An open call for episode transcripts from our Travelers, struggles in creating the Penumbra as a small team, and why we need your help
UPDATE: Some extremely generous fans have stepped up to organize @thepenumbrapodcasttranscripts , so please head over there if you would like to participate! We are deeply touched by the speedy response to this post.
Hey there Travelers,
Kevin here. Over the thirteen months since the Penumbra’s first episode, we’ve received a lot of requests from fans for access to episode transcripts. Many of you have contacted us with well-reasoned arguments about accessibility for those with hearing and processing disabilities. Many of you have expressed frustration about the $7 Patreon reward level, at which donating patrons get to look at the scripts the actors see.
We’ve stayed quiet on this so far, but we haven’t been ignoring you. We recognize your frustration. We apologize if the packaging of our show has made you feel like we don’t notice you, or listen to you, or care about you. We do. Internally we’ve been discussing this for months – and after debating it and trying a lot of things, we’ve come to what we think is the only conclusion that makes sense given our situation. I’ll tell you the conclusion first, and then move backward to our reasoning:
We are asking for help from you, the fans, in making these transcripts a reality. If fans create a tumblr or website that features fan-made transcripts of every episode, we will gladly post a link to it on our website and promote it whenever a new transcript has been completed.
We have asked for this from you all before, but it understandably got lost in the weeks and months that have passed since. As a result, should fans express interest in creating transcripts, we will be reblogging this post once every two weeks until all of the transcripts have been completed.
We recognize that it is frustrating not having the supports you need to access our show as others can. We recognize that asking fans to create those supports is also frustrating. Please know that we are frustrated, too. We are living a very uncomfortable, very difficult reality in creating this show, and up until now we’ve kept the details of that reality invisible to you all. But if I can ask for just a few minutes of your understanding, I hope I can communicate clearly about the obstacles in the way of us creating these transcripts, which are also, not coincidentally, the biggest threats to the Penumbra’s continued existence in general.
What follows is an in-depth look at my reasoning. If you’re satisfied with the above, hey, skip it! You can find the couple of transcripts we had time to make here (as well as one by a fan who asked to be credited as subtlepuns), so go for it, work together, create a platform for them, and feel free to use what we’ve made to get you started. If you’re still bothered, or you don’t understand why we can’t just make all the transcripts ourselves, I ask only that you read and think about our position, here. It is not one made hastily.
I think that it the worst place where I put one foot. This kind of prestigious gala where I owed to go. The WWE had organized this evening in honor of a new important partnership.
I was lost in a huge ballroom, I felt uncomfortable in this long skin-tight red dress that I had decided to carry and that I cursed from now on. I sneaked between the people, whom I pushed a certain moment when I recognized hair purple of Sasha. I couldn’t refrain from going towards her as a child who had lost her mother in the supermarket.
“Oh my gosh,” She said by catching me by both arms, “Your make-up, your hair! We have Beyoncé over here !”
I chuckled. “Thank you but I look like more…”
“A red potato ?” I heard a deep voice behind me, a voice which I would recognize between thousands of sounds.
I turned around and I saw Roman, my bestfriend , my everything! He shouldn’t be here in any case he had told me that he couldn’t come. I took him in my arms and squeezed him hardly against me. I felt his muscular arms surround me and his man perfume penetrated into my nostrils. It’s been so long since I had seen him. He belongs to Raw, I belong to Smackdown. Our lives changed these last nine months, but our friendship was only strengthening.
“I missed so much, (Y/N),” he murmured into my ear.
“You guys are so cute ! I ship you both, you know that right ?” Sasha interrupted my little moment with Roman.
“You say it every time you see us,” I mumbled, kinda annoyed.
“But it’s right ! You both look like a couple,” She added enthusiastically.
I looked at Roman who didn’t look embarrassed by the situation. “Listen, this situation is quite embarrassing so Roman and I are going to leave you alone with your a little bit strange thought. Bye.” I glowered by taking Roman by the arm and taking him in the crowd. It was not the first time that we confused us for a couple. And that’s it which had a little titillated me. The ambiguity between Roman and I is that blatant?
“Where are you taking me, (Y/N) ?” he asked by stopping and turning me towards him. I noticed that he wore a dark blue custom-made suit and a salmon pink tie which he wore it very well. These eyes colors hazel allowed me clearly to read a disappointment or an internal wound. “You went there a bit much,” he reprimanded me.
“She started with this stupid ‘ship’ thing ! As if Tumblr wasn’t enough for me !” I retorted angrily.
“Why? Because that would bother you to be mine ?” he raised an eyebrow and he crossed his arms on his muscled chest.
Everything in my head mixed. The noise which it had in the room become deaf and the only person that I could distinguish was him. He had just questioned the years of friendship. Sami passed by us and greeted us “My favorite couple ! Are you enjoying this party !? Because I do hahaha,” he laughed, “So see ya later !” he left as soon as he came. The mini passage of Sami had given me the time to think. And if I love my bestfriend? That I had so much repulsed my feelings previously and that I was convinced that I only loved him as a friend.
“They were so many clues but you never noticed,” he muttered loud enough for me to hear.
“Maybe we should go somewhere quiet to talk about this.” I suggested.
He nodded. We went out of the castle rented by the company, the night had fallen and the moon was the only light. I sat down on a step which led to the castle. Roman sat down just next to me pressing his forearm on his knees.
“So… you like me ?” I asked shyly.
He giggled. “Like is too weak and love also. My feelings are above.”
My heart exploded. Did he reveal me his feelings? I felt my members froze.
“Listen,” he began, “ I’m scared of losing you, I can’t lose you. So if you don’t share the feelings as me it’s okay. I just don’t want to lose you.” I felt his hot hand wrapped mine. “The most important is our friendship, my feeling doesn’t matter.” he added disappointedly.
