i-shall-be-studying

For one month, the Batkids didn’t have bedroom doors. It was a pet hate of Bruce’s but, despite numerous warnings over the years, each time one of the kid’s got upset or angry they slammed their bedroom door.

The straw that broke the proverbial camel’s back was when Tim and Damian simultaneously slammed their doors after a ‘disagreement’. During a short period of time where nearly every single Batkid had come home and slammed their door.

‘Alfred, remove the children’s doors. I’ve had enough of this.’
'Even Master Jason’s sir?’
'Is he not one of the children!’
Jason hadn’t been there to slam his door.

So, Jason randomly rocked up at the manor and made a beeline for his room to see if he still had a particular book. Closing his door, he went to go to the bookcase before frowning.
His door hadn’t closed?
Turning,he gaped at the discovery that his door had been stolen!
'BBBBRRRUUUUCCEEEEEE!’

Jason was not happy, to put it mildly.

'Jay I don’t understand. You came home in the summer and I asked you to close your door and you accused me of locking you up. Now you’re yelling at me because you have no door?’

'Privacy Bruce! I want my God damn privacy back!’

'Well then you shouldn’t have slammed your door, Jay!’

'I haven’t slammed my door since I was 15!! You know what fine! Until you put my door back I’m moving back in.’

Bruce blinked at this before shrugging and walking away. He’d removed his troubled son’s bedroom door and now he was coming home? Doing the one thing he’d never been able to convince him to do? Why hadn’t he done this sooner?
Removing the bedroom doors was the best thing he had ever done.
Alfred just sighed and watched Jason’s retreating strop with a knowing smile.

Jason moved back to the manor for one week.

'No Jay! You are not going out! It’s gone 3 am, it’s raining and you have no where to go. Go to bed!’

'I’m an adult Bruce I can make my own decisions!’

'You’re bouncing off the walls and putting yourself at risk! You are not going out at 3am!!’

'You can’t stop me from getting pie! I’m hungrie I wanna go get pie!’

Alfred looked up from where he was having a cup of tea in the pantry when a stressed out Bruce appeared before him.

'Alfred, please return Jason’s bedroom door and call Roy. I shall be in my study with the bourbon.’

The next week Dick frowned at his re-attached bedroom door in confusion.
'How?’

'You may thank your brother,sir.’

6

I should never have let you fall. (x)

for @newtscarf

I thought you’d never ask

Kai one shot

Genre: fluff(?)

summary: Kim Jongin is the most popular boy at your school and he takes interest in you

*a/n: This is my first one shot, no one requested it, but feel free to request one shots if you liked this!!          -xoxo admin oreo

********************************************

You tried to walk through the crowded hallways at your high school. Classes were over and you were on your way to the library to study. As you reached your destination you noticed a boy with a leather jacket sitting on the bench in front of the library. As you looked closer, you saw that it was Kim Jongin, mostly known as Kai. You sighed to yourself, marveling over how broad his shoulders were, how defined his biceps were, even under that leather jacket.

“Y/n, stop doing that, it’s so obvious you’re in love with him.“ You best friend Jongdae smirked as he took your books from you. You playfully hit the back of his head. “Well you’ve never been in love before, what will little Jongdae know, hm?” He chuckled and you both walked to the back of the library, teasing each other like always.

You started to study and Jongdae began to work on his essay for chemistry class. “Hey y/n.” He said, grinning. You cocked your head to the side. “I think we have chemistry together.” He winked and laughed, waiting for a reaction from you. You rolled your eyes. “Get to work Jongdae.”

The library door opened and Kai entered. Behind him, bunches of his fangirls entered, snapping pictures of him, giggling, and squealing at his every move.

You huffed, annoyed at the flashes from their cameras. “Hey, do you guys mind not taking pictures here? People need to concentrate.”

They glared at you. “What a nerd.” A girl staged whispered to her friend. They all giggled and stared at you. She was clearly the leader of their little ‘squad’

“Hey ladies, lets tone it down a bit, shall we? I got to study for a quiz tomorrow.” Kai asked them nicely. They immediately got to work and turned quieter than a mouse.

Jongdae wiggled his eyebrows at you. You shook your head. You stood up to get another textbook, the one you had wasn’t any help at all. The book you wanted was at the top of the bookshelf. You stood on top of a stool and reached for the book. It was too far, you couldn’t reach. You jumped slightly and fell back bit and felt your blouse rip. You ignored it and jumped one more time and ended up loading your balance and falling down.

