i'm sorry! for no source t t

some notes i’ve been taking on DMing, culled from various sources

Plot & Campaign:

  • Don’t think of yourself as being “against” the players. They aren’t playing “against” you. They are playing against the world and situations you pose to them, but you should be on their side.
  • Similarly, don’t think of the campaign as “your” story that you are telling to the players. It is a story that you are telling together. They affect the outcome of it as much (or more) than you do. If the players find a way to ruin your carefully crafted plot, let it go. You have to accept not getting your own way all the time the same way that the players do.
  • That said, have contingency plans in case the PCs kill or ignore your plot hook, find a way to bypass your carefully created puzzle, or successfully charm your final boss into not attacking them.
  • Use up your most fantastic ideas - don’t hoard them for later. You never know how long a campaign will last, and you might never get to those cool scenes and setpieces you were saving.
  • Utilize recurring NPCs. It’s less work for you and gives the players someone familiar to look forward to seeing (or resent intensely.)
  • Give the players a nemesis - someone or something working against their efforts, even if that is not a “villain” per se.
  • Have descriptions ready for locations and NPCs, but don’t over-describe. Give them enough details to build a sense of atmosphere without requiring them to draw the scene.
  • Have a set of possible random events ready to go, and periodically roll to see if any of them happen, to keep your players (and you!) on your toes.

Rules & Rolls:

  • Like in improv theatre, go for the “yes and” (or “yes but”) response to a player’s idea rather than a “no.” If the rules don’t specifically ban a player from doing something, let them do it. If it’s especially game-breaking and stupid, this is a great time to say “yes, but” and come up with a fun consequence.
  • Don’t stop everything to look up a rule. If you can’t find or figure out the answer within a minute, tell the players how you’ll do it this time based on your best guess and look it up for the future. Alternatively, if you aren’t sure what the rule would be for what a player proposes, just let them roll a d20 and add a relevant modifier to it versus your best estimate of difficulty level.
  • Don’t assume that a failed check means “nothing happens.” Failures can be as eventful, interesting, and story-driving as successes.
  • Calculating small currency amounts, weight encumbrances, and rations is incredibly boring for everyone. Decide ahead of time whether you want to just ditch those elements (within reason - if you are being kind to the players by not making them weigh out every item in their inventory, they should be kind to you by not claiming they are carrying a whole refrigerator.)


  • Pay attention to what motivates your players most (treasure, money, challenging fights, puzzles, stories) and use that to guide your campaign ideas. Let them tell you what carrot will lead them through the plot.
  • Make a note of what your players mention wanting out of the game experience (a certain kind of adventure or scene, an item) and find an opportunity to reward them with it.
  • Come up with a set of treasure/advanced weapons/other loot-ish rewards specific to each player. Whenever they are dungeoncrawling or getting rewards, roll to see which items they receive at that time.


  • Provide opportunities every session, if possible, for each character to use their skillset and playstyle, so that they don’t feel like the sidekick in someone else’s adventure.
  • Encourage the players to make themselves a “battle sheet” in addition to their standard character sheet that lists all their skills and spells (in their own words) and how it works, so that they understand their own potential and remember to use them! You are there to help them out if they aren’t sure of a mechanic, but encourage them to take ownership of their own character’s abilities.
  • Cliffhangers aren’t actually great ways to end a session (in case the campaign stalls out there, or a player drops out), but you can end with a new situation arising or a hard question to ponder, giving the players something to think about and look forward to returning to for the next session. 
  • Pay attention to the players’ welfare and condition as much (or more) than to their characters. If they are stressed, unhappy, or angry about something in the adventure (or something another player is doing), you should be ready to moderate that as much as you would moderate an in-game rule.

anonymous asked:

Okay I need your help since you post a lot about vintage lesbians. I need help explaining to my nan that there was lesbians back then but she says there wasn't no talk or no one knew what that was anyway to prove it to her ?

Aaah this is the ask I’ve spent my whole life preparing for, thank you, and I’m sorry for the length of my reply :)

Sappho is the obvious historical lesbian - I discovered last year that a couple of my friends didn’t realise she was a real person and not a mythological figure - but she was definitely real and definitely into women (we don’t talk enough about how ‘lesbian’ literally means ‘from lesbos’, as in women exclusively into women are friends of sappho I love it so so much). She and her poetry were so highly-regarded that Plato described her as ‘the tenth muse’.

My personal fave historical lesbians are Eleanor Butler and Sarah Posonby (aka the Ladies of Llangollen), and Anne Lister. All these women lived in the 17-1800s and were aristocratic members of British society, and their elevated class allowed them a freedom that would have been denied working-class women at the time.

The ladies of Llangollen are described as having scandalised society at the time and were rejected by some members of their family, but they were together for over 50 years, separated only by their deaths two years apart. They were visited by and probably inspired Anne Lister, a Yorkshire landowner who we know about through her coded diaries. Historians like to straightwash historical people who obviously displayed same-sex attractions, but Lister’s diary literally reads “I love and only love the fairer sex and thus beloved by them in turn, my heart revolts from any love but theirs”, so it’s not really open to interpretation. Her diaries were nearly destroyed on at least one occasion by a relative who was appalled by their contents, but they not only survived but have been added to the register UNESCO Memory of the World Programme.

