Linguistics map of the Iberian Peninsula 1000-2000 AD
When language isolates are discussed, people often assume they are some weird, unique language that just sprung out of nowhere. It’s much more likely that these languages (like Basque) were parts of must larger families that died out. In this gif, you can see how Castilian overwhelms Iberia, which had been primarily speaking Arabic - Mozarabic. Even at that time, Basque was already a fairly small language. So what did the language landscape look like before Arabic - Mozarabic was the dominant language family?
I don’t know, but language has been around a lot longer than we have historical accounts, and it’s reasonable to think that Basque’s language family was once spoken in a much wider area. Who knows, maybe it originates from a language family that dominated Europe before Germanic and Romance languages existed. In any case, we no longer can trace it back to connect it to the languages in Europe today.
An iron dagger with T-shaped pommel with two small roundels to the ends, central rib with hatched design and rivets to the side; long handle and small cross guard with long, stiletto blade; long sheath with roundels to the edges and collar below and large roundel at the end; entire surface decorated with guilloche pattern; Iberian workmanship.
The Celtiberians were Celtic-speaking people of the Iberian Peninsula in the final centuries BC. Archaeologically, the Celtiberians participated in the Hallstatt culture in what is now north-central Spain. The term Celtiberi appears in accounts by Diodorus Siculus, Appian and Martial who recognized intermarriage between Celts and Iberians after a period of continuous warfare.
The Celtiberians were the most influential ethnic group in pre-Roman Iberia, but they had their largest impact on history during the Second Punic War, during which they became the allies of Carthage in its conflict with Rome, and crossed the Alps in the mixed forces under Hannibal’s command. As a result of the defeat of Carthage, the Celtiberians first submitted to Rome in 195 BC; Tiberius Sempronius Gracchus spent the years 182 to 179 BC pacifying the Celtiberians; however, conflicts between various semi-independent bands of Celtiberians continued. After the city of Numantia was finally taken and destroyed by Scipio Aemilianus Africanus the Younger after a long and brutal siege that ended the Celtic resistance (154 – 133 BC), Roman cultural influences increased. The Sertorian War, 80 – 72 BC, marked the last formal resistance of the Celtiberian cities to Roman domination, which submerged the Celtiberian culture.
The Moors were the medieval Muslim inhabitants of North Africa, the Iberian Peninsula, Sicily, and Malta. They came from Morocco, western Algeria, the Western Sahara, and Mauritania. The Moors invaded the Iberian Peninsula in 711 and called the territory Al-Andalus, an area which at different times comprised most of Spain and Portugal and parts of France. The initial rule of the Moors in the Iberian peninsula under this Caliphate of Córdoba was regarded as tolerant in its acceptance of Christians, Muslims and Jews living together in the same territories. The Moors left a rich cultural legacy in Spain & Portugal, as seen through Moorish architecture such as La Mezquita in Córdoba and the Alhambra Palace. Religious difference of the Moorish Muslims led to a centuries-long conflict with the Christian kingdoms of Europe called the Reconquista. The Fall of Granada in 1492 saw the end of the Muslim rule in Iberia.
For More Information Search: Moors; Caliphate of Córdoba; Alhambra Palace, Reconquista; Ferdinand & Isabella; The Fall of Granada
The Barb horse is an ancient breed that originates from the coastal region of northern Africa. It most likely has a common ancestor with, or has the Arabian horse as a predecessor, which they were often mistaken for in Europe. The Barb horse has influenced breeds such as the American Quarter Horse, Andalusian horse, Standardbred, and Thoroughbred.
Hardy and versatile as they are, this breed has been highly prized for its courage in battle, in addition to being well suited for other roles such as agriculture and modern-day competition disciplines. These horses were a key factor for the Berber horsemen during the Muslim Conquest of the Iberian Peninsula, which explains their strong resemblance to the Iberian horses of today.
Today the breed is often linked with Fantasia performances in Morocco during cultural festivals. These performances are made as a reenactment of cavalry charges, where a group of riders, all wearing traditional clothes, charge along a straight path at the same speed so as to form a line, and then at the end of the charge fire into the sky using old muskets or muzzle-loading rifles.
The first representation of a Fantasia is a fourteen century drawing attributed to the Flemish painter Jan Cornelisz Vermeyen (1500-1559), named “A Fantasia in Tunis”, as well as two other drawings titled ‘Military Tournament", all painted during the Conquest of Tunis by the Emperor Charles Quint in 1535.