But before you could hit the ground, strong arms caught you. You opened your eyes. “Be careful princess. We wouldn’t want your pretty face to get ruined.” He helped you stand up and took off his jacket.

You blushed, his arms were bare all he was wearing under he was wearing a t shirt despite the cold weather. He handed you his jacket. “Your shirt kind of ripped while you fell.” A blush was forming on his cheeks as he wrapped it around you. He got the book for you.

“If you ever need a book that’s up there, always ask someone else instead of doing it yourself.“ He then left the library, giving you one more glance.

"Hey, y/n, are you okay? What happened to you?” Jongdaes eyes turned wide as he saw the leather jacket around you.

"I kinda fell…….Jongdae can we leave? It’s getting late now.“ He nodded. You exited the library with him.

"So are you gonna tell me who gave you that jacket?” Jongdae asked, smirking.

"Actually, Jongdae, Jongin saved me from breaking my head. And he gave me this jacket.“ You smiled at the memory. Jongdae came up with bunches of fanfiction worthy thoughts on the way back.

When you entered your dorm you checked the rip on your blouse and shrieked.

 No wonder he was so red!!

The back of your blouse was completely ripped and your black lace bra was very visible. You changed quickly and threw away the blouse and flopped on your bed. You fell asleep and from that day on, he was all that was in your thoughts.

2 weeks passed and you saw Jongin everywhere. At the library, at the cafe you went with Jongdae for lunch, at the football field where you waited for Jongdae you finish his football practice.

One day at his practice, you waited for your best friend like you did every time. You shivered slightly as a gust of wind blew. Jongdae noticed and handed you his sweater smiling. You smiled and thanked him and put it on.

"Y/n, this is so fun, look how jealous he’s getting!” He whispered to you. You looks over to where Jongin sat with his friends and sure enough, his fist was clenched.

"Oh goodness, Jongdae really? Stop being so childish.“ You poked him on the ribs. He pecked you on the cheek and ran off before you could punch him.

 That child, I swear

You got to reading your book until practice was over. As you got to the fun part of the book, you noticed someone breathing next to you. You turned your head and saw Kai sitting next to you.

You gasped and fell from the bench. His eyes turned wide and he quickly ran to help you up. "Y/n, are you okay? I’m so sorry, I didn’t know it would shock you that much!”

You wiped the sand off your skirt. “It’s alright, don’t worry about it.” You sat down on the bench.

He cleared his throat. “So um you know, areyoudatingkimjongdae?” He asked, turning crimson red. It took you a minute to process what he asked you.

"What? Oh my goodness no way! Where did you get that?!“ You laughed.

"You hang out with him a lot, you go on dates with him and you wear his sweater and he kisses you on the cheek. Isn’t that what couples do?” He said with a slightly accusing tone.

"We’ve been friends since we came out of our moms wombs. We’re practically siblings! And he’s kind of trying to make you jealous……“ You answered, turning red.

 So Jongdae was right, he was watching us.

"Well now that you know I like you, can you give us a chance and go to the bubble tea shop afterschool? With me?” He asked, scratching the back of his neck.

"Like a date right?“ You slyly smiled.

"Yah, like a date.” He broadly smiled.

"I thought you’d never ask.“

writerwithproblems-deactivated2  asked:

Do you know anything about Celtic Mythology that you can share with me? I've read a lot of stories and researched about the gods and godesses, and I know that not much is known about druids and gods. I find it very confusing :( Maybe a web page or something? Thank you! :)

I can tell you some broadly helpful things about Celtic mythology, beyond ‘oh my god the stories are insane’ (because they are totally insane):