His feelings count, of course that his feelings counted! Because I loved him. But how to say these three words which I have never managed to tell to somebody ? How to say to my best friend that I love him ?
Suddenly, the words got lost in my spirit. A silence settled down. I knew that Roman waited for another end. “I’m still confused about my feelings, Roman,” I tried to explain. “I never fell in love and I knew that with you, it was different.” He turned more towards me and he plunged his eyes into mine.
“What does it mean ?” he requested with ray of hope.
“That we should give it a try,” I shrugged by smiling. He looked at me with his gleaming eyes and brought me to his warm embrace. I sank my face into his chest as if to ask him to never let go as I put my arms around him.
“I’ve waited for this day for such a long time,” I heard his deep voice. “You’re finally mine.”
I returned my face in front of his, our faces were very close. I smelt his desire, Roman wanted to kiss me but he had certain held -he certainly doesn’t want to go too fast- . My heart pounded so fast and I started to sweat. I could a scar underneath his eyebrow what was hardly visible at a normal distance but I was so close to him. Then he lips met mine. His lips were so soft. I had closed eyes to be able fully to enjoy this moment, his hands wrapped around my body and I placed my hand on his neck. “The place is just so romantic,” he moaned on my lips. “Couldn’t have dreamed of better place to kiss for the first time,” he added.
I put my lips quickly on his one last time. “It looks like Cinderella’s castle,” I noticed.
“Kinda,” he commented by giving a look to the place.
I was in the arms, it was so comfortable and I felt safe.
What do you think the barricade boys would be like today. Like with everything going on.
I was thinking about this, and I thought “oh my god, I have zero idea, that’s why it’s so hard to really write les amis in modern AU” but, I can try to actually give the beginning of an answer (and I’m ready to hear everybody’s opinions on this, really, because I think, depending our own situations, we’re gonna imagine something different for all of them.). This turned extremely long.. sorry.
I think the easiest to pin down are Feuilly and Grantaire, to be honest.
Grantaire, would be That Guy who never went to vote to an election because “what’s the point? They’re all the same.” Or maybe, the first time he was able to vote was for a presidential, he voted someone, they didn’t pass (or they did and disappointed him) and he was disappointed and he went “whatever, voting is not as cool as I was told it would”. Grantaire won’t say he avoids the news because the bullshit around him actually affects him, and he totally won’t ever admit how much he loves being friends with people who ARE optimist and who sees humanity’s beauty and want to make things better. Grantaire is also the guy who is Totally in Favour of Women’s Rights, Especially the Sexual Liberation Part of It *wink wink*. He… probably had unfortunate sentences like “girls don’t like the nice guys, they just want assholes” (i mean he basically already say unfortunate things like that in canon). Irma probably said once to him “Dude, you are an asshole, and I don’t see women running to your feet, so shut the hell up.” In my opinion, he’s also a white man in his twenties, with all the blind prejudice it can bring. He’s bi, but not that comfortable with it.
Feuilly, and dear god will I fight anybody on this if I must, is a STUDENT. (Or was a student, depending on which age you give them). Feuilly still struggles with money, because he’d live in fucking Paris, but Feuilly would NOT struggle to study, because FRANCE’S UNIVERSITIES ARE CHEAP (in comparison to some other countries, I mean), and also there are different financial help for people like Feuilly who don’t have the financial means to pay everything from their pockets. It’s still highly probable Feuilly would work anyway, probably in retail or tutoring!, though. Feuilly would spend his time reading and Getting Angry or Passionate about everything that’s going on in the world, that won’t change in our modern world. It’s not about Poland anymore, but oh man Feuilly would rant hours on the situation of Syrians refugees. He probably sat in baffled, horrified silence after Trump’s election. He makes sure people know about what happens in countries the media aren’t interested in. In fact, I could see him write long articles on international problems.
AU where Nymeria didn't come soon enough and Joffrey maimed (murdered?) Arya. What would've happened? How do you think the story would proceed?
well this ask is sure a punch to the gut so thanks for that.
but after that initial punch, i had fun with this. my goal was to keep major strokes of the plot largely the same but to justify them with different characterizations that precipitate from this different scenario.
this is also long bc i had fun so i’m putting it under a cut
I keep seeing liberals talk about arming themselves to fight Trump
Yeah…..no, lets talk revolutions for a second here. Armed revolution doesn’t usually work, the vast majority of the time the rebels rise up, get slaughtered, the regime gets more authoritarian in response, a lot of innocent people get killed, the remaining rebels quickly become local warlords and ruthless oppressors to survive, and the right wing authoritarian dictatorship stays in power for decades. Particuarly when the Right wing has been spending the last 40 years stockpililng guns, vets and militia groups, so when conflict breaks out the left will just get fucking slaughtered (also you think people with shot guns can take on the US military? Really?)
Violent Revolutions usually only works if
A) The ruling regime cannot maintain its military force. In the French Revolution, the Monarchy had an economic crisis and couldn’t pay its soldiers, so no soldiers, no army, nobody to protect the regime from pissed off housewives with hatchets. Violent Revolution is great when the otherside doesn’t have any weapons. Which isn’t true in the US, the army is well payed, actually its over pays.
Also the French Revolution quickly discovered the joys of auto cannibalism and after decades of strife wound up with a military dictatorship
B) The army joins the revolution. In the Russian Revolution the Army joined up with the Communists in order to overthrow the Tsar/Provisional goverment because they were pissed about WWI. Same with the successful Arab Spring revolts, if the army stands down or joins the people, then Violent Revolution is easy. But ask the Rebels in Syria how well it works out if the whole army doesn’t defect
Also in most cases you wind up with a military dictatorship….whoops
C) The Regime is so incompetent/distracted that the Rebels have time to train, organize, equip, and drill an army without outside interference.
