“Okay, you’ve got a deal, Ootori.”

“Call me Kyoya.”