  • ignore the Internet. Like legit. It’s devastating how much nonsense there is online about Celtic stuff. According to the Internet, the Celts were some idealised nature-worshipping matriarchal society, which really couldn’t be further from the truth. Because Celtic traditions were ultimately lost to Christianity, which is obviously a very patriarchal institution, it has become understandably popular to view the earlier Celtic world as a more free and liberal place, devoid of the later Christian patriarchy, but it’s sadly as much of a myth as the story of Pwyll and Annwn.
    Most of the gods who are depicted as nature deities by modern pagans and Celtic enthusiasts were not even remotely linked to nature. Looking at Cernunnos especially as an example of this, there is no evidence at all that he was either a particularly popular god or in any way associated with nature, and yet he is now often thought of as the god of nature across the Celtic world. Women had a pretty hard time of things in much of Celtic society; chastity, purity and modesty were all qualities expected of them, and they were broadly expected to be subservient to their husbands (and woe betide you if you didn’t have one).
    I do slightly want to bash my head against a wall whenever these drawings of frolicking ‘Celtic goddesses’ show up on my dashboard, proclaimed as ‘the goddess of [insert bullshit field of living here]’, all scantily clad and bestowed with a list of their definitive qualities and their absolute power over nature. BUT I DIGRESS.
    Whereas a lot of online stuff is great for the study of other religions and traditions, Celtic studies have really suffered from an abundance of wishful misinformation. If you want to find things about Celtic religion that are in any way useful, you unfortunately have to stick to the peer reviewed stuff, or at least check that what you’re reading was written by someone who has a background in actual Celtic studies. It’s a bit of a faff, but as long as you’re careful with what you’re reading, there’s still a lot of interesting stuff out there! 

  • we know nothing. Or at least we know incrementally more than nothing. A lot of stuff written on Celtic mythology is based on speculation, because we don’t have a handy list of written texts from the Celts themselves to draw upon. The written sources, even the really old ones like the Mabinogion, are either dated from way after the dawn of Christianity or were written by people other than the Celts themselves. The Romans, for example, wrote a few things about these exotic and sexy barbarians, mostly in an attempt to portray themselves as being superior and cultured compare to their neighbours, but a lot of it was melodramatic; more of a bodice-ripper type narrative than a historical document.
    The Romans also used an approach called interpretatio romana, which is really exactly what it sounds like; they used the framework of their own world and tried to place Celtic society into the same boxes. For example, they described some Celtic deities as being Hermes, Jupiter and Cronus. They didn’t mean that the Celts actually worshipped these gods - the Celts had their own polytheistic system - but they were attempting to say ‘OK, this is how we as Romans understand religion, and this is how we’re going to make sense of other religions’. This has the unfortunate effect of modern people reading these texts and thinking ‘the Romans said that the Celts worshipped Hermes - from this, we can reconstruct that the Celts worshipped a trickster god! We know the names of X, Y and Z as Celtic gods, and X must be the trickster’. It’s a dangerous and speculative method, trying to reconstruct the religion from sources that are already tenuous. 
    Therefore, a lot of what we think we know about the Celts isn’t exactly fact; we know a lot about what people wrote and thought about them, but with no accurate personal testimony, it’s hard to translate that into knowing anything concrete about them.

  • Celtic gods were not discrete units. It’s hard to put into words what exactly I mean by that, but I shall try. Whereas in studies of Greco-Roman religion, it can be easy to say things like ‘Athena was the goddess of strategic warfare (amongst other things)’, and thus link a deity inexorably to a field over which they had dominion and control, Celtic gods probably didn’t function in the same way. Instead, they likely functioned more like Egyptian gods, with certain deities linked to or identified with certain regions of the land instead of areas of life. Also like Egyptian gods, there was no one pantheon of gods which all Celtic people worshipped; we don’t have a single godly father like Zeus, or a pantheon of 12 important gods like the Olympians. Instead, we have evidence of literally hundreds of Celtic deities, most only mentioned in one source and then never referenced again, suggesting that gods were localised and specific. There’s no evidence that a family who moved from one end of the country to the other would be familiar with all of the gods of that new location at all.
    One good example of this is actually Cernunnos. Cernunnos is the name that has been given to a horned god. We do have over 50 statues of this deity (although we only have one instance of the name Cernunnos being applied to this deity), but all of these statues were found in Northern Gaul. So, although Cernunnos is often described as a ‘Celtic god’, implying a wide-reaching cult, all the evidence points to him - or whatever version of him was actually worshipped - being a much more localised deity.  
    This points to a system whereby what exactly it meant to be religious was very different. Gods were personal and immediate; a man living in the North of Wales would not make an offering to the same god as a man living in the South of Ireland, even if they both wanted to ensure good luck at the weekend’s hunt. And this is why it is irritating when things like ‘Cernunnos, Celtic god of nature’ and ‘Arianrhod, Celtic goddess of the moon’ show up. 