In the second Chinese Revolution, Chiang Kai Shek’s KMT forces were distracted fighting the Warlords and then the Japanese, which allowed Mao’s CCP forces the time they needed to organize and create an army without outside interference. I know this might be a shock to you at home who have been watching Alexander Nesky too much, but training armies is really really fucking hard, it is amazingly expensive, you need a huge logistically apperatius to make sure the army is fed, equipped, clothed, and housed, it takes forever to get an officer corp, chain of command, and army discipline going, and then you need to train the bloody thing. If the people you are fighting are busy, then yeah that is possible, but if Washington State’s liberals start organizing an army, the US military or the National Guard or the State guard or just local police will come and crush them before they get their act together
D) Foreign backing. Revolutions are a lot easier when somebody else is footing the bill, and supplying you with the guns, materials, and military advisers to make revolution possible, But again….the United States has the largest military in the world, so that isn’t an option here
E) Occupying Territory. If the oppressor is an outside country who have come in and taken your land, then yeah, you have a much better chance of rebllion, particularly if there is an ocean between you and them. But this is really only possible if you have the full support of the populace, and if the enemy getting to you is a pain in the ass. In the American Revolution, the three month travel time between Britain and the US allowed us the time to build up our own armies and form our own internal goverment. The extremely hostile climate of Haiti, Cuba, Vietnam and the Middle East allowed for the same effect, but this wouldn’t be overthrowing a foreign threat, this would be a civil war, and even in the most blue states there are going to be loyalists, and while some of them are going to be Nazis, a lot of them are going to be normal people who either like Trump or just don’t want revolution, and you are going to have to decide what to do with them. And if history is any guide, what you mr. liberal human rights rebel are going to choose will likely be rounding up anybody with non rebel sentiments and killing them so they won’t be 5th columnists.
Also the vast majority of violent revolutions end in civil war or military dictatorship, and the more violent the conflict is, the worse the following regime is, so those of you who call for revolution may find your comrades putting a bullet in your brain once its over.
Now violent revolution should still be an option on the table, but it should be the last resort option, because the moment we open that can of worms, we can’t close it again. Once you have violent revolution, then Trump is given a go ahead to embrace much more violent oppressive and authoritarian methods that will make what we see here today look like a fucking utopia, and we will be up against the army, the police, the state guard, and all of the right wing militia gun nuts who have been spending decades preparing for this. This is to say nothing of loyalists who will take up arms against us. Now if Trump suspects the constitution, the nall of that is worth it, everything is ok once the possibility of democracy is gone, but it hasn’t happened yet, We are up against a man with a 36% approval rating, a 50% disapproval, , rating and a looming civil war with his own party, we can still win this thing non violently, and trust me, the guys on the right are just asking us to do it, because they know they have the advantage in that fight.
Are you a gay trans man or woman who has been able to medically transition without your sexuality getting in the way? You have a trans man to that for that.
Born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on June 16, 1951 Lou Graydon Sullivan grew up with a complicated relation with gender and sexuality. Pre-transition in his publication “A Transvestite Answers a Feminist”, he says, “at age 5 I had a Davy Crockett birthday party. The climax was when I appeared. I was Davy Crockett and I can still remember my thrill at the moment”. At age 17, he had a self-described “feminine” male partner. The two of them played with gender roles and were very attracted to the gay liberation movement. From early in his life he felt an attraction towards effeminate gay men especially.
In 1973 he was identifying as a female transvestite. He immersed himself and was accepted by the Milwaukee gay drag scene. During this time, he began to furiously research historical FtM transsexuals, disparately searching for another gay trans man but continually coming up empty. He would sometimes wonder if he was delusional.
In 1975 he moved to San Francisco. By this point he was recognizing himself as FtM, but felt isolated in the exclusively MtF community. The day he was to start individual therapy, the story of another FtM man broke. Steve Dain had transitioned in the Bay Area and desired to continue to work in the school where he taught, though switching from girls to boy coach. This was Sullivan’s first contact with another FtM individual and he followed the story (the principal reacted phobically, Dain won a series of lawsuits and ultimately was forced to leave his job. He did, however, find success as a chiropractor.). He contacted Dain, making his first contact with another FtM man.
When Sullivan attempted to start physical transition, he was routinely denied on the basis of his sexual orientation. At the time, heterosexuality was a prerequisite for transition. He campaigned for, and was eventually successful in, removing homosexuality as something that barred a person from transition. He was able to obtain hormones and top surgery. However, when seeking a phalloplasty, the gender clinics still denied him even though he had happily been living as a gay man for years. He eventually went to a doctor and in 1986 obtained what the doctor called a “ganitalplasty”. It was after this surgey he was diagnosed with Aids and given ten months to live.
Upon his diagnosis, he wrote, “I took a certain pleasure in informing
the gender clinic that even though their program told me I could not
live as a Gay man, it looks like I’m going to die like one.” He ultimately died on March 2, 1991 at 39 from AIDS-related complications. He left an organization, now known as FTMI, or Female to Male International and a series of books and pamphlets he wrote for FtM individuals that are still used to this day. He was identified as the first trans man to die from AIDS.
He is largely the reason we see sexuality and gender as separate entities. Lou Sullivan is a trans man who left the world better for being in it. I, as a gay trans man, owe him a debt for being able to live as I do.
The Sokovia Accords were, ultimately, a response to the Avengers operating on their own orders without any supervision, right?
So, why didn’t they write Accords that dealt with the Avengers as an organization, a non-state entity operating outside the bounds of international law?
Because instead of creating a registry of powered people that is then controlled by the UN? the Security Council? some unnamed IGO? (which has a pretty severe “uh oh” factor), it would have accomplished something similar while still maintaining international diplomacy and cooperation and holding up international law as the goal and guide, rather than Ross’s weird vendetta against people with powers.