I love them specifically because we know that they were happy and, while obviously not totally unscathed from the judgement of their families or wider public, lived in ways that were entirely true to themselves. The idea that being gay in the past was just a tragic state of unending suffering is homophobic propaganda.

Virginia Woolf and Vita Sackville-West are two other faves also worth talking about - they both had husbands, but had affairs with each other and other women, of which their husbands and wider social group were aware. As above, their relationship means a lot to me because it shows that the cultural narrative about how attitudes to homosexuality have moved in a progressive upward trend as time goes forward is all wrong. Social class, geography, and the social circles in which women moved means that lesbians living in the 1700’s, under the right circumstances, probably had more freedom than girls living in extremely conservative households today.

This is only a handful of examples, but the reason historical lesbians and wlw are important to me is that their records have survived; how many women lived like Anne Lister but whose diaries were destroyed so we’ll never know about them? The vast majority of the women we know about were wealthy, famous writers whose diaries and letters were preserved. Sarah Waters wrote in an article for the National Trust “and what of the lesbian gay, bisexual and transgender experiences of the less visible residents of Trust places - the servants, the gardeners, the chauffeurs? Most of their stories, alas, like other working people’s, have gone unrecorded” - I’m not a historian, but I like to imagine working-class lesbians and other lgbt people managing to eke out satisfactory existences throughout history, and lack of records shouldn’t render their experiences invisible or considered impossible.

Best of luck talking to your nan about this - I think the two important points are that there are clear, documented examples of vintage lesbians not just existing but living happily, and that just because lesbians weren’t talked about definitely doesn’t mean they weren’t there. Good luck! 💛

  • Draco (to Hermione): Yeah. So, I still like you. And I know I shouldn't. I don't want to. My parents don't approve of you and you're not that nice to me and you're weird. And I tell myself to stop thinking about you, but every time you show up, it's like BOOM, feelings.

anonymous asked:

did t. rex's have feathers? i've been getting conflicting answers

I hate to have to tell you this, but the reason you are getting conflicting answers is because the answer itself is unresolved. But never fear, my friend, you came to the right place! I will gladly muddy the situation further by explaining why. No, no, don’t thank me. I am here to serve.

The main problem is that so far no large, fossilized skin impressions attributed to T. rex have been discovered, which is why we can’t say for certain if they were or were not covered in scales, feathers, or some ungodly mix of both.

Without direct evidence, reconstructions of T. rex are forced to rely on skin impressions and fossils from other dinosaurs, with the likelihood of similarities being based on how closely they’re related; whether or not the species is an ancestor or descendant of the tyrannosauroids; whether they are the same size, same environment, same niche… you get the idea. It’s complicated.

And we do have many skin impressions of dinosaurs that were definitively scaly. Stegosaurs, allosaurs, ankylosaurs and many other species have had soft tissue impressions found, all with scales. It is not completely unreasonable to say that T. rex could also have been entirely scaled.

Of course, this is all without taking into account Dilong and Yutyrannus. Dilong was a small, basal tyrannosaur - an ancestor to T. rex - and in 2004 a fossil was discovered with preserved filamentous protofeathers.

Then, in 2012, Yutyrannus huali was discovered, a tyrannosaur from the Early Cretaceous with definitive impressions of feathers. Also, much closer T. rex in both size and time.

At this point, even without significant soft tissue impressions from T. rex itself, it is becoming increasingly unlikely that T. rex was entirely scaled. It is surrounded on all sides, evolutionarily speaking, with feathery species of theropods. It is still possible, of course, since the feathers of its ancestors could have secondarily lost for any number of very valid reasons, but it is just as possible, if not more so, that it would have been covered in some kind of feathery integument.

Anyway, I hope this cleared absolutely nothing up for you, as it has for me. You’re welcome.

anonymous asked:

omg would you mind writing an angsty scenario in which seven and MC getting into their first real fight. like it goes from 0-100 real quick and he says some mad hurtful things and MC is just heartbroken af, kind of like a break up scare. You can decide how this ends! 💓 Thank you so much! (I'm sorry, I'm a sucker for angst! T^T)

Pairing: 707/GenderNeutral!MC

Word Count: 1239

Warnings: arguements, harsh words, cursing, all that jazz

Keep reading

anonymous asked:

Dear Yayaha, I've recently learned some awful things about a friend of mine. I trust the sources and the way he's treated me mirrors their claims. I know he's involved with another girl right now. I don't know her at all or how serious things are w/them. I'm concerned for her, because of how he's treated myself and other women but I'm afraid she won't believe me, or would find a stranger contacting them abt this creepy. Should I let them be and hope they figure things out? Or try to warn her?

Dear Anon,

Having a stranger reaching out to you when things are currently going well in a relationship might not be the best idea. People will only believe what they want to believe until proof is given otherwise. So as hard as it may be to watch things go down there isn’t much you can do until something really happens.

It’s awful.

I know. I hate that that’s how people work, but you can’t help someone that doesn’t want help. Right now just… let it be, hope it works out, and hope he either changes or that she gets away from him. It’s a shitty situation, and mirrors a lot of real life situations that can be… less than safe for someone.

Hopefully things don’t go the worse way possible.

I’m sorry, I wish there was more that you or even I can do. But the mind will only believe what it wishes to.

With lots of Sad,