  • on the same note as above, the Mabinogion isn’t a text of Welsh mythology. It’s a text copied and written by Christians, was intended for an esoteric courtly audience, and mixes typical courtly tropes (e.g. the saucy knights and the swooning dames) with some elements of Welsh folklore, but it’s not a book from which we can deduce a whole bunch about what the Welsh pagans actually believed.
    Even things that are generally accepted to be religious truths, such as Rhiannon being a representation of an important Welsh goddess, aren’t factual - this particular interpretation comes from a dude named WJ Gruffydd, who looked at Irish mythology and decided that Welsh mythology was probably identical. Ireland had a goddess associated with horses named Epona, and Rhiannon in the Mabinogion is shown riding a horse; this, in Gruffydd’s view, was proof that there used to be a Welsh myth where Rhiannon was a horse goddess (and, in his opinion, an actual horse - wtf). There is no evidence whatsoever for this. It was purely conjecture, and yet it’s almost accepted universally as fact.
    There are some things within the Mabinogion that are pretty obviously derived from Welsh mythology, such as Manawydan fab Llŷr (more on this dude below) but it has been so heavily Christianised and euhemerised (meaning that the original myths have been placed into a real world context) that, with none of the original source materials existing, we should be wary of trying to reconstruct the pagan originals from the Christian adaptations.

  • so, one thing we should remember is that ‘Celtic mythology’ as an entire and whole unit of narrative and belief is a real misnomer. There was never a unified society across the whole of Britain who called themselves the Celts. Instead, there are multiple local and regional traditions which are obviously and inevitably linked; tendencies to name rivers after goddesses believed to live there, some shared gods, and generally accepted societal norms. The term ‘Celt’ has been disputed in terms of who exactly it should apply to, when it should apply, and what it actually means. Different people use it in different ways. It’s a pain in all two of my feet.
    We have evidence that a lot of their beliefs were shared or derived from the same root - there are obvious similarities and cognates between Welsh and Irish mythology, such as the Irish god Manannán mac Lir and the Welsh king Manawydan fab Llŷr, referenced in the Mabinogion, but this doesn’t mean that they were essentially interchangeable. A lot of older scholars, such as Gruffydd mentioned above, believed that they were, and a lot of what we ‘know’ about Welsh mythology comes from what we do know about Irish mythology. This is Bad Practice with a capital B and P (and also B and S). 

  • there is some actual stuff we can genuinely infer, but I can’t even begin to cover the basics here because I will actually die. If you have any specific questions (e.g. the Celtic ideas of the Otherworld or the roles of male and female deities) then I can do a more focused reply on that! Otherwise, I will leave you with a handy little bibliography.

Sources:

  • Studia Celtica - a journal on Celtic studies, produced in Wales (and annoyingly not available online - the bane of my academic life)
  • The Mabinogion translated by Sioned Davies - this has a really good introduction to Welsh religion and the problems of trying to reconstruct it, as well as a lot of stuff that can be reconstructed. Stay away from Charlotte Guest’s translation if you want a more accurate one.
  • Jeffrey Gantz’s various translations of Welsh and Irish works - he’s done an Irish Mythology compilation with a load of good background and context, available from Penguin. 
  • The Mammoth Book of Celtic Myths and Legends - Peter Berresford-Ellis - this is not a scholarly book and it falls into a lot of the pitfalls I’ve mentioned above, but as long as you’re aware of these pitfalls, it’s a good book for just seeing the narrative traditions .
  • Pagan Britain - Ronald Hutton - useful for seeing some of the modern misinterpretations / reinterpretations of Celtic stuff and how they link to the actual sources. 
  • One final Internet source - the Celtic Encylopaedia! It’s basically a compilation of a lot of out-of-copyright translations of Medieval texts. It’s handy if you want to read more of the stories, but there’s obviously not a great deal of actual info here. 

And now my fingers hurt.

Fights, Flights, and Sleepless Nights: a young James Potter Imagine

Requested: yes

Following a horrific fight with her boyfriend, James Potter, the reader faces questions and a vigilant group of marauders set on helping James. The comments cut the reader so deeply that they wonder if it would be better to just break it off. After weeks of sleepless nights and dodging James, the situation finally comes to a boiling point. Will it last or will it end?