Not to mention, Tony Stark, Sam Wilson, James Rhodes, Scott Lang, Clint Barton, and Natasha Romanoff (at least as far as we know) are not “enhanced.” They wear suits or are very highly-trained, but it’s their position within the Avengers organization that places them under the jurisdiction of the Accords.
It was the actions of a private citizen that created Ultron, and it was funding by a private citizen that operated the Avengers. And when the Avengers went out and fought after the fall of SHIELD, there was no organization or government or any sort of entity overseeing their actions. So, in theory, these private citizens with unlimited resources could go anywhere in the world and wreak havoc, but there was no international law that could deal with the organization because it was not a state, and there was no one state that could deal with the Avengers because they were privately owned and operated, not representative of any government.
So, by framing the Accords as an agreement between a non-state party and the international community, the Avengers would have been put in check and given the opportunity to work within the system but not be controlled by it. Plus, it would have normalized enhanced individuals internationally as participants in the same institutions and norms that non-enhanced people value.
Content: Kim Taehyung. For someone who lived alone, your toilet seat was strangely warm.
Word Count: 5, 143
(warning: sexual content)
On a regular day, he was tall, irritatingly calculated, with darkly handsome (borderline sinister) features: a constantly cocked brow, onyx roots fading into a stiff, gingerbread gold pompadour, and lips so plump they could lure you in with one deadly smirk.
But today was not a regular day, and Kim Taehyung did not know what to do.
Pairing: Phan Genre: Chaptered, English teachers in Japan AU Word Count: 5,786 words Warnings: Swearing, angst, drinking, graphic descriptions of exams Description: The endless nights that I have searched…
The following Friday was Dan’s last Halloween lesson of the year. He felt a little odd dressing up in his costume and acting all Halloweeny when it was already November 8th, but the kids didn’t know any different and seemed to have just as much fun as any of the other students had. It also happened to be the day of the Prefectural English Speech Contest, a fact that he was kind of upset about.
2011 - A surveillance video was released showing Houston police officers relentlessly beating, kicking and stomping on a teen burglary suspect. The footage was released by Quanell X, a Houston activist with the New Black Panther party.
The video shows Chad Holley, who was 15 years old at the time, running along a metal fence away from police officers when a police car speeds towards him and cuts him off. The car slams into Holley. Holley’s body goes flying across the car onto the ground. His body rolls and he ends up on his stomach. He clamps his hands over his head. Policemen run up to him and begin attacking him.
The boy remains limp on the grass while police officers kick him from all sides. Only his feet move, apparently in reaction to the officers’ kicks. One police officer then begins stomping on Holley’s feet, and some officers kneel down on the ground beside him and start punching him. After being beaten for about two minutes by several police officers, Holley is handcuffed, and then picked up and thrown against the back of the police car.
The footage was captured on March 24, 2010 by a camera at Uncle Bob’s Self-Storage. The storage facility sent its surveillance video to the Houston Police Department and the District Attorney within a week of the incident.
Holley was found guilty in October 2010 of stealing cash, jewelry and a keyboard from a Houston townhouse. The surveillance video was not shown at his trial. He was put on probation for two years. His attorney, however, insisted that Holley had nothing to do with the burglary.
After the video was given to the police department last year, eight police officers were suspended without pay. Following separate investigations by the department’s Internal Affairs Division and the Harris County District Attorney’s Office, four officers – Andrew Blomberg, Phil Bryan, Raad Hassan and Drew Ryser – were indicted on misdemeanor official suppression charges and fired from the police department. Hassan and Bryan were also charged with violation of the civil rights of a prisoner.
Three other officers were fired, but not charged, and another five were suspended for two days.
The footage was released several months after local news organizations petitioned a federal judge to release the tape, arguing that preventing the press from airing the video is a violation of the First Amendment. Holley’s lawyer, Benjamin Hall, tried to stop the video from being released to the public. Judge Ewing Welein Jr. ruled that the video should not be released because it will prevent the police officers from having a fair trial, according to the Houston Chronicle.
Since the incident, Holley, his family and Quanell X say they have been working to raise awareness about brutality by police officers.
“One of the officers sued me for making inflammatory comments. I don’t remember what I said. In that lawsuit, I subpoenaed the videotape. Once I legally obtained the videotape, I released it,” said Quanell X.
On his Facebook fan page, Quanell posted, “Do you think it is appropriate that Houston’s mayor, Annise Parker, has called for the prosecution of Quanell X for releasing the Chad Holley videotape beating by the Houston Police Department?”
“I do believe it’s a travesty of justice that city officials and the District Attorney’s Office would work to keep the public in the dark based on what was on that videotape,” Quanell X said.
I was immediately inspired by this prompt from Amber M.M on AO3:
may i rec Cherry and Nick just chilling/being romantic one night, when nick suddenly realizes "i’m going to outlive them" or something like that?”
This is the longest or second-longest fic I’ve written yet for this fandom, and it was actually very easy to write, so I’m really really happy with how this turned out, and I hope everyone who reads it agrees!
Just a warning, very brief mention of suicide near the end.
Welsh: the onlyCeltic language not classified as “endangered” by UNESCO
Thought to have
originated sometime between 400 and 700 AD, Welsh is one of six surviving
Celtic languages: the others being Breton, Irish, Gaelic, Cornish and Manx.
Cymraeg (“Welsh” in Welsh) is derived from the Brittonic word Combrogi, meaning
The Latin alphabet
was adapted for the writing of Welsh early in the ninth century and by 1660, 108
books had been published in Welsh. By the second half of the 18th century Wales
was one of the few European countries to have a literate majority, thanks in
part to Griffith Jones, who in 1734, motivated by a desire to ‘save people’s
souls’, set about organizing a system to teach children and adults basic
reading skills in their mother tongue in as little as three months, before
moving on to the next location.
century was a turbulent period in Welsh history and some attributed the
resulting riots and poor provision of education in Wales to the continued
existence of the Welsh language. Welsh school children were discouraged from
speaking Welsh through the Welsh Not: A plaque which was given to any
offending child, to be handed on to whoever next spoke the language. At the end
of lessons, the child left with the Welsh Not would be punished.
