Historically black colleges and universities––commonly called “HBCUs”––are defined by the Higher Education Act of 1965 as,
“…any historically black college or university that was established prior to 1964, whose principal mission was, and is, the education of black Americans, and that is accredited by a nationally recognized accrediting agency or association determined by the Secretary [of Education]…”
Photo: Portrait of a Mississippi Vocational College cheerleader, ca. 1950s, Gift of Charles Schwartz and Shawn Wilson, Collection of the Smithsonian National Museum of African American History and Culture.
1. The first colleges for African Americans were established largely through the efforts of black churches with the support of the American Missionary Association and the Freedmen’s Bureau. The second Morrill Act of 1890 required states—especially former confederate states—to provide land-grants for institutions for black students if admission was not allowed elsewhere. As a result, many Historically Black Colleges and Universities (HBCUs) were founded.
2. Between 1861 and 1900 more than 90 institutions of higher learning were established. Shaw University––founded in Raleigh, North Carolina, in 1865––was the first black college organized after the Civil War. Other schools include: Talladega College,Howard University, Morehouse College and Hampton University.
Photo: An 1899 class in mathematical geography studying earth’s rotation around the sun, Hampton Institute, Hampton, Virginia, Library of Congress.
3. Early HBCUs were established to train teachers, preachers and other community members. During the 20th century, many HBCUs shifted their focus to promote scholarship among African Americans. Academic councils, conferences and founded scholastic journals to showcase black intellectual thought. Such notable figures as W.E.B. Du Bois, Ida B. Wells, Booker T. Washington and Martin Luther King Jr. attended an historically black college or university.
4. HBCUs opened the door of educational opportunity for many African Americans who were once legally denied an education. Additionally, these schools, provided African American students with a nurturning environment to explore their collective identities and cultures.
5. Today, HBCUs uphold a history of scholarship pursued by African Americans in the face of adversity.
A great way to make a lasting impression on your DBQ and essay tomorrow is to bring in things that will surprise whoever is grading your essay. How though?Well for starters, if applicable, always bring in women’s rights, african american rights, and native american rights.
With women right’s, you should definitely include the cult of domesticity which basically says that women should be nurturers and be domesticated aka be a housewife. After the revolution this cult will turn into republican motherhood which is basically the cult of domesticity combined with how women should also educated their children on democracy and patriotism and why they should vote and thing though women lacked that right. Bring up people such as Alice Paul, Margaret Sanger (she sets up the birth control league which will later become Planned Parenthood), Susan B. Anthony, the Grimkey Sister’s, Abigail Addams and her request to her husband to remember the ladies when the writing of the Constitution was happening, authors such as Margaret Fuller and Emily Dickinson. Remember Clara Barton and her founding of the Red Cross , Jane Adams and the Hull House. Bring up organizations such as the National Women’s Christian Temperance Union, the National Council of Negro Women, don’t forget to add in organizations such as the NWSA, AWSA (which later come together as NAWSA or the National Women’s Trade Labor Union (NWTLU). Bring in how The Feminine Mystique by Betty Friedan sparked the feminist movement. Mention Seneca Fallsif it fits, bring in the passage of the 19th amendment and how orgs like NAWSA would campaign for suffrage by going on state by state campaigns.
For African Americans, bring up the Emancipation Proclamation and the Civil War. Bring up the 13th-15th amendments and how republicans were big supporters of it. Talk about the Great Migration during WW1, bring in people such as Ida B. Wells, Booker T. Washington, W.E.B DuBois, the creation of the NAACP. Talk about Brown v. Board of Education, Swann v. CMS, Plessy v. Ferguson, the integrated fighting units in the Vietnam War. The Freedman’s Bureau and the multiple chances of abolishing slavery in the writing of the articles of confederation, the constitution, and the bill of rights are great to bring up.
Talk about how the economienda system affected the native americans, how the reservation system sucked major ass, talk about the massacre at mystic. The events of Wounded Knee are important to discuss. Don’t forget Tippacanoe or the French and Indian War . The Dawes Severalty Act is important to discuss.
If the topic that’s at hand can in any way have these groups of people incorporated into it, then by all means write all about them. Bring in whatever other knowledge you know and feel free to add more to this post.
It is true that some people in the general public are unfamiliar with HBCUs; but, this truth isn’t indicative of insignificance. It’s indicative of anti-blackness in public knowledges — people aren’t familiar with North Carolina A&T because no one at any point in their intellectual journeys saw it fit to teach them about the Greensboro Four; people aren’t familiar with Howard University because they’ve never critically studied a Toni Morrison novel or read a Stokely Carmichael essay; people know nothing about Rust College or Fisk University because they know nothing about Ida B. Wells. And, we have to deal with that. We have to deal with the fact that HBCUs find it harder to come by resources not because they aren’t attractive or worthy intellectual spaces, but because, in a “post-racial” society, donors do not see the need for/value of institutions that specifically serve communities of Black students…
“From Morehouse to Berkeley and Back: Difficult Decisions for Black Students” by Marcus Lee, Morehouse College Student
If you have spent any time working with hippopotamuses, you may have noticed that when standing in the sun they start to sweat what appears to be blood! These pigmented secretions are neither blood nor sweat, but contain antibiotic, insect repellent, coolant, and sunscreen properties. Hippopotamuses are actually quite sensitive to UV rays that hit their backs during the day when the hippos are resting in water with their backs above the water surface. The secretions contain hipposudoric acid and horhipposudoric acid which absorb UV rays and therefore act as natural sunscreen. Although these chemicals are unstable when in contact with human skin, maybe scientists will be able to find a way to make a stable compound that could be used for human sunscreen as well.
More info can be found here:
Saikawa Y, Hashimoto K, Nakata M, Yoshihara M, Nagai K, Ida M, Komiya T (2004). “Pigment chemistry: the red sweat of the hippopotamus”. Nature 429 (6990): 363.
when it comes to relationships, i.ida doesn’t focus on the physical qualities of his partners. sure, he sees that people find his partner physically attractive, but that doesn’t matter to him. i.ida is attracted to kindness &. intelligence before anything else.