[Y/n] - your name
~~~ - indicates passage of time

Warnings: 3 minor curses, argument

Word Count: 2,234

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

“If the Ministry finds out you are dead James!” The words fly out of my mouth angrily. “You’re an unregistered animagus, yes it’s cool but it’s illegal. You say you do it for Moony but what about me Potter? What about us? You won’t do either of us good from Azkaban!”

Keep reading

Continued from // x 
@firstsxnner

     ‘’ I presume that is satisfactory. ‘’   A robust palm caressed tenderly at the other’s cheek, displaying false sympathy.  Oh, implied love was dispensable, a patch of skin easily peeled and discarded unto wind’s embrace.  Our ascended automaton peered, eyes akin to a predator reflected the sibling’s silhouette in their pools of cardinal.  ‘’  Now, let us not waste time no further.  Take a seat, I shall oversee your studies.  Mankind built educational buildings, ‘schools’ for children, so? It is important you do not skip any time for studying. ‘’

Alfred Pennyworth x Reader- The Maid Part 2 (rated M smut)

Part 1 here!

So yeah this happened, and now I feel pretty amazing! I love this haha! I hope you enjoy reading it as much as I enjoyed writing it! ;)

Warning- Sexual content, Dominant Alfred, rough angry sex, restraints, BELTS, vulgar language

Originally posted by gothamfox





Keep reading

Marauders + studying hc’s

  • OK so the Marauders are at uni. Freshers is over, the first lot of exams are coming up. 
  • Sirius is miraculously on a scholarship (apparently there are funds for disinherited rich kids if you know the right people.) 
  • James’ parents are paying his living expenses on the condition he get’s good grades. 
  • So they have to work. 
  • Remus, of course, is in the library for the entirety of the time he is not drinking. He even has a part time job there. 
  • Peter has been carrying textbooks everywhere with him and silently screaming since day one. 
  • Anyway the reality of exam season hits. 
  • “Fuck, Prongs. We need to learn some shit.” 
  • “Sirius, you are doing Philosophy and English lit. You can literally MAKE IT ALL UP!” 
  • “Ooh, Mr “high and mighty I’m studying psychology” - at least your exams had CONCRETE ANSWERS AND YOUR FATE ISN’T DEPENDANT ON THE WHIMSY OF THE TUTOR.” 
  • James slumps in his seat, a stack of textbooks on his knee. “I should of done sports science.” 
  • “Your mum said “I’m not paying thousands of pounds for you to get a degree in bloody Jogging, James.” 
  • “Oh yeah. Shit. I love jogging though.” 
  • “Yeah well, I love fine arts.” 
  • James looks at him accusingly. “No you don’t. You like fine wine.” 
  • “Aaah. I knew something was off with that question. Speaking of, I have a nice bottle in the cupboard… let’s drink it whilst we make a study plan.” 
  • Remus is rolling his eyes in the corner. 
  • James and Sirius have already drunk a fair amount of beer that night 
  • and the wine sends them into the realms of silly.
  • “I shall study twenty three hours a day!” James proclaims. 
  • Not to be outdone, Sirius jumps on a chair. “I will study - twenty three point five!” 
  • “You know you need sleep for your brains to work,” Remus says, “In you two idiots cases, probably quite a lot.” 
  • “Pssht. I’m the psychology student. I know the brain things!” 
  • “OK, James, what is the function of your prefrontal cortex?” 
  • “TO DRINK MORE OF THE WINES AND BE MERRY.” 
  • The next day a very hungover James and Sirius sit miserably in the library whilst Remus goes through their study schedules. 
  • “Moony, we hate you.” 
  • “Yes.” Agrees James. 
  • “We love you, but with some hate,” Sirius continues. It’s possibly the effects of alcohol have not fully worn off. 
  • “Funny. That’s exactly how I feel about you too,” Remus laughs, handing them each a packet of highlighters and a stack of file paper. “Now get to work.” 
  • So they all spend a successful hour studying (Remus is suitably impressed) (maybe Sirius was playing footsy with him under the table and that was the real reason he managed to stay silent for an hour) (or maybe not) 
  • and then 
  • “I’m bloody starving,” James announces. “I want at least three eggs right now. And bacon. And beans.” 
  • “Prongs, I declare you a genius. All day breakfast. Right now.” - Sirius