By the early 20th
century Welsh was still the everyday language used in Wales, but the success of
the coal mining industry attracted workers from further afield and by 1911
Welsh was a minority language, spoken by just 43.5% of the population for the
first time for around 2,000 years.
This led in 1925 to
the founding of Plaid Cymru, a socialist leaning party seeking self-government
and the preservation of the language and culture of Wales. The recent growth of
bilingualism in Wales is due largely to their non-violent direct action
throughout the 1960s, 70s and 80s which led to the imprisonment of hundreds of
According to the
latest 2011 Census, 19% of people in Wales can speak Welsh. There are currently
over 490 primary and secondary schools which teach entirely or mainly through
the medium of Welsh. Some courses at Welsh universities and colleges are
available in Welsh and there are numerous Welsh courses for adults.
Cymraeg: yr unig
iaith Geltaidd Nid dosbarthu fel “mewn perygl” gan UNESCO
Cymraeg yw un o’r chwech iaith Geltaidd sydd wedi goroesi ers iddi gael
ei tharddu rhywbryd rhwng 400 a100 OC:
Llydaweg, Gwyddeleg, Gaeleg, Cernyweg a Manaweg yw’r lleill. Mae’r gair
‘Cymraeg’ ei hun yn dod o'r gair Brythoneg ‘Combrogi’, sy'n golygu gydwladwr.
Erbyn ail hanner yr 18fed ganrif Cymru oedd un o'r ychydig wledydd
Ewropeaidd lle bu fwyafrif y boblogaeth yn llythrennog, diolch yn rhannol i
Griffith Jones. Yn 1734 drefnodd e system i ddysgu plant a oedolion sgiliau
darllen sylfaenol yn eu mamiaith, er mwyn ‘achub eneidiau pobl’ mae'n debyg.
Byddai'n cyflawni hyn mewn cyn lleied â thri mis, cyn symud ymlaen i'r lleoliad
Roedd canol y 19eg ganrif yn gyfnod cythryblus yn hanes Cymru ac roedd
rhai yn beio’r terfysg, a’r ddarpariaeth wael o addysg yng Nghymru ar fodolaeth
barhaus yr iaith Gymraeg. Caiff blant ysgolion Cymru eu hannog i beidio â
siarad Cymraeg gyda’r Welsh Not, sef plac a roddwyd i unrhyw blentyn defnyddiod
yr iaith yn y dosbarth, trosglwyddwyd i bwy bynnag gwnaeth siarad yr iaith tro
nesa. Roedd yna gosb wedyn i'r blentyn hynnu a ddelir y Welsh Not ar diwedd y
Erbyn dechrau'r 20fed ganrif Cymraeg oedd y prif iaith a ddefnyddir yng
Nghymru. Gyda llwyddiant y diwydiant cloddio glo yn denu gweithwyr o bell, erbyn
1911 Cymraeg oedd yr iaith leiafrifol, siaredir gan dim ond 43.5% o'r
boblogaeth am y tro cyntaf ers tua 2,000 mlynedd.
Arweiniodd hyn yn 1925 i sefydliad Plaid Cymru, plaid sosialaidd sy'n
ceisio tuag at hunan-lywodraeth a gwarchod iaith a diwylliant Cymru. Mae’r twf
diweddar o ddwyieithrwydd yng Nghymru yn bennaf oherwydd eu gweithredu
uniongyrchol di-drais drwy gydol y 1960au, 70au ac 80au. Caracharwyd cannoedd
ei aelodau yn y cyfnod.
Yn ôl y Cyfrifiad diweddaraf 2011, gall 19% o bobl Cymru yn siarad
Cymraeg. Ar hyn o bryd mae yna dros 490 o ysgolion cynradd ac uwchradd yn addysgu
yn gyfan gwbl neu'n bennaf trwy gyfrwng y Gymraeg. Mae rhai cyrsiau mewn
prifysgolion a cholegau Cymru ar gael yn Gymraeg ac mae cyrsiau niferus Cymraeg
Indigenous peoples in Peru are demanding to be consulted about a proposed electricity transmission line that would run for approximately 586 kms through the Amazon. The stated aim of the line is to connect Iquitos in Peru’s northeast, often described as the world’s largest city or town without road or rail access, to the national grid.
Doing so would mean crossing the territories of numerous indigenous peoples, including the Achuars, Kandozis, Kichwas, Kukamas-Kukamirias and Urarinas. Representative organisations are expressing serious concern about the project’s potential impacts and say they have not been consulted about it despite the government’s obligation to do so under Peruvian and international law.
The proposed line would also run through the Abanico del Rio Pastaza, a huge wetlands complex stretching across the border into Ecuador. In 2002 3.8 million hectares of the Abanico were declared a Wetland of International Importance, or Ramsar Site, under the Ramsar Convention, making it the largest Ramsar Site in Latin America and the eighth largest worldwide out of a total of 2,241.
According to ORPIO, an Iquitos-based federation representing 15 indigenous peoples, the potential impacts of the line include the destruction of 874,000 tonnes of trees, the release of 424,000 tonnes of carbon dioxide, massive biodiversity and game loss, conflict, the resettlement of indigenous communities, and encouraging the entrance of colonists, illegal loggers, gold-miners and coca farmers.
ORPIO is taking legal action against the Energy Ministry (MINEM) and government agency ProInversion in an attempt to suspend construction of the line, filing a lawsuit in Iquitos arguing they have not been consulted about it.
“We urge that our request for prior consultation, according to the International Labour Organization’s Convention 169 and other current national and international legislation, is respected, given that the Moyobamba-Ìquitos Transmission Line will directly affect our rights,” ORPIO wrote to MINEM in August.
CORPI, a federation representing nine indigenous peoples, is also demanding that the right to prior consultation, as the process is termed in Peruvian law, is respected.
“[The proposed transmission line] directly affects [indigenous peoples’] collective rights and will impact their access to their subsistence resources and therefore threatens their physical existence, cultural identity, quality of life and spiritual links with the land they have occupied ancestrally,” read a CORPI statement released in February.
A Kichwa woman from the River Tigre, Peru, demanding in 2015 to be consulted about oil operations. Indigenous people are now requesting to be consulted about the proposed Moyobamba-Iquitos electricity line.
However, MINEM argues that a loophole in a 2012 Peruvian law makes it exempt from doing prior consultation on this occasion. The law states that the “construction and maintenance of public service infrastructure” doesn’t require prior consultation if “it is intended to benefit” and is done “in coordination” with indigenous peoples - and since the proposed transmission line is a “public service” and “would benefit indigenous populations in the project’s area of influence”, MINEM claims no consultation is necessary.
That argument has been dismissed by Peru’s state ombudsman, the Defensoria del Pueblo, which recommended, on 20 May, that MINEM carry out prior consultation. It claims that the legal loophole isn’t applicable in this case because, among other reasons, the proposed line will not directly benefit the indigenous peoples living in the region.
“It’s the population of Iquitos that will be the beneficiary of this project, while the indigenous territories will just be an area through which the transmission line will pass,” the Defensoria’s Daniel Sanchez wrote to MINEM.
MINEM’s response to Sanchez, in August, was that indigenous organizations could have appealed its initial decision to forgo prior consultation, made in October 2015, but didn’t do so. It also argued that its interpretation of the 2012 law is in line with that of the Culture Ministry (MINCU), the ministry responsible for indigenous peoples which - conveniently - issued its own interpretation of the loophole in the 2012 law just seven days after Sanchez wrote to MINEM in May.
To the Guardian Sanchez described MINEM’s interpretation of the law as “loose and wrong”, “perverting” the right to prior consultation and making the process meaningless.
“Prior consultation emerged as a way of promoting indigenous peoples’ participation in projects affecting them [but] I think that a certain sector within MINEM still sees it as an obstacle,” Sanchez says. “So they’re opposed to its implementation. This is counter-productive because it has been shown that what indigenous peoples want is to be taken into account, to influence and above all to participate in decision-making. Of the 17 extractive projects - hydrocarbons, mining and infrastructure - that have been subject to prior consultation to date, not one of them has been opposed by indigenous representatives.”
The opinion that indigenous peoples have the right to prior consultation about the proposed line is shared by lawyer Henry Carhuatocto from NGO IDLADS, which is supporting ORPIO in making its demands heard by the government and media. Carhuatocto calls MINEM’s argument “frankly lamentable” and agrees the line will not directly benefit indigenous peoples but will instead mean clearing almost 600 kms of forest and indirectly facilitate “invaders and colonists.”
“First, we need to make it clear that any legislative or administrative measure affecting the lives of indigenous peoples must be subject to prior consultation,” Carhuatocto told the Guardian. “Second, prior consultation is not an obstacle to economic development, but a space to comply with human rights agreements and an opportunity for the state to take more of an interest in indigenous peoples, to be able to discuss the impacts of the project with them, to reach agreements in good faith, and for them to give their consent. This is an opportunity for the state to do things right by indigenous peoples and we hope that in this instance it doesn’t fail to take it.”
Juan Carlos Ruiz Molleda, from NGO Instituto de Defensa Legal (IDL) which is part of the legal team supporting ORPIO’s lawsuit, makes another argument: that the 2012 law, irrespective of how it is interpreted, is “unconstitutional.” “If you listen to government functionaries, especially those in MINEM, ProInversion and even MINCU, you always hear the same argument: “But that’s what it says in the regulation, that’s what it says in the law.” What’s forgotten, however, is that a law can be unconstitutional and therefore invalid,” Ruiz Molleda wrote in a recent article.
The Environment Ministry (MINAM) has expressed grave concern about the proposed line and, in a report sent to MINEM in February, recommended considering an alternative route that would have less impact on the Abanico del Pastaza. It also stated that the peat bogs in the region, together with those south of the River Maranon, sequester approximately 50% of Peru’s entire carbon reserves, which it called “extremely relevant” “given Peru’s commitments to reduce carbon emissions in order to combat climate change.”
In addition, MINAM’s report argued that Peru’s 1993 Constitution states that treaties form part of national law, meaning that the Ramsar Convention is legally binding on Peru. As a contracting party to the Ramsar Convention, which entered into force in the country in 1992, Peru committed to “desiring to stem the progressive encroachment on and loss of wetlands now and in the future”, and to “promote the conservation” and “as far as possible the wise use” of wetlands.
“The Abanico del Pastaza is one of the best conserved areas in the Peruvian Amazon, home to almost intact animal populations and plants of enormous relevance for the functioning and integrity of eco-systems and for the economy of the indigenous peoples and riberenos living there,” MINAM’s report stated.
The company planning to build the line is Lineas de Transmision Peruanas, owned by Spain-based Isolux Corsán. In May MINEM decided against approving an Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) of the project because it failed to adequately address numerous environmental issues, among other reasons, but that decision was appealed by the company and then effectively annulled by Vice-Minister of Energy Raul Perez-Reyes Espejo.
“The Vice-Minister has opened up the possibility that the EIA could be approved,” ORPIO, IDLADS and CORPI announced on 16 August.
The justification for the line, according to the EIA, is that it will be a more efficient and less costly way of providing electricity to Iquitos, allowing residents to enjoy a service similar to other cities in Peru already connected to the national grid.
“Currently, Iquitos’s entire electricity supply comes from its thermal power plant which has a total output of 48.4 MW,” the EIA states. “The oil is transported there by river which means that the supply is subject to high risk because of the difficulties in navigation, weather conditions and environmental implications.”