  • ““You can’t eat in the library.” Peter says. “Can’t cook a full English in here either.”
  • “I knew there was a good reason to hate libraries!” James proclaims, earning a glare from Remus and Lily Evans (Remus’ fellow library assistant, love of James life.) 
  •  James sees her and freezes. 
  • “I mean, I am on a diet to perfect my very hot bod and so the library is the most delightful place to go.” 
  • Sirius and Remus are trying not to laugh at James (he sulks for a long time when they laugh at him over Lily and he always makes Remus ask her out for him as punishment.) 
  • “One more hour and then we’ll go for breakfast,” Remus says. “Lily, you coming? I’ll pay.” 
  • “I’m vegetarian,” Lily says.
  • “So am I!” James proclaims, “Save the animals! Death to the carnivores!” 
  • Lily gives him a glare and he shuts up. “I’m going vegetarian?” he tries, meekly. 
  • “They do a veggie option down the road,” Peter pipes up. Peter’s morals have always been rather dubious, but he is very ethical with his food and shopping choices. 
  • “Alright,” Lily says, “But I’m sitting by Sirius.” 
  • “WHAT.” - James. 
  • “He’s so obviously mooning over moony that he won’t try and compliment me or feel me up.” 
  • Sirius’ bites through the end of his biro in shock, ink spraying all over his book and staining his mouth. “WHAT.” 
  • “Right. Erm. One hour then. Sirius? You can test me on my flashcards over breakfast,” Remus says. He is blushing a bit. Lily pushes her trolley of books down an aisle and they here her snickering as she goes. 
  • “I don’t moon,” Sirius mutters. “What does that even mean? what is the true purpose of the moon?” 
  • “Don’t try and philosophize your way out of this, Black,” James says. “You and I are going down together as the most hopeless idiots in the history of hopeless idiots.” 
  • Sirius sighs ruefully. “I am nothing if not loyal to you, Prongs. And, whilst we are at it, seen as things can’t get much worse - Moony, that jumper looks absolutely splendid on you.” 
  • Remus smirks a little smugly. “I know. Now shut up and revise so we can eat.” 
  • Basically the lead up to exams proceeds like this, with more fighting each day and more food each day. Their flat is absolutely papered with post-it’s covered in facts about their various subjects, and they hold intense flash-card contests to see who can get the most right answer in a row (Remus wins, Sirius is second, James claims that Psychology has “a lot of dead hard words, mate”.) 
My Problem:

*Finnish song starts playing on iPod*

Me: Aw yeah this language is so cool I’m happy to be learning it!

*Swedish song comes on*

Me: But maybe I can do this also…?

*Portuguese song starts playing*

Me: Screw all my other language studies! THIS is the ONE!

*Albanian song begins to play*

Me: I was wrong! Albanian is where my heart lies!

*Greek song starts playing*

Me: I was always meant to learn Greek! How could I have ignored my calling?

*Another Finnish song comes on*

Me: Never-freaking-mind! I apologize for my wanderings but I am back to where I belong. This is the language I shall study! From now on my sole focus shall be Finnish!

*Chinese song comes on*

Me @ iPod: WOULD YOU STOP THAT?

[November 8th] It’s 1:38 a.m and I’ve just finished my late night study session. I have a Biophysics exam tomorrow, so I spent the night revising. In this pic there are mostly my exercise sheets about pH measuring and buffer solutions.

Now, I shall go to sleep.

Study hard, study late!

Leo Tolstoy's diary
  • April 17th: What will be the purpose of my life in the village for the next two years? 1) Study the course of legal sciences, university level. 2) Study practical medicine and part of theoretical. 3) Study languages: French, Russian, German, English, Italian and Latin. 4) Study agriculture, both theoretical and practical. 5) Study history, geography and statistics. 6) Study mathematics, secondary school level. 7) Write a dissertation. 8)Achieve an intermediate degree of proficiency in music and art. 9) Write the rules. 10) Acquire some knowledge of the natural sciences. 11) Compose the compositions from all the subjects that I shall be studying.
  • April 18th: I wrote too many rules and wanted to follow them, but I was weak. So now I want to give myself only one rule: do what you have decided must be done.
  • April 18th (later): Did not follow the rule.