When Isolux Corsán won the contract in 2014 the then Vice-Minister of Energy, Edwin Quintanilla Acosta, claimed the proposed line would save 38 million gallons of oil a year and “dinamize” the economies of various Amazon regions.
“The Amazon, 130 years after electricity was first used in Peru, will have clean energy to power its economic take-off,” MINEM reported Quintanilla saying. ““That enables us to see the future of the country with great optimism.””
José Serra Vega, an engineer specialising in energy and the environment who has conducted environmental and economic analyses of the proposed line, argues it would be an “environmental disaster.” He claims 8.5 million tonnes of biomass from mostly primary forest could be destroyed, 4.2 million tonnes of carbon dioxide could be released, 1000s of colonists could “invade”, and the territories of eight indigenous peoples would be directly impacted.
Serra Vega claims it would be an “economic disaster” too, estimating it will raise electricity prices and could cost Peruvians over a billion dollars. He says that consumers in Iquitos pay less than in Lima for electricity and another company, Genrent, is already building a new thermal power plant in Iquitos that will have 70 MW capacity - when the city’s current maximum demand is 56MW.
“This line isn’t necessary and will cause a prejudice to Peruvian electricity consumers superior to 600 million dollars during the 30 years of its concession,” Serra Vega told the Guardian.
The EIA states the line will cost approximately US$500 million and take three years to build, with the preliminary stages employing roughly 800-900 people maximum. The project’s “area of direct influence” is estimated at 100 metres along the entire line.
Isolux Corsán’s website states that it acts with “scrupulous respect towards the principles included in the Declaration of Human Rights” and minimises “the environmental impact our activities might occasion.” The company is also a signatory to the UN Global Compact, which means it has committed to, among other things, “support and respect the protection of internationally proclaimed human rights” and “undertake initiatives to promote greater environmental responsibility.”
MINEM and Isolux Corsán did not respond to questions.
When life gives you lemons, you should try to use them in your kitchen within a week. Lemons are great with my favorite, simple salad dressing – lemon, olive oil, & salt; they are also generally a good acid to cook with, in everything from chicken dishes to cakes to garnishes. Obviously, you can also make beverages with lemons. If you leave lemons out at room temperature, expect them to last a little over a week before starting to brown and spoil. Refrigerated, however, lemons will last as long as month. The ideal storage temp for lemons is about 10 degrees Celsius. If life has given you an abundance of lemons, you may want to preserve some. I like to slice them thinly and pack them in wide-mouth mason jars with a mixture of ½ sugar and ½ salt, then let cure for at least 1 week before serving. If you still have lemons left over you can give them to friends and family, neighbors, hand them out at church or even set up a ‘free lemons’ stand in front of your home. If after all this you still have lemons, you might want to contact a local farmers’ market or grocer to explore selling them retail. If life happens to have given you organic lemons or even 'pesticide-free’ lemons, you should be able to fetch a significantly higher price for them (although you will need some sort of certification for the 'organic’ designation in most locales). If life has given you more lemons than you can unload in the above described manner, you are now running into a logistics problem. I would try selling them wholesale, but get ready to roll up your sleeves because you will need to establish the necessary relationships, permits, distribution, etc., in a timely manner before your lemons start to rot. As I mentioned above, at this point, it’s going to be critical that your lemons are stored in proper conditions. Refrigerated, windowless trucks are a good option; some cold-storage facilities will have reduced ambient oxygen, which will slow the degradation of the fruit so if you can find such a facility in your area, I would strongly recommend securing space in it. Ultimately, I recommend pricing your lemons very competitively. After all, life has given you these lemons, so your startup costs are null. Don’t get greedy. Remember you are competing with an established cartel of lemon farmers, trucking companies, and major supermarket chains and they won’t have the patience for a new player in the business so you have to make them an offer they can’t refuse. Sell below prevailing market price. Once you master the wholesale process, you may find yourself in a position where you have saturated the domestic lemon market. If you think you might be able to find customers abroad, it’s time to explore the international market. Initially I would recommend avoiding heavily-regulated markets such as the European Union, Japan, and Korea and avoid trying to import your fruit into nations that are large lemon exporters (Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, China, and India) because those countries will have trade barriers designed to protect their growers. Target those emerging markets that are going to make you jump through fewer regulatory hoops – Russia, Africa and much of central Asia would be a great starting place. Now pay attention, because if you are still in the game at this point, you’ve got a shot at making some real money. If, after all of this, you find that you still have substantial stores of lemons, there is a good change that you could actually manipulate world prices. Flood international markets with your lemons! The law of supply and demand comes into play here. You keep unloading those lemons at a bargain-basement price and eventually you are going to put everyone else in the lemon business…out of business. You’re going to start seeing farm foreclosures, liquidation of shipping fleets, piles of lemons being left to rot at customs houses. In short, your competitors are going to be driven into the poor house. At this point you’ll need partnerships. Work with big banks to secure big loans and start snapping up properties, equipment, labelers, warehouses, anything related to the lemon industry that you can get your hands on. And make sure you grease the right palms. Bribe customs officials, lobby for favorable legislation, make big, strategic donations to politicians and political parties, have ambassadors and regulators out on your yacht with their kids. Leave no stone unturned. If you want to maintain your stranglehold on the lemon industry, you are going to need to develop a bulletproof business. Life may have given you lemons, but you need to leverage that gift into a sustainable legacy if you really want to become the lemon tycoon I know you can be.
Happy Holidays to Erin (@canadianbeauty2) I don’t think we’ve ever talked so I hope you like this! It was fun to write!
Your Secret Santa, Lyn (@lynslogic)
Felicity was just putting the shamash back in place after lighting her menorah when the doorbell rang. Confusion marred her face as she padded barefoot to the door, totally confused as to who could be on the other side. It was Christmas Eve and everyone she knew was with friends or family.
Pulling the door open, Felicity was stunned. “Oliver!” she cried in surprise. “What are you doing here?”
Oliver breezed past her with a quick kiss on her cheek, bringing with him the smell of snow outside and the cologne she gave him for Christmas last year. The combination of smells threatened to weaken her knees, but she fought against it. After all, she had loads of experience repressing her feelings for her best friend.
“What do you mean?” Oliver asked as she shut the door and turned to him. “It’s the first night of Hanukkah. We always spend the first night of Hanukkah together. I stopped by Hunan Garden and picked up dinner. Don’t worry, I got extra potstickers this time.”
To answer the first question – Is Stalin a dictator? – we must agree on what meaning is to be attached to the term dictator: otherwise argument is waste of time. Assuming that we accept the primary meaning of of the term dictator, as it is defined in the New English Dictionary –“a ruler or governor whose word is law; an absolute ruler of the state– and who authoritatively prescribes a course of action or dictates what is to be done” (the example given being the Dictators of ancient Rome) – Stalin is not a dictator.
So far as Stalin is related to the constitution of the USSR, as amended in 1936, he is the duly elected representative of one of the Moscow constituencies to the Supreme Soviet of the USSR. By this assembly he has been selected as one of the thirty members of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, accountable to the representative assembly for all its activities. It is this Presidium which selects the Council of Commissars (Sovnarkom) and, during the intervals between the meetings of the Supreme Soviet, controls the policy of the Sovnarkom, of which Molotov has been for many years the Prime Minister, and since 1939, also the Foreign Secretary.
In May 1941, Stalin, hitherto content to be a member of the Presidium, alarmed at the menace of a victorious German army, invading the Ukraine, took over, with the consent of the Presidium, the office of Prime Minister and Minister of Defence, leaving Molotov as Foreign Secretary; in exactly the same way, and for a similar reason –the world war– that Winston Churchill, with the consent of the House of Commons, became Prime Minister and Minister of Defence with Chamberlain, the outgoing Prime Minister, as a prominent member of the British Cabinet.
As Prime Minister I doubt whether Stalin would have offered, as Churchill did, to amalgamate the USSR on terms of equality with another Great Power without consulting the Presidium of which he was a member. Neither the Prime Minister of the British Cabinet nor the presiding member of the Sovnarkom has anything like the autocratic power of the President of the U.S.A., who not only selects the members of his Cabinet subject to the formal control of the Senate, but is also Commander-in-Chief of the American armed forces and, under the Lease-Lend Act, is empowered to safeguard, in one way or another, the arrival of munitions and food at the British ports. By declaring, in May this year, a state of unlimited national emergency, President Roosevelt legally assumes a virtual dictatorship of the United States. He has power to take over transport, to commandeer the radio for the purposes of propaganda, to control imports and all exchange transactions, to requisition ships and to suspend laws governing working hours, and, most important of all, to decide on industrial priorities and, if necessary, to take over industrial plants.
In what manner, then, does Stalin exceed in the authority over his country’s destiny the British Prime Minister or the American President? The office by which Stalin earns his livelihood and owes his predominant influence is that of general secretary of the Communist Party, an unique organisation the characteristics of which, whether good or evil, I shall describe later on in this volume. Here I will note that the Communist Party, unlike the Roman Catholic and Anglican Church, is not an oligarchy; it is democratic in its internal structure, having a representative congress electing a central committee which in its turn selects the Politbureau and other executive organs of the Communist Party.
Nor has Stalin ever claimed the position of a dictator or fuhrer. Far otherwise; he has persistently asserted in his writings and speeches that as s a member of the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR, he is merely a colleague of thirty other members, and that so far as the Communist Party is concerned he acts as general secretary under the orders of the executive. He has, in fact, frequently pointed out that he does no more than carry out the decisions of the Central Committee of the Communist Party.
Thus, in describing his momentous article known as “Dizzy with Success”, he expressly states that this was written on “the well-known decisions of the Central Committee regarding the fight ‘against Distortions of the Party Line in the collective farm movement… In this connection”, he continues, “I recently received a number of letters from comrades, collective farmers, calling upon me to reply to the questions contained in them. It was my duty to reply to the letters in private correspondence; but that proved to be impossible, since more than half the letters received did not have the address of the writers (they forgot to send their addresses). Nevertheless the questions raised in these letters are of tremendous political interest to our comrades… In view of this I found myself faced with the necessity of replying to the comrades in an open letter, i.e. in the press… I did this all the more willingly since I had a direct decision of the Central Committee to this purpose.”
Sidney and Beatrice Webb, “Soviet Communism: A New Civilisation” (1944), pp. 20-21.
How exactly does the Mitsubishi F-2 stack up against the F-16?
WEEABOO WEEABOO WEEA-wait, I already used this joke.
Now that we’ve gone over the F-16 a bit by way of talking about Pierre Sprey and the Fighter Mafia (and because I’m out of booze and the storms have stopped), I can answer this question. For those of you who didn’t read that and are too lazy to do so now, there’s a few things we need to know before we go into the F-2 program:
The F-16 was born from a belief that the U.S. needed a lot of simple, lightweight, and cheap fighters
Originally, the F-15 was intended to fill this role until expanding mission requirements made the design grow in size and complexity
Pierre Sprey is an idiot whose greatest “success” - advocating for the F-16 - was only as successful as it was because it eventually got handed a ton of advanced equipment that turned it into a superb multirole fighter platform in addition to being a capable air defense platform thanks to liberal application of advanced BVR missiles (which Sprey and the Fighter Mafia also hated)
Ok, now that we’ve covered the important parts, it’s time for NOTORIOUS MiG’S SUPER KAWAII NIPPON FIGHTER JET DEVELOPMENT CHRONICLES